Camp Bucca

Coordinates: 30°04′01″N 47°52′29″E / 30.06694°N 47.87472°E / 30.06694; 47.87472
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Camp Bucca
Flag of the United States Air Force.svgFlag of the United States Army.svgFlag of the United States Navy.svg
Umm Qasr, Basra Governorate in Iraq
Activities from the 50th Infantry Brigade Combat Team DVIDS161592.jpg
A soldier patrols along a catwalk at Camp Bucca (2009)
Camp Bucca is located in Iraq
Camp Bucca
Camp Bucca
Camp Bucca in Iraq
Coordinates30°04′01″N 47°52′29″E / 30.06694°N 47.87472°E / 30.06694; 47.87472
TypeInternment Facility
Site information
OwnerMinistry of Defence
OperatorUnited States Air Force
United States Army
United States Navy
Site history
Expansions 2004, 2005, 2007, 2007–2008
Built byU.S. Army Engineers,
U.S. Air Force Prime BEEF teams
Kellogg Brown and Root
United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Navy Seabees
In use2003–2009
Battles/warsIraq War

Camp Bucca (Arabic: سجن بوكا, romanizedSijn Būkā) was a forward operating base that housed a theater internment facility[1] maintained by the United States military in the vicinity of Umm Qasr, Iraq. After being taken over by the U.S. military (800th Military Police Brigade) in April 2003, it was renamed after Ronald Bucca, a New York City fire marshal who died in the 11 September 2001 attacks.[2] The site where Camp Bucca was built had earlier housed the tallest structure in Iraq, a 492-meter-high TV mast.[3][4][5]

After the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal, many detainees from Abu Ghraib were transferred to Bucca, where U.S. authorities hoped to showcase a model detention facility.[6] Nevertheless, Camp Bucca was the scene of prisoner abuse documented over many years by the Red Cross, Amnesty International, and U.S. Army investigators. It housed numerous prominent Islamic extremists, including a significant portion of the leadership of Al Qaeda in Iraq, and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi future leader of the Islamic State (IS), who enjoyed good relations with camp authorities while there. Bucca has been described as a breeding ground for Islamic extremism, and has been cited as contributing to the emergence of IS.[7]

On 17 September 2009, the U.S. military announced that the base would be closed.[8] In December 2010, the U.S. military handed the base to the government of Iraq, who, on the same day, gave Kufan Group of Iraq a license to invest in the new Basra Gateway, to provide a hub for Iraq's port.[citation needed]


Significant events[edit]


On 18 May 2003, U.S. military forces mistakenly released Mohammed Jawad An-Neifus from the Camp Bucca. An-Neifus is suspected of being involved in the mass murder of thousands of Iraqi Shias whose remains were later found at a mass gravesite in the southern city of al-Mahawil.[9]


On 26 January 2004 three detainees escaped at night during a period of intense fog. An investigation "concluded that the detainees crawled under a fence when visibility was only 10–15 meters due to fog".[10]

On 19 October 2004, a 26-year-old security internee died of unknown causes.[11]


On 5 January 2005, a 31-year-old security internee died of what appears to be natural causes.[12]

In April 2005, in Compound 4, a riot broke out in which detainees threw rocks and fashioned weapons out of tent poles. Detainees held a military soldier hostage until the riot was dispelled by the use of lethal force. Four detainees were killed and six were injured. As is standard procedure in all cases of prison riots and the use of lethal force, the matter was investigated by the U.S. Army's Criminal Investigations Division. The investigation concluded that a detainee leader had incited the riot by making an accusation that camp soldiers were stepping on Korans during a search for contraband. No soldiers were found guilty of any wrongdoing during the incident.[13]

On 5 February 2005, the tabloid paper New York Daily News reported that units at Camp Bucca organized and held a mud wrestling party on 30 October 2004. The party was organized by members of the 160th MP Battalion.[14]

On 25 March 2005, a complete escape tunnel was discovered, though no prisoners had yet managed to escape.[15]

On 1 April 2005, two Iraqis and four U.S. prison guards were wounded in a riot at Camp Bucca near the southern town of Umm Qasr.[16]

On 15 April 2005, a dispute broke out between two groups of detainees at one of the compounds of the Camp Bucca theater internment facility at approximately 11 pm. The fight left one detainee dead, was confined between the detainees in one compound, and was not directed at U.S. forces.[17]

On 16 April 2005, 11 detainees escaped Camp Bucca by cutting through in the facility's exterior fence and crawling through the unfilled portion of a previously discovered 180-metre (600 ft) escape tunnel.[15]

On 19 April 2005, a 51-year-old male security detainee at Camp Bucca died of natural causes.[18]

On 14 May 2005, a 30-year-old male detainee at Camp Bucca died from a heart attack.[19]

On 27 July 2005, a 30-year-old male security detainee at Camp Bucca died as a result of renal failure and other organ failure due to chronic malaria.[20]

On 28 September 2005, Sergeant Steve Morin Jr.[21] assigned to the 111th Engineer Battalion[22] and Air Force Airman 1st Class Elizabeth N. Jacobson[23] assigned to the 17th Security Forces Squadron[24] stationed at Camp Bucca were killed in action when an improvised explosive device detonated near their convoy vehicle near the Iraqi town of Safwan.

In October 2005, the International Committee of the Red Cross began the Family Visitation Allowance Program at Camp Bucca. The program provides monetary assistance to families of detainees held at Camp Bucca to help cover part of the traveling and hotel costs required to visit the facility. The benefits are calculated based on the distance between their home and the city of Umm Qasr.[25] In December 2006 a similar program was initiated at Camp Shaibe, the British internment facility in Shaibah, near Al Basrah.[26]

On 5 October 2005, a 43-year-old male security detainee died of a heart attack.[27]

On 13 October 2005, eligible detainees at Camp Bucca, Abu Ghraib prison and Camp Cropper were allowed to vote in the Iraqi Constitutional Referendum. The rest of the country voted on 15 October 2005.[28]

On 23 October 2005, a 73-year-old male security detainee died of natural causes at Camp Bucca.[29]

On 25 October 2005, it was reported that Specialist Christopher T. Monroe[30] assigned to the Military Police Battalion[31] stationed at Camp Bucca was killed when he was struck by a vehicle operated by Erinys International while pulling security for the United States convoy which was stopped due to an Iraqi vehicle which flipped over while trying to avoid the convoy in the vicinity of Al Basrah, Iraq. In October 2007, a lawsuit was filed in Houston, Texas, by the father of Specialist Monroe against the British private security firm Erinys International. In the lawsuit, Monroe's father alleges that his son actually died after he was struck by a vehicle operated by Erinys International. The lawsuit alleges Erinys personnel passed through a checkpoint where they were warned that there were more troops ahead of them but despite the warning proceeded in the dark at a high speed with only parking lights on until they struck Monroe. Monroe was dismounted and standing guard near the 5-ton vehicle he was driving providing security after the convoy he was in stopped to render assistance to an Iraqi who had been involved in a car accident. The force of the accident sheared Monroe's right leg off and threw him 30–40 feet in the air. Monroe later "died on a Medavac helicopter en route to Shalib Airbase". In a statement in response to the lawsuit, a spokesperson for the company stated "It was a very tragic accident for which Erinys and its employees have been thoroughly exonerated".[32][33]

On 5 November 2005, a 65-year-old male security detainee died of natural causes at Camp Bucca.[34]

On 12 December 2005, nearly 90 percent of all eligible security detainees in Multi-National Forces-Iraq Theater Internment Facilities participated in the democratic vote on the Iraqi National Ballot.[35]


On 7 January 2006, Sergeant Nathan Field[36] and Specialist Robert Johnson[37] assigned to the 414th Military Police Company were killed in a non-combat vehicle accident just outside Camp Bucca.[38]

On 7 March 2006, a 36-year-old detainee died of natural causes.[39]

11 May 2006, detainees initiated a multiple compound riot that included the burning of their living quarters, burning a Humvee and assaults on other detainees. The reported cause of the riot was detainees being unhappy that their housing areas were searched and that a Qu'ran with Takferi writing had been placed in a clear evidence bag that the detainees presumed was a trash bag. The riot started around 7 am in compound 10. The initial incident was stopped within an hour but around 11 am the theater internment facility exploded with multiple compound riots. Multiple weapons were found during the initial search, and based on the detainees use of weapons against the guard force, multiple weapons were confiscated during additional searches initiated because of the riot.[40]

On 2 June 2006, the Army opened an Iraqi-based detention center training facility at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri called Camp Charlie. This new facility is modeled after the theater internment facility at Camp Bucca. A similar facility was opened at Fort Leavenworth in August 2006.[41]

On 1 July 2006, Airman 1st Class Carl Jerome Ware Jr.[42] of the 886th Expeditionary Security Force Squadron assigned to Camp Bucca died of non-combat related injuries. Initial reports stated that the airmen was killed by an accidental discharge of a gun being cleaned by another airman;[43] however in February 2007, it was reported that Airman 1st Class Kyle J. Dalton, of the 15th Security Forces Squadron, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, had been charged on 30 November 2006 with one count of murder and failure to obey a lawful order in relation to the shooting. Dalton also faced a charge of assault for a separate incident that occurred on 30 June 2006 involving Ware and another airman.[44] Dalton, who was deployed in the Middle East at the time the charges were brought, had an Article 32 hearing and was Court-martialed on 23 April 2007 at Langley Air Force Base.[45][46] As part of a plea bargain deal, Dalton pleaded guilty to involuntary manslaughter and violating a lawful general regulation by drawing or aiming a firearm when deadly force was unnecessary. Dalton was sentenced to 10 years in prison, given a dishonorable discharge, reduced in rank from Senior Airman to Airman Basic and ordered to forfeit all pay and allowances. Dalton admitted to the court that he tracked Ware with his pistol in the barracks and pulled the trigger thinking the weapon was unloaded. He also admitted that he had previously aimed a loaded M4 carbine at another airman.[47][48]

In July 2006, it was announced that the Army's inspector general had requested an investigation to determine if an Anti-Deficiency Act violation occurred during the building of the detention facility.[49] The Anti-Deficiency Act provides that no one can obligate the Government to make payments for which money has not already been authorized.[50] The inspector general's report was released to Congress on 30 January 2007[51] and in it concluded: "Army personnel associated with funding of Phases I and II construction of the Internment Facility at Camp Bucca, Iraq, did not implement sufficient controls to ensure military compliance with applicable laws and regulations. As a result, there were two ADA violations with the FY 2004 Army Operation and Maintenance Appropriation. United States Department of Defense Office of General Counsel is completing its review and expects to sign out the report to the Department of Defense Comptroller in the second quarter of FY 2007."[52]

On 12 October 2006, an Iraqi detainee died from a heart attack. The detainee had been hospitalized since 5 October after complaining of chest pains. An autopsy was performed to determine the cause of death.[53]

On 25 November 2006, American forces announced that a detainee died of natural causes. The detainee had been hospitalized since 23 November after complaining of chest pains.[54]

On 24 December 2006, two detainees attempted an escape from one of the U.S. Navy staffed compounds during the dense seasonal fog. One of the detainees was allegedly an improvised explosive device (IED) maker.[55]


On 17 January 2007, U.S. Navy Petty Officer Second Class Joseph D. Alomar,[56] a member of Navy Provisional Detainee Battalion 2, assigned to Camp Bucca died of non-combat related injuries. The sailor is reported to have died from a gunshot wound to the head.[57][58][59]

On 11 February 2007 Specialist Dennis L. Sellen Jr.[60] of the 1st Battalion, 185th Infantry Regiment was accidentally shot and killed by a fellow soldier who was cleaning his weapon after a mission. The incident is currently being investigated.[61][62][needs update]

On 2 March 2007 Specialist Christopher D. Young,[63] 20, of Los Angeles, California, died in Safwan, Iraq, of wounds sustained when an improvised explosive device detonated near his vehicle. He was assigned to Company C, 3rd Battalion, 160th Infantry Regiment, California Army National Guard, San Pedro, California.[64]

On 15 March 2007 U.S. military officials announced plans to once again expand Camp Bucca and Camp Cropper. Officials stated that this increase in capacity would be necessary to handle the detainees generated from the increased security operations in Baghdad. At the time of the report, Camp Bucca's detainee population stood at 13,800.[65]

On 26 April 2007, an Iraqi detainee died from what MNF-I reports as injuries sustained during an apparent assault by other detainees. He is reported to have been the sixth detainee to have died in MNF-I TIFs as a result of detainee on detainee violence in the past year.[66]

On 9 June 2007, 6 detainees were killed, 68 wounded and one Iraqi corrections officer was wounded when a rocket struck Compound 8, in the Theater Internment Facility located at Camp Bucca.[67] On 10 June 2007, a seventh detainee, who had been medically evacuated to Balad Air Base, died from wounds he sustained in the attack.[68] On 23 June 2007 an eighth detainee who had been hospitalized in critical condition since the attack, died from cardiac arrest.[69]

On 21 June 2007 a security detainee died of cardiac arrest during a routine medical transfer from Camp Cropper to Camp Bucca.[70]

On 25 June 2007 a soldier assigned to the 178th Infantry was injured when the vehicle he was driving drove over a buried explosive.[71]

On 1 July 2007, a detainee died from what is being reported as natural causes while in the intensive care unit at the Theater Internment Facility hospital at Camp Bucca.[72]

On 12 July 2007, a detainee died from what is being reported as injuries suffered in an assault by other detainees. This is the second detainee in coalition forces custody to die from detainee on detainee violence within a week.[73][74] On the same day, the Associated Press reported that Camp Bucca was among several sites in Iraq that had sensitive information posted on non-secure web sites. The Camp Bucca documents, posted on the web site of CH2M Hill Companies of Meridian, Colorado, revealed locations of where prisoners are held, locations of fuel tanks, and the locations of security fences, guard towers and other security measures. The company has subsequently added password protection to its site.[75]

In August 2007, two separate news articles reported Camp Bucca's detainee populate stood at approximately 20,000 inmates.[76][77]

In October 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced it had suspended its visits to Camp Bucca due to the deteriorating security situation in the area. The ICRC visits all detention facilities in Iraq to monitor the conditions detainees are receiving and make recommendations where they perceive improvements could be made. To maintain their neutral status, they refuse coalition security when traveling in Iraq, which causes them to occasionally suspend visits when they deem conditions too hazardous for their personnel.[78]

On 31 October 2007, it was announced that Camp Bucca would be expanded once again to increase its capacity from 20,000 to 30,000 detainees. The $110 million project will be overseen by The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and would include $17.6 million retrofit of "13 existing compounds to add concrete pads to prevent tunneling, better segregation areas, and better shower and latrine facilities" as well as new housing, a waste water treatment plant, a water treatment plant and a $3.2 million brick factory for prisoner labor.[79]


On January 8, 2008, a QRF squad came under attack and hit by an explosively formed penetrator resulting in 3 coalition WIA and 1 Iraqi WIA. The squad was responding to Umm Qasr to check on a British unit that been attacked by rockets.

On 24 February 2008, Camp Bucca was attacked with rocket fire that killed one Army and Air Force Exchange Service employee and wounded several other civilian contractors. The rocket attack came less than a week after a convoy from Camp Bucca was attacked by an improvised explosive device. No one was seriously injured in that attack.[80]

In August 2008, it was announced that 6 sailors had been charged and would face courts-martial for abusing detainees at Camp Bucca. The abuse allegedly occurred on 14 May and involved beatings of two detainees and the sealing of eight detainees in a cell filled with pepper spray while the cells' ventilation was secured. The abuse apparently occurred after some detainees attacked guards, spitting on them and throwing containers filled with human waste at them. Seven other sailors received non-judicial punishment for failing to report the incidents. Two had their charges dismissed, and the remainder were reduced in rank or faced suspended punishment.[81][82] In November 2008, the 6 sailors faced an article 32 hearing at Naval Air Station Jacksonville on charges of conspiracy, cruelty and maltreatment and making false official statements. Damage Controlman 2nd Class Adam M. White, pleaded guilty to conspiracy and assault and was sentenced to 89 days confinement and reduction of two pay grades. Adams claims he and other sailors participated in the beating of two detainees at the direction of Chief Aviation Structural Mechanic Tracy Necaise because the prisoners spit and threw feces at guards. Necaise's attorney blamed upper-level Navy officers for the incident because they assigned the sailors to Camp Bucca without any prior experience working in law enforcement or detention facilities. Necaise and the remaining sailors pleaded not guilty and could face trial in 2009.[83][84]


On 17 September 2009 Camp Bucca closed down detainee operations.[85]

Prisoner abuse scandals[edit]

Camp Bucca was the scene of egregious abuse of prisoners by military personnel from its establishment in 2003 until its closure in 2009.[86][87][88][89][90][91]

In 2003, prisoners freed from Camp Bucca described "detainees punished by hours lying bound in the sun; being attacked by dogs; being deprived of sufficient water; spending days with hoods over their heads."[92] After leaked pictures of abuse from another U.S. prison in Iraq, Abu Ghraib, stirred outrage and attention to that prison, one former Camp Bucca prisoner said, "I wish somebody could go take a picture of Camp Bucca."[92]

A 2003 report by Amnesty International found that prisoners at Camp Bucca "were held in tents in the extreme heat and were not provided with sufficient drinking water or adequate washing facilities," and that "they were forced to use open trenches for toilets and were not given a change of clothes -- even after two months detention."[89]

A 2004 report by United States Army investigators found "egregious acts and grave breaches of international law" at Camp Bucca.[88][90]

A 2004 report by the International Committee of the Red Cross stated that Camp Bucca described Geneva Convention violations at Camp Bucca and stated that "inmates were routinely treated by their guards with general contempt, with petty violence such as having orders screamed at them and being cursed, kicked, struck with rifle butts, roughed up or pushed around. They were reportedly handcuffed in the back and hooded for the duration of the interrogation and were prohibited from talking to each other or to the guards."[87] A Red Cross representative said that their report documented a "broad pattern" of abuse, as opposed to isolated incidents.[93]

A 2006 report by Amnesty International contained alleged violations of the Fourth Geneva Convention by U.S. military personnel at Camp Bucca.[94] These allegations include that "internees at Camp Bucca are alleged to have been exposed deliberately to extremes of both heat and cold, by being made to wait for hours in the heat of the sun while their accommodation was searched and forcibly showered with cold water and exposed to cold air conditioners."[94]

In 2007, a Canadian citizen and U.S. resident who had been a prisoner at Camp Bucca described abuse by military personnel.[95] The prisoner, Hossam Shaltout, called Camp Bucca a "torture camp" and said that prisoners were beaten and sexually humiliated.[95] Shaltout said that his arms and legs had been hogtied by US soldiers who then placed scorpions on his body.[95]

In 2008, six United States Navy personnel were charged and later convicted of abusing Camp Bucca prisoners after they beat the prisoners and locked several overnight in a room that had been filled with pepper spray.[91]

Role in the growth of ISIS[edit]

Camp Bucca has been described as playing an important role in shaping the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).[96] The detention of large numbers of Ba'athists and Islamists during the Iraqi insurgency provided them with the opportunity to forge alliances and learn from each other, combining the ideological fervour of the latter with the organizational skills of the former.[97][98] Former Camp Bucca detainees who went on to become leaders in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant include Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the former leader of the ISIL before his death in October 2019; Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi who succeeded him; Abu Mohammed al-Adnani, spokesperson and senior ISIL leader; Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, al-Baghdadi's deputy; Haji Bakr, who spearheaded ISIL's expansion into Syria; Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi, the military leader responsible for planning the seizure of Mosul; and Abu Ayman al-Iraqi, another senior military leader.[97] Abu Mohammad al-Julani, who founded the Syrian Al Qaeda affiliate al-Nusra Front, was also a Camp Bucca detainee.[99]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "US jail guards in Iraq abuse case". BBC. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  2. ^ "Camp Bucca Joint Operations Base in Umm Qasr, Iraq". Military Bases. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Wikimapia - Let's describe the whole world!".
  4. ^ "Wikimapia - Let's describe the whole world!".
  5. ^ GmbH, Emporis. "Umm Qasr TV Mast, Az Zubayr - 1249233 - EMPORIS". Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.
  6. ^ Khalil, Ashraf (10 January 2005). "Camp Bucca Turns 180 Degrees From Abu Ghraib". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  7. ^ Chulov, Martin (11 December 2014). "Isis: the inside story". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  8. ^ John Pike (17 September 2009). "Camp Bucca detention center closes in Iraq". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  9. ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Iraq killings suspect freed 'in error'". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  10. ^ John Pike. "Umm Qasr". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  11. ^ John Pike (20 October 2004). "Detainee Dies at Camp Bucca". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  12. ^ John Pike. "Detainee Dies of Apparent Natural Causes". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Jailed 2 years, Iraqi tells of abuse by Americans". International Herald Tribune. 18 February 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  14. ^ John Pike (21 January 1971). "160th Military Police Battalion". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Escape tunnel found at Iraqi prison". 25 March 2005. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  16. ^ John Pike. "Multi-national Corps-Iraq/Multi-National Forces-Iraq News Release". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  17. ^ John Pike. "Multi-national Corps-Iraq/Multi-National Forces-Iraq News Release". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  18. ^ John Pike (19 April 2005). "Results - Casualty Report Generator". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  19. ^ John Pike. "Multi-national Corps-Iraq/Multi-National Forces-Iraq News Release". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  20. ^ John Pike (28 July 2005). "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  21. ^ "Army Sgt. Steve Morin Jr. Died September 28, 2005 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  22. ^ John Pike. "111th Engineer Battalion". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  23. ^ "N/K". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  24. ^ John Pike. "17th Training Wing [17th TRW]". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  25. ^ "Search results - Resource centre". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  26. ^ "Search results - Resource centre". International Committee of the Red Cross. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  27. ^ John Pike. "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  28. ^ [1][dead link]
  29. ^ John Pike. "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  30. ^ "Army Spc. Christopher T. Monroe Died October 25, 2005 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  31. ^ John Pike. "785th". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  32. ^ Suzanne Goldenberg (30 October 2007). "US soldier's family brings legal action against British private security firm". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  33. ^ "AP: Family of U.S. Soldier Killed in Iraq Sues Private Contractor". Editor & Publisher. 28 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
  34. ^ John Pike. "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  35. ^ John Pike. "Detainee Voter Turn Out Overwhelming". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  36. ^ "Army Sgt. Nathan R. Field Died January 7, 2006 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  37. ^ "Army Spc. Robert T. Johnson Died January 7, 2006 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  38. ^ "U.S Casualties in Iraq". USA Today. 14 March 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
  39. ^ John Pike. "DefenseLINK News: Detainee Dies at Camp Bucca; Coalition Forces Kill Two Terrorists". Global Security. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  40. ^ Tech Sgt. Keith Houin (10 April 2007). "Iraq actions earn Captain Bronze Star". U.S. Air Force Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
  41. ^ John Pike. "New facility to help MPs learn detainee handling". Global Security. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  42. ^ "Air Force Airman 1st Class Carl Jerome Ware Jr. : Died July 1, 2006 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedoms". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  43. ^ "Hickam airman killed in shooting accident". Star Bulletin. 4 July 2006. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  44. ^ "Airman charged with murdering fellow airman". Army Times. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
  45. ^ "Langley AFB to be site for court-martial". Daily Press. 23 February 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2007.[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ Holmes, Erik (11 April 2007). "Death of airman brings murder charge". Delaware Online. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  47. ^ "Airman gets 10 years for killing comrade". Associated Press via The Philadelphia Inquirer. 25 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  48. ^ Louis Hansen (24 April 2007). "At Langley, airman pleads guilty in death of bunkmate in Iraq". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  49. ^ "Detailed summary of Other Agency oversight" (PDF). Global Security. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  50. ^ "US Government Printing Office". Frwebgate. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  51. ^ "Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) 30 January 2007 Quarterly and Semiannual Report to Congress". Global Security. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  52. ^ "Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) 30 January 2007 Quarterly and Semiannual Report to Congress Appendix K" (PDF). Global Security. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
  53. ^ "26 Killed By Revenge Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  54. ^ "Blasts rock Baghdad despite curfew". Middle East Online. 26 November 2006. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  55. ^ News[dead link]
  56. ^ "Navy Operations Specialist 2nd Class Joseph D. Alomar". Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  57. ^ "Sailor dies in non-combat related incident". Multi-National Corps – Iraq Public Affairs Office. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  58. ^ "Sailor From Brooklyn Dies in Iraq". CBS Radio. 21 January 2007. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  59. ^ "DoD Identifies Navy Casualty" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. 21 January 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
  60. ^ "Army Spc. Dennis L. Sellen Jr. Died February 11, 2007 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  61. ^ "Army National Guard Spc. Dennis L. Sellen Jr., 20, Newhall; killed in gun accident in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. 1 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  62. ^ "Elements of the 1st Battalion, 185th Infantry Regiment, of the California Army National Guard, arrive at Camp Bucca, Iraq, to conduct area security operations". Stars and Stripes. 8 April 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  63. ^ "Army Spc. Christopher D. Young Died March 2, 2007 Serving During Operation Iraqi Freedom". Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  64. ^ "DoD identifies Army casualty". U.S. Department of Defense. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
  65. ^ Walter Pincus (15 March 2007). "U.S. plans to expand detention centers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
  66. ^ "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca". MNFI News Release. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  67. ^ "Six dead in attack on Iraq prison". BBC News. 9 June 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  68. ^ "Detainee Dies from Indirect Fire Attack Related Injuries" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  69. ^ "Detainee Dies from Indirect Fire Attack Related Injuries" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  70. ^ "Detainee dies from cardiac arrest" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  71. ^ Amanda Reavy (28 June 2007). "Lanphier grad recovering from war wounds". The State Journal-Register. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  72. ^ "Detainee dies from apparent natural causes at Bucca" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 3 July 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
  73. ^ "Detainee dies at Camp Bucca" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 12 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  74. ^ "Detainee dies at Camp Cropper" (Press release). Multi-National Force – Iraq. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  75. ^ Mike Baker (12 July 2007). "Military files left unprotected online". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  76. ^ Babak Dehghanpisheh (9 August 2007). "Scared Straight: Iraqi Style". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  77. ^ Noelle Phillips (24 August 2007). "Troops embrace home: After a year in Iraq, soldiers look forward to vacations, soul food". The State. South Carolina. Retrieved 2 September 2007.[dead link]
  78. ^ "Iraq: ICRC activities, April to July 2007". International Committee of the Red Cross Press Release. 4 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  79. ^ "Prison camp in Iraq once listed to close now sees major upgrades". Stars and Stripes. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  80. ^ Ben Fenwick (27 February 2008). "45th faces insurgent attacks". Tulsa World. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  81. ^ "U.S. Navy: 6 sailors accused of abusing detainees in Iraq". USA Today. Associated Press. 14 August 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  82. ^ Chris Amos (5 September 2008). "Hearing postponed for chief accused of abuse". Navy Times. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
  83. ^ Jared Halpern (14 November 2008). "Sailor Admits Assaulting Detainee in Iraq". WOKV. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  84. ^ Andrew Tilghman (14 November 2008). "Hearing ends in detainee abuse case". Navy Times. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  85. ^ American Forces Press Service (17 September 2009). "Camp Bucca Detention Center Closes in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  86. ^ "Excerpts From Prison Inquiry". Los Angeles Times. 3 May 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  87. ^ a b "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the Treatment by the Coalition Forces of Prisoners of War and Other Protected Persons by the Geneva Conventions in Iraq During Arrest, Internment and Interrogation". 22 March 2021. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  89. ^ a b Spinner, Jackie (11 June 2004). "Remote Facility in Iraq Shows New Face of U.S. Prison System". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  90. ^ a b "Taguba report Annex 35: Article 32 Findings on Abuse of Detainees at Camp Bucca, IO Report". Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  91. ^ a b Graff, Peter (14 August 2008). "U.S. Navy charges Iraq camp guards with abuse". Reuters. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  92. ^ a b " International News: Early accounts of extensive Iraq abuse met U.S. silence (05/09/04)". 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  93. ^ "Red Cross saw 'widespread abuse'". 8 May 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  94. ^ a b "Beyond Abu Ghraib: detention and torture in Iraq." Amnesty International, March 2006.
  95. ^ a b c "U.S. resident who was detained in Iraq alleges abuse". McClatchy. 24 May 2007.
  96. ^ McCoy, Terrence (4 November 2014). "How the Islamic State evolved in an American prison". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  97. ^ a b Richard Barrett (November 2014). "The Islamic State" (PDF). The Soufan Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2014. The alliance between members of AQI and ex-Ba'athist was also strengthened by many of them finding themselves thrown together in United States detention centers in Iraq such as Camp Bucca.
  98. ^ Martin Chulov (11 December 2014). "Isis: the inside story". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2014. We could never have all got together like this in Baghdad, or anywhere else", he told me. "It would have been impossibly dangerous. Here, we were not only safe, but we were only a few hundred metres away from the entire al-Qaida leadership
  99. ^ "Elusive Al-Qaeda leader in Syria stays in shadows". The Times of Israel. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2015.

External links[edit]