Chamomile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Camomile)
Jump to: navigation, search
German chamomile
Roman chamomile

Chamomile or camomile (/ˈkæməˌml, -ˌml/ KAM-ə-myl or KAM-ə-meel[1][2]) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusions to serve various medicinal purposes. Popular uses of chamomile preparations include treating hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasm, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, gastrointestinal disorder, and hemorrhoids.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The word "chamomile" derives, via French and Latin, from Greek χαμαίμηλον (khamaimēlon), i.e. "earth apple", from χαμαί (khamai) "on the ground" and μῆλον (mēlon) "apple".[4][5] The more common British spelling "camomile," is the older in English, while the spelling "chamomile" corresponds to the Latin and Greek source.[6] The spelling camomile more accurately corresponds to the more immediate derivation from French.[7]

Species[edit]

Some commonly-used species include:

  • Matricaria chamomilla (also known as Matricaria recutita),[8] German chamomile[9] or wild chamomile, the most commonly-used species
  • Chamaemelum nobile, Roman, English or garden chamomile, also frequently used,[9] (C. nobile ‘Treneague’ is normally used to create a chamomile lawn).[10]
Loose leaf chamomile tea

A number of other species' common names include the word "chamomile". This does not mean they are used in the same manner as the species used in the herbal tea known as "chamomile." Plants including the common name "chamomile," of the family Asteraceae, are:

Tea[edit]

Chamomile tea can be made from dried chamomile flowers. There are two main types of chamomile that are used to produce the tea, German chamomile (Matricaris retutica) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Chamomile tea is also a digestive relaxant.[11]

Medical use[edit]

Chamomile has been used for inflammation associated with hemorrhoids when topically applied.[12] There is level B evidence that chamomile possesses anti-anxiety properties and could be used to treat stress and insomnia.[8]

Pharmacology[edit]

Major chemical compounds present within chamomile include apigenin and alpha-bisabolol.[3][8] Other compounds in chamomile include: sesquiterpenes, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins such as herniarin and umbelliferone, phenylpropanoids such as chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, flavones such as apigenin and luteolin, flavanols such as quercetin and rutin, and polyacetylenes.[3][12] Apigenin has demonstrated chemopreventive effects against cancer cells in the laboratory,[13] and alpha-bisabolol has been shown to have antiseptic properties, anti-inflammatory properties, and reduces pepsin secretion without altering secretion of stomach acid.[12]

Anticancer effect – Studies have shown that chamomile extracts have in vitro growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells in skin, prostate, breast, ovarian, prostate cancer cell lines with minimal effects on normal cells.[3]

Anticoagulant effect – Coumarin compounds in chamomile such as herniarin and umbelliferone may have blood-thinning properties. However, the mechanism is not well understood.[14][better source needed]

Antiinflammatory effect – Several chemical constituents of chamomile such as bisabolol, chamazulene, apigenin, and loteolin possess anti-inflammatory properties although the exact mechanism is not well characterized.[3]

Antispasmodic/antidiarrheal effects – Bisabolol and flavonoids have demonstrated antispasmodic effects in animal experiments. In human studies, chamomile tea in combination with other herbs (vervain, licorice, fennel, balm mint) was shown to be effective in treating colic in children. Flavonoids and coumarins are considered smooth muscle relaxants.[3][15]

CNS/sensory effects - Chemical compounds present within chamomile bind to GABA receptors, modulate monoamine neurotransmission, and have neuroendocrine effects.[8]

Drug interactions[edit]

Apigenin and other compounds may interact with medications causing drug-drug interactions, some of the possible interactions include those with antiplatelet agents, anticoagulant agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.[citation needed] Apigenin was found to interact with antiarrhythmic agents and antihypertensive agents in animal research. Other interactions include those against sedative agents, antibiotic agents, and antianxiety agents. Remarkable symptoms are exacerbation of effects of these agents that are used in combination with chamomile.[citation needed]

Adverse reactions[edit]

People who are allergic to ragweed (also in the daisy family) may also be allergic to chamomile, due to cross-reactivity.[16][17] However, there is still some debate as to whether people with reported allergies to chamomile were actually exposed to chamomile and not a plant of similar appearance.[3][9]

Pregnancy/Lactation[edit]

Because chamomile has been known to cause uterine contractions that can invoke miscarriage, the U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends that pregnant and nursing mothers not consume Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).[18]

Cosmetic applications[edit]

Chamomile is frequently added to skin cosmetics to serve as an emollient, and for its anti-inflammatory effects. Chamomile is also often used to enhance the color of blonde hair.[16]

Agriculture[edit]

The chamomile plant is known to be susceptible to many fungi, insects, and viruses. Fungi such as Albugo tragopogonis (white rust), Cylindrosporium matricariae, Erysiphe cichoracearum (powdery mildew), and Sphaerotheca macularis (powdery mildew) are known pathogens of the chamomile plant.[12] Aphids have been observed feeding on chamomile plants and the moth Autographa chryson causes defoliation.[12]

Oil[edit]

German chamomile oil is used as a diffuser for aromatherapy benefits; and is also used to treat wounds and be blended with other essential oils such as lavender and rose.

Research[edit]

Chemical components of chamomile extract have demonstrated anti-inflammatory,[3][16] antihyperglycemic,[3] and anticancer properties[3] when examined in test tubes and in animal studies.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 
  2. ^ "chamomile". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Srivastava, JK; Shankar, E; Gupta, S (November 2010). "Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future". Molecular medicine reports 3 (6): 895–901. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377. PMC 2995283. PMID 21132119. 
  4. ^ χαμαίμηλον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  5. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. 
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, entry "camomile | chamomile"
  7. ^ "Chamomile - Define Chamomile at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. 
  8. ^ a b c d Sarris, J; Panossian, A; Schweitzer, I; Stough, C; Scholey, A (December 2011). "Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety, and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence". European neuropsychopharmacology 21 (12): 841–860. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.04.002. PMID 21601431. 
  9. ^ a b c "Chamomile". NYU Langone Medical Center. 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  10. ^ "Camomile lawn". rhs.org. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  11. ^ "Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future". Retrieved 2 December 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Singh, O; Khanam, Z; Misra, N; Srivastava, MK (January 2011). "Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview.". Pharmacognosy reviews 5 (9): 82–95. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.79103. PMC 3210003. PMID 22096322. 
  13. ^ Patel, Deendayal; Shukla, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sanjay (2007). "Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention: Progress, potential and promise (Review)". International Journal of Oncology 30 (1): 233–45. doi:10.3892/ijo.30.1.233. PMID 17143534. 
  14. ^ Miller, LG (1998). "Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions". Arch intern Med. 158 (20): 220–2211. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.20.2200. PMID 9818800. 
  15. ^ Gardiner, P (2007). "Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine: Chamomile". Pediatric Review 28 (4): 16–18. PMID 17400821. 
  16. ^ a b c Baumann, LS (2007). "Less-known botanical cosmeceuticals". Dermatologic therapy 20 (5): 330–342. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00147.x. PMID 18045358. 
  17. ^ National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2012). "Chamomile". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  18. ^ "Roman chamomile: MedlinePlus". MedlinePlus. National Institutes of Health. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 
  19. ^ "Chamomile (German) | Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center". Mskcc.org. 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2012-07-06. 

External links[edit]