Head Harbour Light Station, Passamaquoddy Bay
|• Land||39.67 km2 (15.32 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||90 m (300 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Density||22.0/km2 (57/sq mi)|
|• Pop 2011-2016||5.7%|
|• Pop 2011-2016 density||22/km2 (60/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-4 (AST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-3 (ADT)|
Campobello Island (//, also US: /--/) is the largest and only inhabited island in Campobello, a civil parish in southwestern New Brunswick, near the border with Maine. The island's permanent population in 2016 was 872. It is the site of the Roosevelt Campobello International Park and of Herring Cove Provincial Park.
It has been governed as an incorporated rural community since 2010 but still receives some local service district services from the province, being assessed for fire protection, policing, dog control, and general government. Despite the name, the rural community also includes all other islands in the parish.
The island is part of Charlotte County, which was formed in 1784 when New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia. Campobello Parish was part of West Isles Parish until 1803, when it was erected as a separate parish. Campobello was claimed by the United States until the boundary in Passamaquoddy Bay was settled by commission in 1817.
The island was originally settled by the Passamaquoddy Nation, who called it Ebaghuit.
The first Europeans were from the French expedition of Pierre Dugua de Mons and Samuel de Champlain, who founded the nearby Saint Croix Island settlement in 1604. France named the island Port aux Coquilles ("Seashell Harbour").
The population was increased by United Empire Loyalists after the American Revolutionary War. Smuggling was a major part of the island's prosperity around this time. During the War of 1812 the Royal Navy seized coastal lands of Maine as far south as the Penobscot River but returned them following the war, except for offshore islands. In 1817, the United States relinquished its claim to Campobello, Deer, and Grand Manan islands, in exchange for islands in Cobscook Bay.
In 1866, a band of more than 700 members of the Fenian Brotherhood arrived at the Maine shore opposite the island with the intention of seizing Campobello but were dispersed by British warships from Halifax.
British naval officer John James Robinson became owner of the island in 1857. In 1881 it was sold to a group of American businessmen, including James Roosevelt. In the 1880s the island was developed as a resort summer colony for wealthy Canadians and Americans, as was nearby St. Andrews, New Brunswick and Bar Harbor, Maine. A luxurious resort hotel and many grand estates were built. From 1883, the Roosevelt family made Campobello Island their summer home.
By the mid-1800s, Campobello Island had a population in excess of 1,000, which grew to 1,230 by 1910.
The island is at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, and within the Bay of Fundy. The island is one of the Fundy Islands. The island has no road connection to the rest of Canada; it is connected by the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge to nearby Lubec, Maine. Reaching mainland Canada by car without crossing an international border is possible only during the summer season and requires two separate ferry trips, first to nearby Deer Island, then to L'Etete. The ferry to Deer Island stopped in 2017, leaving the island without a direct connection to the rest of Canada.
The jurisdiction of the eponymous rural community and of the census division include Head Harbour Island.
Measuring 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) long and about five kilometres (3.1 mi) wide, it has an area of 39.6 square kilometres (15.3 sq mi). On the north is a high bluff headland, East Quoddy Point. On the west are Charley Point and the Mulholland Point navigation light.
The two major tourist attractions on the island are Herring Cove Provincial Park and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. The latter was created in 1964 and was officially opened by U.S. President Lyndon Johnson and Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson in 1966.
The island's only highway, Route 774, is connected by the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge to Lubec, Maine – the easternmost town in the continental United States. The only transportation link with the rest of Canada is a seasonal ferry service to Deer Island Point, New Brunswick, on Deer Island.
|Canada census – Campobello Island community profile|
|Population:||872 (-5.7% from 2011)||925 (-12.4% from 2006)||1,056 (-11.6% from 2001)|
|Land area:||39.67 km2 (15.32 sq mi)||39.67 km2 (15.32 sq mi)||39.59 km2 (15.29 sq mi)|
|Population density:||22.0/km2 (57/sq mi)||23.3/km2 (60/sq mi)||26.7/km2 (69/sq mi)|
|Median age:||48.4 (M: 48.2, F: 48.4)||46.0 (M: 46.1, F: 45.9)||43.4 (M: 43.3, F: 43.5)|
|Total private dwellings:||616||641||632|
|Median household income:||$52,139||$38,159|
|References: 2016 2011 2006 earlier|
|Canada Census Mother Tongue - Campobello Parish, New Brunswick|
English & French
|Year||Responses||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %||Count||Trend||Pop %|
- North Road
- Otter Cove
- Wilsons Beach
Bodies of water
- Duck Islands
- Head Harbour Island
- Little Island
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- "New Brunswick Regulation 84-168 under the Municipalities Act (O.C. 84-582)". Government of New Brunswick. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
- Community Profile: Campobello Parish, Charlotte County, New Brunswick; Statistics Canada.
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- O'Connor, Joe (23 January 2018). "The island Canada forgot: On Campobello, citizens are left exiles in their own land". Financial Post. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (1879). Atlantic Local Coast Pilot: Sub-division 1: Passamaquoddy Bay to Schoodic. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 15.
- Richardson Clover (1891). Sailing Directions for Nova Scotia, Bay of Fundy, and South Shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 29.
- David Goss (2002). St. George and Its Neighbours. Arcadia Publishing. p. 91. ISBN 9780738511498.
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- "2016 Community Profiles". 2016 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "2011 Community Profiles". 2011 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "2006 Community Profiles". 2006 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "2001 Community Profiles". 2001 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. 17 February 2012.
- Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 census
- "untitled spreadsheet of New Brunswick place names". Geographical names in Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
- "No. 166". Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. Department of Natural Resources and Energy Development. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Official place names of New Brunswick checked against the cadastral map of the area.
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