Campidanese dialect

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Campidanese Sardinian
Sardu Campidanesu
Campidanesu
Native toItaly
RegionSardinia
(Metropolitan City of Cagliari
Central-southern part of the Province of Oristano
Province of South Sardinia
Southern part of the Province of Nuoro)
Native speakers
500,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1sc
ISO 639-2srd
ISO 639-3sro
Campidanese Sardinian
Glottologcamp1261 
Campidanese Sardinian
[2]
Linguasphere51-AAA-sa
Sardinia Language Map.png
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
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Campidanese Sardinian[1][2] (Sardinian: Sardu Campidanesu, Italian: Sardo Campidanese) is one of the two written standards of Sardinian, often considered the most conservative of all Romance languages. The orthography is based on the spoken dialects of central southern Sardinia, identified by certain attributes which are not found, or found to a lesser degree, among the Sardinian dialects centered on the other written form, Logudorese.

Traditionally the name Campidano refers to the fertile area located around the towns of Guspini and Villacidro. Campidanese dialects can be found across the entire Province of Cagliari and not just the Province of Medio Campidano area. Campidanese also extends into parts of the Province of Nuoro, notably the Ogliastra area and in the southern half of the Province of Oristano, the capital included. However, it is at this point that the language merges into Logudorese.

Campidanese Sardinian is intelligible to those from the central to southern part of Sardinia, where Logudorese Sardinian is spoken,[3] but it is not to those from the extreme north of the island, where Corsican–Sardinian dialects are spoken. Italian speakers do not understand Campidanese, like any other dialect of the Sardinian language:[4] Sardinian is an autonomous linguistic group rather than a dialect of Italian[5] as it is often noted because of its morphological, synctatic, and lexical differences from Italian.

Subvariants[edit]

There are six main subdialects of Campidanese Sardinian: Arborense (Arborensi), Cagliaritano (Casteddaiu), Meridionale, Ogliastrino (Ollastrinu), Guspinese (Guspinesu) and Villacidrese (Biddexidresu). Cagliaritano is the dialect of Campidanese spoken in the capital, Cagliari; however, it extends to most of the neighbouring towns and villages within a 15 km radius of Cagliari. In 2009, the provincial administration of Cagliari approved the spelling, phonetics, morphology, and vocabulary rules for Standard Campidanese Sardinian.[6]

Vocabulary[edit]

Campidanese Sardinian has some borrowed words from Aragonese, Catalan and Spanish. Since the early 20th century, there has been an increase in lexical borrowing from Italian as well; that is particularly evident with technological words for which there is no Campidanese equivalent. However, many words that are from Italian have been changed phonetically so that they sound Sardinian. Italian loan words that end in an o are often substituted with a u. The strong Campidanese accent also changes the sound of the word.

Characteristics[edit]

  1. Singular nouns descending from 3rd declension Latin nouns ending in "-i" (Campidanese pisci vs Logudorese pische)
  2. Plural definite article of "is" (Campidanese is terras vs Logudorese sas terras)
  3. Gerund in "-endi" (Campidanese èssendi vs Logudorese èssende)
  4. Conservation of the Latin phoneme <qu> and <gu> (/kʷ/ and /gʷ/) in words such as akua (water) and sànguni (blood).
  5. Palatalisation of Latin word-initial /k/ before /e/ and /i/ (Lat. centum > centu cf. Logudorese chentu). In medial positions, /k/ becomes -/ʒ/- (Lat. decem > dexi cf. Logudorese deghe) or -/ʃʃ/- (Lat. piscem > pisci)
  6. Transformation of /rj/ to /rg/, /nj/ to /ng/, /lj/ to /ll/, and /ti/, /te/ into /tz/
  7. Epenthetic /a/ before word-initial /r/ (Lat. rubeum > arrubiu)
  8. Metathesis (Logudorese Carbonia vs Campidanese Crabonia)
  9. Catalan influence (Words such as seu "cathedral" loaned from Catalan)

Writing system[edit]

Campidanese is written using the Latin alphabet. Like Italian, Campidanese does not use w and y. Campidanese also uses the digraphs gh, representing /g/, ch representing /k/ before e and i vowels, tz representing /ts/ and x, representing /ʒ/.

In phonetic syntax, final or intervocalic t is pronounced as a /d/ (es: issu andat, meaning "he goes", is pronounced issu andada ) and s is pronounced as a /z̪/, (es. sa mesa, meaning "the table", is pronounced sa mez̪a). In case there are consonants like s, t or nt at the end of the word, a helping vowel is usually added (es. sa domu, is domus(u), the house, the houses). If preceded by a consonant, an "i" is inserted before the normally-initial s (es: sa scala, is (i)scalas(a), the staircase, the staircases). The spelling rules were established by the Province of Cagliari with a deliberation on March 17, 2010.[7]

Examples[edit]

Medieval administrative documents[edit]

(30 May 1225)

"Ego Benedicta de Lacon cum filiu miu donnigellu Guglelmu, per boluntadi de donnu Deu potestando parti de Calaris, fazzulli custa carta ad Sanctu Georgi de Sepollu de Gurgu et ad Sanctu Gorgoni et ad Sanctu Vittu pro beni ki llis fazzu pro Deu innanti et pro s'anima mia et de parentis mius. Dau potestadi et assoltura de paschiri et a aquari sa causa de Sanctu Georgi de Sebollu daa Serramanna fini ad s'oliastru de Semassi, k'esti paris cun s'ortu de sutta billa, berbeis et cabras, et porcus et baccas, et eguas et cavallus. Et no ndi levit pegus perunu pro terra maina et ni atera causa peruna ni ad sa dommu de Sanctu Georgi et ni ad sus serbus, nin pro Iuigi, nin pro donnigellu et nin pro curadori et nin pro armentariu et ni ad peruna personi de su mundu."

Poetry[edit]

In s'aira profumu de vida , Rosaria Floris (2009)[edit]

In sa vida de donniunu
arregorda fillu miu
c’est sempri su bentu,
bentu comenti una stracia.
No ddu depis ascurtai,
est una fèra chi corròxinat
bolit aciapai s’aira
po pustis buchiai
in sa terra frunzia.
Assurta apustis, s’aira
profumat ‘e caridadi.
Bellesa chi a s’abetu est ispirada,
bellesa chi sciobèru
cun su coru incantau,
chi t’amostat s’arrexoni
po ti fait biviri in paxi
e fait brintai su soli.
S’aira profumada,
allùit suspirus de amori
e alliviat sa pena de corus fertus.

Prose[edit]

Po cantu Biddanoa - 1987 (Benvenuto Lobina 1914 - 1993)

"Su trenu de Casteddu arribàt a mesudì. Ma de candu intràt in is furriàdas de Tacchu de Nurri e ancora no si biìat, s’intendìat su ciuff ciuff e su fragu de su fumu, màssima candu tiràt bentu estu. Sa primu a si biri fut sa macchina, candu s’incraràt in sa trincera de terra arrùbia e fut po lompi a su scàmbiu. Tandu su ciuff ciuff si faìat prus forti, a cuncórdiu cun is stantuffus chi movìant is arrodas, e su trenu, sulendu fumu biancu finza a celu, saludàt alligru is acacias chi fùant abetendiddu, strantaxas pe parti che sordaus. Mancai fessit cincu oras currendu e èssit passau Campidanu, Partiolla, Trexenta e Sarcidanu, non parìat fadiau. Passau su scàmbiu arrallentàt e si poniat a passu de ómini po intrai in stazioni: cun imponénzia, cun importànzia, cun totu is ogus de sa genti puntaus asuba, cumpraxu. Ma candu si firmàt, asutta de is matas de ùlimu prus artas de sa stazioni, e sa genti cumenzàt a si accostiai, su ùrtimu ciuff pariat unu suspiru: fut própiu fadiau. Ma fut prexau su própiu, su trenu de Casteddu: a ananti de sa macchina is cuatru numerus de latoni – 1908 – brilliant che unu sprigu, e su capustatzioni, cun su berretu arrùbiu in conca, fut benendu a ddu arricìri cun grandu arrespetu. Comenti dónnia dì."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Campidanese Sardinian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "
    Campidanese Sardinian"
    . Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Sardinian intonational phonology: Logudorese and Campidanese varieties, Maria Del Mar Vanrell, Francesc Ballone, Carlo Schirru, Pilar Prieto
  4. ^ Sardinian Language, Rebecca Posner, Marius Sala. Encyclopedia Britannica
  5. ^ De Mauro, Tullio. L'Italia delle Italie, 1979, Nuova Guaraldi Editrice, Florence, 89
  6. ^ Ainas po su Sardu, Is Arregulas, Provincia di Cagliari
  7. ^ "Provincia di Cagliari | Leggi il contenuto". Provincia.cagliari.it. Retrieved 2015-10-22.

External links[edit]