Camera Serial Interface
The Camera Serial Interface (CSI) is a specification of the Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) Alliance. It defines an interface between a camera and a host processor. The latest active interface specifications are CSI-2 v3.0, CSI-3 v1.1 and CCS v1.0 which were released in 2019, 2014 and 2017 respectively.
CSI-1 was the original standard MIPI interface for cameras. It emerged as an architecture to define the interface between a camera and a host processor. Its successors were MIPI CSI-2 and MIPI CSI-3, two standards that are still evolving.
The MIPI CSI-2 v1.0 specification was released in 2005. It uses either D-PHY or C-PHY (Both standards are set by the MIPI Alliance) as a physical layer option. The protocol is divided into the following layers:
- Physical Layer (C-PHY/D-PHY)
- Lane Merger Layer.
- Low Level Protocol Layer.
- Pixel to Byte Conversion Layer
- Application Layer
In April 2017, the CSI-2 v2.0 specification was released. CSI-2 v2.0 brought support for RAW-16 and RAW-20 color depth, increase virtual channels from 4 to 32, Latency Reduction and Transport Efficiency (LRTE), Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (DPCM) compression and scrambling to reduce Power Spectral Density.
In September 2019, the CSI-2 v3.0 specification was released. CSI-2 v3.0 introduced Unified Serial Link (USL), Smart Region of Interest (SROI), End-of-Transmission Short Packet (EoTp) and support for RAW-24 color depth.
MIPI CSI-3 is a high-speed, bidirectional protocol primarily intended for image and video transmission between cameras and hosts within a multi-layered, peer-to-peer, UniPro-based M-PHY device network. It was originally released in 2012 and got re-released in version 1.1 in 2014.
Camera Command Set (CCS)
Technology & Speeds
|M-PHY speed||Clock rate||Bit rate|
|Gear 1||G1a||1.25 Gbit/s|
|Gear 2||G2a||2.5 Gbit/s|
|Gear 3||G3a||5 Gbit/s|
- "MIPI Camera Serial Interface 2 (MIPI CSI-2)". MIPI Alliance.
- "MIPI Camera Serial Interface 3 (MIPI CSI-3)". MIPI Alliance.
- "MIPI Camera Command Set (MIPI CCS)". MIPI Alliance.
- "MIPI Alliance Expands Popular CSI-2 Camera Specification Beyond Mobile". MIPI Alliance. April 5, 2017.
- "New Version of Most Widely Used Camera and Imaging Interface—MIPI CSI-2—Designed to Build Capabilities for Greater Machine Awareness". MIPI Alliance. September 26, 2019.
- "VIP Central > MIPI CSI-2 v3.0 is here! – The industry's First Comprehensive Solution for 5G, Imaging, Surveillance and Automotive". blogs.synopsys.com. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- MIPI Camera Serial Interface 3 (MIPI CSI-3)
- "MIPI Alliance Releases MIPI CCS, a New Specification that Streamlines Integration of Image Sensors in Mobile Devices". MIPI Alliance. November 30, 2017.
- "An Interface to Make Installing Image Sensors Easier". Electronic Design. 2017-11-30. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- Understanding MIPI Alliance Interface Specifications
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