Campidanese dialect

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Campidanese Sardinian
Sardu Campidanesu, Campidanesu
Native to Italy
Region Sardinia
Native speakers
500,000 (2007)[1]
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sro
Glottolog camp1261[2]
Linguasphere 51-AAA-sa
Sardinia Language Map.png
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
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Campidanese Sardinian (Sardinian: Sardu Campidanesu, Italian: Sardo Campidanese) is a standardised variety of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari, Italy.

Traditionally the name Campidano refers to the fertile area located around the towns of Guspini and Villacidro. Campidanese and its variants of the dialect can be found across the entire Province of Cagliari and not just the Province of Medio Campidano area. Campidanese also extends into parts of the Province of Nuoro, notably the Ogliastra area and in the southern half of the Province of Oristano, the capital included. However, it is at this point that the language merges into Logudorese.

Campidanese Sardinian is partly intelligible to those from the central to southern part of Sardinia, where Logudorese Sardinian is spoken, and partly unintelligible to those from the extreme north of the island, where Corsican–Sardinian dialects are spoken. Italian speakers can hardly understand Campidanese: Sardinian is an autonomous linguistic group rather than a dialect of Italian[3] as it is often noted because of its morphological, synctatic, and lexical differences from Italian. In 2009, the provincial administration of Cagliari approved the spelling, phonetics, morphology, and vocabulary rules for Standard Campidanese Sardinian.

Subvariants[edit]

There are six main but mutually intelligible subdialects of Campidanese: Arborense, Cagliaritano (Casteddaiu), Meridionale, Ogliastrino, Guspinese and Villacidrese. Cagliaritano is the dialect of Campidanese spoken in the capital, Cagliari; however, it extends to most of the neighbouring towns and villages within a 15 km radius of Cagliari.

Vocabulary[edit]

Campidanese has some borrowed words from Aragonese, Catalan and Spanish. Since the early 20th century, there has been an increase in lexical borrowing from Italian. That is particularly evident with technological words for which there is no Campidanese equivalent. However, many words that are from Italian have been changed phonetically so that they sound Sardinian. Italian loan words that end in an o are often substituted with a u. The strong Campidanese accent also changes the sound of the word.

Writing system[edit]

Campidanese is written using the Latin alphabet. Like Italian, Campidanese does not use w and y. Campidanese also uses the digraphs gh, representing /g/, ch representing /k/ before e and i vowels, tz representing /ts/ and x, representing /ʒ/. In phonetic syntax, final or intervocalic t is pronounced as a /d/ (es: issu andat, he goes, is pronounced issu anda(da))and s is pronounced as a /z̪/, (es.sa mesa, the table, is pronounced sa mez̪a). When final s, t or nt is usually added as a helping vowel (es. sa domu, is domus(u), the house, the houses). If preceded by a consonant, an "i" is inserted before the normally-initial s (es: sa scala, is (i)scalas, the staircase, the staircases). The spelling rules were established by the Province of Cagliari with a deliberation in March 17, 2010.[4]

Examples[edit]

Prose[edit]

(30 May 1225)

Ego Benedicta de Lacon cum filiu miu donnigellu Guglelmu, per boluntadi de donnu Deu potestando parti de Calaris, fazzulli custa carta ad Sanctu Georgi de Sepollu de Gurgu et ad Sanctu Gorgoni et ad Sanctu Vittu pro beni ki llis fazzu pro Deu innanti et pro s'anima mia et de parentis mius. Dau potestadi et assoltura de paschiri et a aquari sa causa de Sanctu Georgi de Sebollu daa Serramanna fini ad s'oliastru de Semassi, k'esti paris cun s'ortu de sutta billa, berbeis et cabras, et porcus et baccas, et eguas et cavallus. Et no ndi levit pegus perunu pro terra maina et ni atera causa peruna ni ad sa dommu de Sanctu Georgi et ni ad sus serbus, nin pro Iuigi, nin pro donnigellu et nin pro curadori et nin pro armentariu et ni ad peruna personi de su mundu.

Poetry[edit]

Femu cassadori[5]
(Efisiu Pintor Sirigu, Cagliari, 1765 - 1814)
                      
Femu cassadori, e tenemu scupeta
E mai una beta — emu potziu cassai.
                      
Ah! ita fortuna custorta appu tentu!
Sendir'arziendi ind'una muntagnedda,
Andendur'a cassa po divertimentu,
Incontru passendiri una betixedda
Tanti bellixedda - sartiendi in s'arroca,
Beni fatte coca - de corpus gratziosa;
Fiat grandu cosa - su ddi ponni avatu;
M'aturu unu tratu - po dda cuntemplai.
                      
Po dda cuntemplai - m'aturu unu pagu
Po dda biri sola sartiend'e gioghendi;
M'arrimu a su truncu de unu bell'imbragu,
Po mi benni a tiru femu castiendi,
Ma cunsiderendi - cementi pasciat,
Mali mi pariat - su dda tenni morta:
Arresolvu de un' 'orta - de no dda bociri,
Ddolemu sighiri - senz' 'e dda sparai.
                      
Ddolemu sighiri - fìnzas aund'andàt
Senz' 'e mi dda perdi de vista un'istanti,
A dognia parti issa si castiàt,
Po chi cassadori non fessit ananti,
Ma deu costanti - in cudd' idea mia
Sighemu in sa bia - ch'issa caminàt
Si si furriàt - deu m'acuamu,
E atesu nd'andamu - po non m' osservai.
                        
Po no m'osservai — de cussas alturas,
E de un'altu boscu plenu de spinas,
Deu dd'aspettamu in mesu a is planuras,
Po dda ferri beni asutta de sa schina:
Ma issa mischina - sa morti timendi,
Andàt scartendi - cuddu logu claru,
Po tenni arreparu - de no essi bista,
Caminendi crispa - po no dda ciapai.
                       
Caminendi crispa - in cussu montixeddu,
E scurta scurta senz' 'e si fidai;
Ita fazzu deu, senza de cerbeddu
Su passu de pressi mi pongu avanzai;
A si furriai - benit a mi biri;
Scapat a fuiri - coment' 'e unu lampu,
Fuit de su campu - a mesu su padenti,
Senz' 'e sciri comenti - dda podi incontrai.
                       
No sciemu cementi - prus dda podi biri
Cun disisperu de s'anima mia;
Si de una parti dd' 'olemu sighiri,
Mirendu s'arrastu, a bortas ddu perdiat;
De tali genia - passu peda arratu;
Sentendu su fattu - de m' essi inclarau;
Non perdu coidau - camminu de pressi,
Penzendi ch'iad essi - in logh' 'e arreposai.
                       
Penzendi, ch'iad essi - comenti giai fiat,
Asut' 'e una mata dda biu discantzendu,
Dda miru, e m'acatu chi prus no podiat
Scampai de mei, mischina, currendu;
Dda biu dormendu - cun grandu dulciura;
Biu s’ermosura – mi ndi parit mali,
Chi corpu fatali - ddi trunchit sa vida:
Senza de ferida - dd' 'olemu gosai.
                       
Chi si est dormida - dda scidu in cust'ora...
Mi ndi cumpassivu, e ndi tengu piedadi,
Custa beta mia dd'arriservu ancora,
Biendu chi portat tanti giustedadi,
Canzau giai m'at - ma est gratziosa,
No est mellus cosa - de dda biri gioghendu.
Est lesta sartiendu - est med'atrativa;
Chi a prusu m'atriva - no mi fait plexeri;
Giai ndi seu meri - no dd' 'ollu sparai.

Femu cassadori.

Po cantu Biddanoa - 1987[5]

(Benvenuto Lobina 1914 - 1993)

Su trenu de Casteddu arribàt a mesudì. Ma de candu intràt in is furriàdas de Tacchu de Nnurri e ancora no si biìat, s’intendìat su ciuff ciuff e su fragu de su fumu, màssima candu tiràt bentu estu. Sa primu a si biri fut sa macchina, candu s’incraràt in sa trincera de terra arrùbia e fut po lompi a su scàmbiu. Tandu su ciuff ciuff si faìat prus forti, a cuncórdiu cun is stantuffus chi movìant is arrodas, e su trenu, sulendu fumu biancu finza a celu, saludàt alligru is acacias chi fùant abetendiddu, strantaxas pe parti che sordaus. Mancai fessit cincu oras currendu e èssit passau Campidanu, Partiolla, Trexenta e Sarcidanu, non parìat fadiau. Passau su scàmbiu arrallentàt e si poniat a passu de ómini po intrai in stazioni: cun imponénzia, cun importànzia, cun totu is ogus de sa genti puntaus asuba, cumpraxu. Ma candu si firmàt, asutta de is matas de ùlimu prus artas de sa stazioni, e sa genti cumenzàt a si accostiai, su ùrtimu ciuff pariat unu suspiru: fut própiu fadiau. Ma fut prexau su própiu, su trenu de Casteddu: a ananti de sa macchina is quatru numerus de latoni – 1908 – brilliant che unu sprigu, e su capustatzioni, cun su berretu arrùbiu in conca, fut benendu a ddu arricìri cun grandu arrespetu. Comenti dónnia dì.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campidanese Sardinian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Campidanese Sardinian". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ De Mauro, Tullio. L'Italia delle Italie, 1979, Nuova Guaraldi Editrice, Florence, 89
  4. ^ "Provincia di Cagliari | Leggi il contenuto". Provincia.cagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  5. ^ a b normalized according to modern standards campidanese

External links[edit]