|Paradigm||Multi-paradigm: functional, imperative|
|Designed by||Gérard Huet, Guy Cousineau, Ascánder Suárez, Pierre Weis, Michel Mauny (Heavy Caml), Xavier Leroy (Caml Light)|
0.75 / January 26, 2002
|Typing discipline||Inferred, static, strong|
Caml (originally an acronym for Categorical Abstract Machine Language) is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language which is a dialect of the ML programming language family. Caml was developed in France at INRIA and ENS.
In the following,
# represents the Caml prompt.
print_endline "Hello, world!";;
Factorial function (recursion and purely functional programming)
Many mathematical functions, such as factorial, are most naturally represented in a purely functional form. The following recursive, purely functional Caml function implements factorial:
let rec fact n = if n=0 then 1 else n * fact(n - 1);;
The function can be written equivalently using pattern matching:
let rec fact = function | 0 -> 1 | n -> n * fact(n - 1);;
This latter form is the mathematical definition of factorial as a recurrence relation.
Note that the compiler inferred the type of this function to be
int -> int, meaning that this function maps ints onto ints. For example, 12! is:
# fact 12;; - : int = 479001600
Numerical derivative (higher-order functions)
Since Caml is a functional programming language, it is easy to create and pass around functions in Caml programs. This capability has an enormous number of applications. Calculating the numerical derivative of a function is one such application. The following Caml function
d computes the numerical derivative of a given function
f at a given point
let d delta f x = (f (x +. delta) -. f (x -. delta)) /. (2. *. delta);;
The type of the function
d indicates that it maps a
float onto another function with the type
(float -> float) -> float -> float. This allows us to partially apply arguments. This functional style is known as currying. In this case, it is useful to partially apply the first argument
d, to obtain a more specialised function:
# let d = d (sqrt epsilon_float);; val d : (float -> float) -> float -> float = <fun>
Note that the inferred type indicates that the replacement
d is expecting a function with the type
float -> float as its first argument. We can compute a numerical approximation to the derivative of at with:
# d (fun x -> x *. x *. x -. x -. 1.) 3.;; - : float = 26.
The correct answer is .
d is called a "higher-order function" because it accepts another function (
f) as an argument.
We can go further and create the (approximate) derivative of f, by applying
d while omitting the
# let f' = d (fun x -> x *. x *. x -. x -. 1.) ;; val f' : float -> float = <fun>
The concepts of curried and higher-order functions are clearly useful in mathematical programs. In fact, these concepts are equally applicable to most other forms of programming and can be used to factor code much more aggressively, resulting in shorter programs and fewer bugs.
Discrete wavelet transform (pattern matching)
The 1D Haar wavelet transform of an integer-power-of-two-length list of numbers can be implemented very succinctly in Caml and is an excellent example of the use of pattern matching over lists, taking pairs of elements (
h2) off the front and storing their sums and differences on the lists
# let haar l = let rec aux l s d = match l, s, d with [s], , d -> s :: d | , s, d -> aux s  d | h1 :: h2 :: t, s, d -> aux t (h1 + h2 :: s) (h1 - h2 :: d) | _ -> invalid_arg "haar" in aux l  ;; val haar : int list -> int list = <fun>
# haar [1; 2; 3; 4; -4; -3; -2; -1];; - : int list = [0; 20; 4; 4; -1; -1; -1; -1]
Pattern matching allows complicated transformations to be represented clearly and succinctly. Moreover, the Caml compiler turns pattern matches into very efficient code, at times resulting in programs that are shorter and faster than equivalent code written with a case statement (Cardelli 1984, p. 210.).
The first Caml implementation was written in Lisp by Ascánder Suárez in 1987 at the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA).
- The Functional Approach to Programming with Caml by Guy Cousineau and Michel Mauny.
- Cardelli, Luca (1984). Compiling a functional language ACM Symposium on LISP and functional programming, Association of Computer Machinery.
- Official website – Caml language family