Camunic language

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Camunic
Native to the south side of the Central Alps (Valcamonica, Valtellina), Italy
Region Italian Peninsula
Ethnicity Camunni
Era first millennium BC[1]
uncertain, perhaps Tyrsenian[2] or Indo-European (Celtic)[3]
    Language codes
    ISO 639-3 xcc
    Linguist list
    xcc
    Glottolog camu1235[4]

    The Camunic language is an extinct language which was spoken in the first millennium BC in the Valcamonica and Valtellina valleys of the Central Alps.

    Language[edit]

    Alphabet of Sondrio

    The extant corpus is carved on rock, similar to the rock carvings of Valcamonica. There are at least 170 known inscriptions, the majority of which are only a few words long. The writing system used is a variant of the north-Etruscan alphabet, known as the Camunian alphabet or alphabet of Sondrio. Longer inscriptions show that Camunic writing used boustrophedon.

    Its name derives from the people of the Camunni, who lived during the Iron Age in Val Camonica and were the creators of many of the stone carvings in the area. Abecedariums found in Nadro and Piancogno have been dated to between 500 BC and 50 AD.[5]

    The amount of material is insufficient to decipher the language, or even to establish what relationship it has to other languages. Some scholars think it may be related to Etruscan and Raetic.[2] Most recently Camunic has been proposed to be a Celtic language.[3]

    Transliteration[edit]

    Gliph Tibiletti Bruno 1992[6] Zavaroni 2004[7] Martinotti 2009[8]
    Alfabeto camuno-a.svg - A -
    Alfabeto camuno-a1.svg Alpha uc lc.svg A A
    Alfabeto camuno-a2.svg Alpha uc lc.svg A -
    Alfabeto camuno-b.svg Beta uc lc.svg B B (V?)
    Alfabeto camuno-b1.svg Beta uc lc.svg B B (V?)
    Alfabeto camuno-d.svg Delta uc lc.svg - D
    Alfabeto camuno-d1.svg h D (?) -
    Alfabeto camuno-e.svg Epsilon uc lc.svg E E
    Alfabeto camuno-e1.svg Epsilon uc lc.svg E E
    Alfabeto camuno-e2.svg Epsilon uc lc.svg E E
    Alfabeto camuno-f.svg Digamma uc lc.svg V -
    Alfabeto camuno-g.svg Gamma uc lc.svg G K (G?)
    Alfabeto camuno-g1.svg Gamma uc lc.svg G -
    Alfabeto camuno-h.svg h H J (ii/h/η?)
    Alfabeto camuno-h1.svg - H -
    Alfabeto camuno-i.svg Iota uc lc.svg I I
    Alfabeto camuno-i1.svg Iota uc lc.svg I I
    Alfabeto camuno-k.svg - K K (G?)
    Alfabeto camuno-l.svg Lambda uc lc.svg L L
    Alfabeto camuno-l1.svg Lambda uc lc.svg L L
    Alfabeto camuno-m.svg Mu uc lc.svg M M
    Alfabeto camuno-m1.svg Mu uc lc.svg M M
    Alfabeto camuno-n.svg Nu uc lc.svg N N
    Alfabeto camuno-n1.svg Nu uc lc.svg N N
    Alfabeto camuno-o.svg Qoppa uc lc.svg O Φ (Q?)
    Alfabeto camuno-p.svg - P -
    Alfabeto camuno-p1.svg Pi uc lc.svg P P
    Alfabeto camuno-r.svg Rho uc lc.svg R R
    Alfabeto camuno-r1.svg Rho uc lc.svg R R
    Alfabeto camuno-ss.svg Xi uc lc.svg S χ
    Alfabeto camuno-ss1.svg Sigma uc lc.svg S S
    Alfabeto camuno-ss2.svg Sigma uc lc.svg S S
    Alfabeto camuno-t.svg Chi uc lc.svg T T
    Alfabeto camuno-t1.svg Tau uc lc.svg T T
    Alfabeto camuno-t2.svg - T I
    Alfabeto camuno-th.svg Psi uc lc.svg Theta uc lc.svg -
    Alfabeto camuno-th1.svg - Theta uc lc.svg Theta uc lc.svg
    Alfabeto camuno-ts.svg - TS - Sho uc lc.svg -
    Alfabeto camuno-ts1.svg Phi uc lc.svg TS - Sho uc lc.svg χ
    Alfabeto camuno-uw.svg Upsilon uc lc.svg U - W U
    Alfabeto camuno-uw1.svg - U - W U
    Alfabeto camuno-z.svg Zeta uc lc.svg Z χ
    Alfabeto camuno-z1.svg Zeta uc lc.svg Z χ

    Gallery[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Camunic at MultiTree on the Linguist List
    2. ^ a b http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631220398_chunk_g97806312203989_ss1-3
    3. ^ a b Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE. 
    4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Camunic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
    5. ^ "Iscrizioni camune a cura di Adolfo Zavaroni" (in Italian). Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
    6. ^ Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, Gli alfabetari, Quaderni camuni n° 60, 1992, p. 307
    7. ^ Adolfo Zavaroni, Iscrizioni camune, 2004
    8. ^ Angelo Martinotti, Le iscrizioni preromane in Lucus rupestris, 2009, p. 325

    Bibliography[edit]

    • Mancini, Alberto. 1980. "Le iscrizioni della Valcamonica" in Studi Urbinati di storia, filosofia e letteratura. Supplemento linguistico 2, pp. 75–166.
    • Mancini, Alberto. 1991. "Iscrizioni retiche e iscrizioni camune. Due ambiti a confronto" in Quaderni del Dipartimento di Linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze 2, pp. 77–93.
    • Marchesini, Simona. 2011. "Alla ricerca del modello perduto. Sulla genesi dell’alfabeto camuno", Palaeohispanica 11, pp. 155-171
    • Markey, Thomas L. 2008. "Shared symbolics, genre difussion, token perceptions and late literacy in North-western Europe" in NOWELE 54/55, pp. 5–62.
    • Morandi, Alessandro. 2004. Epigrafia e lingua dei Celti d'Italia, vol. II. Celti d’Italia, ed. by Paola Piana Agostinetti (Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, 12), Roma 2004
    • Prosdocimi, Aldo Luigi. 1965. "Per un'edizione delle iscrizioni della Valcamonica", in Studi Etruschi 33, pp. 574–599.
    • Schumacher, Stefan. 2007. "Val Camonica, Inschriften" in Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde. Band 35: Speckstein bis Zwiebel. Ed. Heinrich Beck et al., Berlin – New York, pp. 334–337.
    • Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1978. "Camuno, retico e pararetico", in Lingue e dialetti dell'Italia antica ('Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica', 6), ed. by A. L. Prosdocimi, Roma 1978, pp. 209–255.
    • Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1990. "Nuove iscrizioni camune" in Quaderni camuni 49-50, pp. 29–171.
    • Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1992. "Gli alfabetari" in Quaderni camuni 60, pp. 309–380.

    External links[edit]