|Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin)
(English: "From Sea to Sea")
|Anthem: "O Canada"
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"
|Recognised regional languages|
|•||Governor General||David Johnston|
|•||Prime Minister||Justin Trudeau|
|•||Chief Justice||Beverley McLachlin|
|•||Lower house||House of Commons|
|Establishment from the United Kingdom|
|•||Confederation||July 1, 1867|
|•||Statute of Westminster||December 11, 1931|
|•||Patriation||April 17, 1982|
|•||Total||9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi
|•||Water (%)||8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)|
|•||Q1 2016 estimate||36,048,521 (37th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|•||Total||$1.628 trillion (15th)|
|•||Per capita||$45,488 (20th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|•||Total||$1.462 trillion (10th)|
|•||Per capita||$40,409 (15th)|
medium · 110th
|HDI (2014)|| 0.913
very high · 9th
|Currency||Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)|
|Time zone||(UTC−3.5 to −8)|
|•||Summer (DST)||(UTC−2.5 to −7)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CA|
Canada (i//; French: [ka.na.da]) is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the country's population of 35 million people live near the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
The land now called Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the Atlantic coast, with the first establishment of a region called "Canada" occurring in 1537. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost territories within British North America until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada. In 1931, Canada achieved near total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 removed the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a developed country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally, and the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a Commonwealth Realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the St Lawrence River as Canada.
From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, which refers only to Canada. Later that year, the national holiday was renamed from Dominion Day to Canada Day. The term Dominion is also used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.
Aboriginal peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, the latter being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th-century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers. The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks. Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The aboriginal population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million, with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. As a consequence of contact with European diseases, Canada's aboriginal peoples suffered from repeated outbreaks of newly introduced infectious diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), resulting in a forty to eighty percent population decrease in the centuries after the European arrival.
Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful. The Crown and Aboriginal peoples began interactions during the European colonialization period, though, the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers. From the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged Aboriginals to assimilate into their own culture. These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations.
The first known attempt at European colonization began when Norsemen settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 AD. No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of King Henry VII of England. Then Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th century. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Saint Lawrence River, where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory (known as the colony of Canada) in the name of King Francis I.
In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608). Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th-century over control of the North American fur trade.
The English established additional colonies in Cupids and Ferryland, Newfoundland, beginning in 1610. The Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after. A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht and the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. To avert conflict in Quebec, the British parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the 1775 outbreak of the American Revolution.
The 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized American independence and ceded the newly added territories south (but not north) of the Great Lakes to the new United States. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.
The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. Peace came in 1815; no boundaries were changed. Immigration now resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain 1815-50. New arrivals included Irish refugees escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances. Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 per cent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.
The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture. The Act of Union 1840 merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America by 1849. The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).
Confederation and expansion
Following several constitutional conferences, the 1867 Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.
The Canadian parliament passed a bill introduced by the Conservative Cabinet that established a National Policy of tariffs to protect the nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. The Cabinet of Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier fostered continental European immigrants settling the prairies and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.
Early 20th century
Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I. Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war. Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers. The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though, it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.
The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country. In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s. On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective 10 September 1939 by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada's independence.
The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded. Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.
The financial crisis of the great depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.
Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969, and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.
At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a modern nationalist movement. The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.
In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history; the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka Crisis of 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups. Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.
Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. In 2009, Canada's economy suffered in the worldwide Great Recession, but it has since largely rebounded. In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war, and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.
Geography and climate
Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. Greenland is to the northeast. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the worlds largest proportion of fresh water lakes.
Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60° and 141°W longitude, but this claim is not universally recognized. Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole. Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi); additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi).
Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes (563 greater than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)), more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.
Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River. Canada's population density, at 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills. In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).
Government and politics
Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. As such, the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada (at present David Johnston), carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada.
The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of governance is limited. In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at present Justin Trudeau), the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice. To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.
Each of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister, within four years of the previous election, or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House. The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75. Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2015 election: the Liberal Party of Canada, the Conservative Party of Canada (governing party and soon to be Official Opposition), the New Democratic Party, the Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party of Canada. The list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial.
Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons. Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces. The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.
The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country. In addition, the Minister of Finance and Minister of Industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development. The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes. The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to the UK, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.
The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples. Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between Aboriginals in Canada and the reigning Monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921. These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982. These rights may include provision of services, such as health care, and exemption from taxation. The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord.
Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since 2000 by the Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin (the first female Chief Justice). Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.
Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces. However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Foreign relations and military
Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions. Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image. The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.
Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976. Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).
Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner. Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba since, and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie. Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.
Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.
During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989, and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.
In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them. In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.
Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of 92,000 active personnel and approximately 51,000 reserve personnel. The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately C$19 billion, or around 1% of the country's GDP.
Provinces and territories
Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.
Canada is the world's eleventh-largest economy as of 2015[update], with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.79 trillion. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom, and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. The country's average household disposable income per capita is over US$23,900, higher than the OECD average. Furthermore, the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion as of 2015[update].
In 2014, Canada's exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $523 billion, of which approximately $349 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union, and $35 billion from China. The country's 2014 trade surplus totalled C$5.1 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.
Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.
Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13% share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. Canada's Ministry of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead. Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.
Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA). In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment. The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994. In the mid-1990s, Jean Chrétien's Liberal government began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the national debt.
The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to a significant rise in unemployment in Canada. By October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate had reached 8.6 percent, with provincial unemployment rates varying from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and Labrador. Between October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a total of 224,000 permanent jobs. Canada's federal debt was estimated to total $566.7 billion for the fiscal year 2010–11, up from $463.7 billion in 2008–09. In addition, Canada's net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194 billion in the first quarter of 2010. However, Canada's regulated banking sector (comparatively conservative among G8 nations), the federal government's pre-crisis budgetary surpluses, and its long-term policies of lowering the national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to other G8 nations. As of 2015[update], the Canadian economy has largely stabilized and has seen a modest return to growth, although the country remains troubled by volatile oil prices, sensitivity to the Eurozone crisis and higher-than-normal unemployment rates. The federal government and many Canadian industries have also started to expand trade with emerging Asian markets, in an attempt to diversify exports; Asia is now Canada's second-largest export market after the United States. Widely debated oil pipeline proposals, in particular, are hoped to increase exports of Canadian oil reserves to China.
Science and technology
In 2012, Canada spent approximately C$31.3 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. As of 2015[update], the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists. It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms. Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.
The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Canada was the third country to launch a satellite into space after the USSR and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch. In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada's first male astronaut. Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST. Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.
The 2011 Canadian census counted a total population of 33,476,688, an increase of around 5.9 percent over the 2006 figure. By December 2012, Statistics Canada reported a population of over 35 million, signifying the fastest growth rate of any G8 nation. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent family reunification. The Canadian public as-well as the major political parties support the current level of immigration. In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada. The Canadian government anticipated between 280,000 and 305,000 new permanent residents in 2016, a similar number of immigrants as in recent years. New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.
|Vancouver||British Columbia||2,313,328||Halifax||Nova Scotia||390,328|
|Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo||Ontario||477,160||St. John's||Newfoundland and Labrador||196,966|
About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the contiguous United States border. Approximately 50 percent of Canadians live in urban areas concentrated along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, with an additional 30 percent living along the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found below the 55th parallel north. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years; by 2011, it had risen to approximately 39.9 years. As of 2013[update], the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years. The majority of Canadians (69.9%) live in family households, 26.8% report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 3.7%. The average size of a household in 2006 was 2.5 people.
According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is the most educated country in the world; the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree. Canada spends about 5.3% of its GDP on education. The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than 20 000 USD per student). As of 2014[update], 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent.
Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada. Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision. The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent. The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates that Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.
According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people. Canada's aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible minority. In 2006, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups. By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East). The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were China, the Philippines and India. According to Statistics Canada, visible minority groups could account for a third of the Canadian population by 2031.
Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism. Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state. With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life, Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state. The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God. According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7% of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). Secularization has been growing since the 1960s. In 2011, 23.9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001. The remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%).
A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 20% of Canadians respectively. Nearly 6.8 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490). Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act. English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.
The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec. Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.
Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official. There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct dialects. Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable to survive in the long term. Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories. Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.
Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected. Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments, and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity. In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture. However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic—a collection of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures.
Canada's approach to governance based on repression of dissent, economic immigration and social integration have wide public support. Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values. Canadians also identify with the countries institutions of health care, peacekeeping, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and aboriginal cultures and traditions. Through their language, art and music, aboriginal peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. During the 20th-century Canadians with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture. Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian Identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, art and media. The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire. Many Canadian comedians have archived international success in the American TV and film industries and are amongst the most recognized in the world.
Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output; particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines, is often overshadowed by imports from the United States. As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).
Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Aboriginal sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada. The Arms of Canada is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version. The Great Seal of Canada is a governmental seal used for purposes of state, being set on letters patent, proclamations and commissions, for representatives of the Queen and for the appointment of cabinet ministers, lieutenant governors, senators, and judges. Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and more recently, the totem pole and Inuksuk. Canadian coins feature many of these symbols: the loon on the $1 coin, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel. The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf. The Queen' s image appears on $20 bank notes, and on the obverse of all current Canadian coins.
Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively. There are four major themes that can be found within historical Canadian literature; nature, frontier life, Canada's position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality. By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best. Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity are reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life. Arguably, the best-known living Canadian writer internationally (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic. Numerous other Canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards; including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English; and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is perhaps best known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven. Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39. The Group were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926. Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.
The Canadian music industry is the sixth largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles. Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970. The Canadian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements. Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812. The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980. Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.
The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s. Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Seven of Canada's eight largest metropolitan areas – Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg – have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL) while Quebec City had the Quebec Nordiques until they relocated to Colorado in 1995. Canada does have one Major League Baseball team, the Toronto Blue Jays, one professional basketball team, the Toronto Raptors, three Major League Soccer teams and four National Lacrosse League teams. Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1900, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, the 1994 Basketball World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Other popular spectator sports in Canada include curling and Canadian football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, tennis, baseball, skiing, cricket, volleyball, rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread.
- Index of Canada-related articles
- Outline of Canada
- Topics by provinces and territories
- Canada – Wikipedia book
- D. Michael Jackson (Chief of protocol for the Government of Saskatchewan) (2013). The Crown and Canadian Federalism. Dundurn. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-4597-0989-8.
- Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: the Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 366–388. doi:10.1093/publius/pjq001.
- "CANSIM – 051-0005 – Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Statistics Canada (January 30, 2013). "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- International Monetary Fund. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Canada". Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- "GINI index". The World Bank. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Country Comparison: Distribution 0f Family Income - Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "Human development report" (PDF). UNDP. 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1991). Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-313-26257-9.
- Alan Rayburn (2001). Naming Canada: Stories about Canadian Place Names. University of Toronto Press. pp. 14–22. ISBN 978-0-8020-8293-0.
- Paul R. Magocsi (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 1048. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
- Victoria (1841), An Act to Re-write the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada, J.C. Fisher & W. Kimble, p. 20
- O'Toole, Roger (2009). "Dominion of the Gods: Religious continuity and change in a Canadian context". In Hvithamar, Annika; Warburg, Margit; Jacobsen, Brian Arly. Holy nations and global identities: civil religion, nationalism, and globalisation. Brill. p. 137. ISBN 978-90-04-17828-1.
- Buckner, Philip, ed. (2008). Canada and the British Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 37–40, 56–59, 114, 124–125. ISBN 978-0-19-927164-1.
- John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. Oxford Handbooks Online. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4.
- Christoph Beat Graber; Karolina Kuprecht; Jessica C. Lai (2012). International Trade in Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Legal and Policy Issues. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-85793-831-2.
- Thomas D. Dillehay (2008). The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory. Basic Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7867-2543-4.
- Alfred J. Andrea; Kevin McGeough; William E. Mierse (2011). World History Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-85109-929-0.
Jacques Cinq-Mars (2001). "The Significance of the Bluefish Caves in Beringian Prehistory". Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
Laurel Sefton MacDowell (2012). An Environmental History of Canada. UBC Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7748-2104-9.
Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- Center for Archaeological Sciences Norman Herz Professor of Geology and Director; Society of Archaelogical Sciences both at University of Georgia Ervan G. Garrison Associate Professor of Anthropology and Geology and President (1997). Geological Methods for Archaeology. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-19-802511-5.
- "Bluefish Caves". SFU Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. 2005.
- Hayes, Derek (2008). Canada: an illustrated history. Douglas & Mcintyre. pp. 7, 13. ISBN 978-1-55365-259-5.
- Macklem, Patrick (2001). Indigenous difference and the Constitution of Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8020-4195-1.
- Sonneborn, Liz (January 2007). Chronology of American Indian History. Infobase Publishing. pp. 2–12. ISBN 978-0-8160-6770-1.
- Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C (2008). Dying and Death in Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4.
- Thornton, Russell (2000). "Population history of Native North Americans". In Haines, Michael R; Steckel, Richard Hall. A population history of North America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 13, 380. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7.
- O'Donnell, C. Vivian (2008). "Native Populations of Canada". In Bailey, Garrick Alan. Indians In Contemporary Society. Handbook of North American Indians 2. Government Printing Office. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-16-080388-8.
- True Peters, Stephanie (2005). Smallpox in the New World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7614-1637-1.
- Preston, David L. (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667–1783. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7.
- Tanner, Adrian (1999). "3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare'". Innu Culture. Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Asch, Michael (1997). Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference. UBC Pres. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-7748-0581-0.
- Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Guthriefirst2=Gail Valaskakis (2009). Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. UBC Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7748-5863-2.
- Reeves, Arthur Middleton (2009). The Norse Discovery of America. BiblioLife. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-559-05400-6.
- The Canadian Encyclopedia (1 July 2008). "John Cabot". Historica Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "John Cabot's voyage of 1497". Memorial University of Newfoundland. 2000. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Hornsby, Stephen J (2005). British Atlantic, American frontier: spaces of power in early modern British America. University Press of New England. pp. 14, 18–19, 22–23. ISBN 978-1-58465-427-8.
- Cartier, Jacques; Biggar, Henry Percival; Cook, Ramsay (1993). The Voyages of Jacques Cartier. University of Toronto Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8020-6000-6.
- Rose, George A (October 1, 2007). Cod: The Ecological History of the North Atlantic Fisheries. Breakwater Books. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-55081-225-1.
- Ninette Kelley; Michael J. Trebilcock (September 30, 2010). The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. University of Toronto Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8020-9536-7.
- Howard Roberts LaMar (1977). The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. University of Michigan. p. 355. ISBN 978-0-690-00008-5.
- Tucker, Spencer C; Arnold, James; Wiener, Roberta (September 30, 2011). The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-85109-697-8.
- Phillip Alfred Buckner; John G. Reid (1994). The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History. University of Toronto Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-8020-6977-1.
- Nolan, Cathal J (2008). Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-313-33046-9.
- Allaire, Gratien (May 2007). "From "Nouvelle-France" to "Francophonie canadienne": a historical survey". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 25–52. doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.024.
- Hicks, Bruce M (March 2010). "Use of Non-Traditional Evidence: A Case Study Using Heraldry to Examine Competing Theories for Canada's Confederation". British Journal of Canadian Studies 23 (1): 87–117. doi:10.3828/bjcs.2010.5.
- Eric Nellis (2010). An Empire of Regions: A Brief History of Colonial British America. University of Toronto Press – University of British Columbia. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-4426-0403-2.
- Todd Leahy; Raymond Wilson (September 30, 2009). Native American Movements. Scarecrow Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8108-6892-2.
- McNairn, Jeffrey L (2000). The capacity to judge. University of Toronto Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8020-4360-3.
- Richard Colebrook Harris; et al. (1987). Historical Atlas of Canada: The land transformed, 1800-1891. U of Toronto Press. p. 21.
- "The Irish Emigration of 1847 and Its Canadian Consequences". cchahistory.ca.
- Romney, Paul (Spring 1989). "From Constitutionalism to Legalism: Trial by Jury, Responsible Government, and the Rule of Law in the Canadian Political Culture". Law and History Review (University of Illinois Press) 7 (1): 128. doi:10.2307/743779.
- Evenden, Leonard J; Turbeville, Daniel E (1992). "The Pacific Coast Borderland and Frontier". In Janelle, Donald G. Geographical snapshots of North America. Guilford Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-89862-030-6.
- Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans (2001). The Territorial Factor: Political Geography in a Globalising World. Amsterdam University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-90-5629-188-4.
- Bothwell, Robert (1996). History of Canada Since 1867. Michigan State University Press. pp. 31, 207–310. ISBN 978-0-87013-399-2.
- Bumsted, JM (1996). The Red River Rebellion. Watson & Dwyer. ISBN 978-0-920486-23-8.
- "Building a nation". Canadian Atlas. Canadian Geographic. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Sir John A. Macdonald". Library and Archives Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Cook, Terry (2000). "The Canadian West: An Archival Odyssey through the Records of the Department of the Interior". The Archivist. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Tennyson, Brian Douglas (2014). Canada's Great War, 1914–1918: How Canada Helped Save the British Empire and Became a North American Nation. Scarecrow Press (Cape Breton University). p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8108-8860-9.
- Morton, Desmond (1999). A military history of Canada (4th ed.). McClelland & Stewart. pp. 130–158, 173, 203–233, 258. ISBN 978-0-7710-6514-9.
- Granatstein, J. L. (2004). Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace. University of Toronto Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8020-8696-9.
- McGonigal, Richard Morton (1962). The Conscription Crisis in Quebec – 1917: a Study in Canadian Dualism. Harvard University. p. Intro.
- Bryce, Robert B. (June 1, 1986). Maturing in Hard Times: Canada's Department of Finance through the Great Depression. McGill-Queens. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7735-0555-1.
- Mulvale, James P (July 11, 2008). "Basic Income and the Canadian Welfare State: Exploring the Realms of Possibility". Basic Income Studies 3 (1). doi:10.2202/1932-0183.1084.
- Humphreys, Edward (2013). Great Canadian Battles: Heroism and Courage Through the Years. Arcturus Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-78404-098-7.
- Goddard, Lance (2005). Canada and the Liberation of the Netherlands. Dundurn Press. pp. 225–232. ISBN 978-1-55002-547-7.
- Bothwell, Robert (2007). Alliance and illusion: Canada and the world, 1945–1984. UBC Press. pp. 11, 31. ISBN 978-0-7748-1368-6.
- Boyer, J. Patrick (1996). Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-4597-1884-5.
- Mackey, Eva (2002). The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8020-8481-1.
- Landry, Rodrigue; Forgues, Éric (May 2007). "Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 1–9. doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.022.
- Esses, Victoria M; Gardner, RC (July 1996). "Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 28 (3): 145–152. doi:10.1037/h0084934.
- Sarrouh, Elissar (January 22, 2002). "Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development". Social Policy Series, No. 1. United Nations. pp. 14–16, 22–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Bickerton, James; Gagnon, Alain, ed. (2004). Canadian Politics (4th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 250–254, 344–347. ISBN 978-1-55111-595-5.
- Légaré, André (2008). "Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15 (2–3): 335–367. doi:10.1163/157181108X332659.
- Munroe, HD (2009). "The October Crisis Revisited: Counterterrorism as Strategic Choice, Political Result, and Organizational Practice". Terrorism and Political Violence 21 (2): 288–305. doi:10.1080/09546550902765623.
- Sorens, J (December 2004). "Globalization, secessionism, and autonomy". Electoral Studies 23 (4): 727–752. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2003.10.003.
- Leblanc, Daniel (August 13, 2010). "A brief history of the Bloc Québécois". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- Betz, Hans-Georg; Immerfall, Stefan (1998). The new politics of the Right: neo-Populist parties and movements in established democracies. St. Martinʼs Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-312-21134-9.
- Schmid, Carol L. (2001). The Politics of Language : Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective: Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-19-803150-5.
- "Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Sourour, Teresa K (1991). "Report of Coroner's Investigation" (PDF). Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "The Oka Crisis" (Digital Archives). CBC. 2000. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Roach, Kent (2003). September 11: consequences for Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 15, 59–61, 194. ISBN 978-0-7735-2584-9.
- Cohen, Lenard J.; Moens, Alexander (1999). "Learning the lessons of UNPROFOR: Canadian peacekeeping in the former Yugoslavia". Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 6 (2): 85–100. doi:10.1080/11926422.1999.9673175.
- Jockel, Joseph T; Sokolsky, Joel B (2008). "Canada and the war in Afghanistan: NATO's odd man out steps forward". Journal of Transatlantic Studies 6 (1): 100–115. doi:10.1080/14794010801917212.
- "Canada Recession: Global Recovery Still Fragile 3 Years On". Huffington Post. July 22, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "Canadian economy showing signs of wider recovery, Stephen Poloz says". Toronto Star. December 3, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- Aidan Hehir; Robert Murray (2013). Libya, the Responsibility to Protect and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-137-27396-3.
- Thomas Juneau (2015). "Canada's Policy to Confront the Islamic State". Canadian Global Affairs Institute. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- "Canada". World Factbook. CIA. May 16, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Robert A. Battram (2010). Canada in Crisis: An Agenda for Survival of the Nation. Trafford Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4269-3393-6.
- Niels West (2004). Marine Affairs Dictionary: Terms, Concepts, Laws, Court Cases, and International Conventions and Agreements. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-313-30421-7.
- Canadian Geographic. Royal Canadian Geographical Society. 2008. p. 20.
- "Geography". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- "The Boundary". International Boundary Commission. 1985. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- National Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 2005. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7705-1198-2.
- Bailey, William G; Oke, TR; Rouse, Wayne R (1997). The surface climates of Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7735-1672-4.
- "The Atlas of Canada - Physical Components of Watersheds". 2012-12-05. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- Etkin, David; Haque, CE; Brooks, Gregory R (April 30, 2003). An Assessment of Natural Hazards and Disasters in Canada. Springer. pp. 569, 582, 583. ISBN 978-1-4020-1179-5.
- Jessop, A. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5906. Natural Resources Canada. pp. 18–. GGKEY:6DLTQFWQ9HG.
- Peter H. McMurry; Marjorie F. Shepherd; James S. Vickery (2004). Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment. Cambridge University Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-521-84287-7.
- The Weather Network. "Statistics, Regina SK". Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
- "Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971–2000". Environment Canada. March 25, 2004. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Queen Victoria (March 29, 1867). "Constitution Act, 1867: Preamble". Queen's Printer. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Smith, David E (June 10, 2010). "The Crown and the Constitution: Sustaining Democracy?". The Crown in Canada: Present Realities and Future Options (Queen's University). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- MacLeod, Kevin S (2012). A Crown of Maples (PDF) (2nd ed.). Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "The Governor General of Canada: Roles and Responsibilities". Queen's Printer. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Commonwealth public administration reform 2004. Commonwealth Secretariat. 2004. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-11-703249-1.
- Forsey, Eugene (2005). How Canadians Govern Themselves (6th ed.). Queen's Printer. pp. 1, 16, 26. ISBN 978-0-662-39689-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Marleau, Robert; Montpetit, Camille. "House of Commons Procedure and Practice: Parliamentary Institutions". Queen's Printer. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "‘A cabinet that looks like Canada:' Justin Trudeau pledges government built on trust". thestar.com. November 4, 2015.
- Johnson, David (2006). Thinking government: public sector management in Canada (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. pp. 134–135, 149. ISBN 978-1-55111-779-9.
- "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- O'Neal, Brian; Bédard, Michel; Spano, Sebastian (April 11, 2011). "Government and Canada's 41st Parliament: Questions and Answers". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Ann L. Griffiths; Karl Nerenberg (2003). Handbook of Federal Countries. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-7735-7047-4.
- "Difference between Canadian Provinces and Territories". Intergovernmental Affairs Canada. 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- "Differences from Provincial Governments". Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Dinçer, Hasan (2013). Global Strategies in Banking and Finance. IGI Global. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-4666-4636-0.
- "About". Statistics Canada. 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Emily Gilbert; Eric Helleiner (2003). Nation-States and Money: The Past, Present and Future of National Currencies. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-134-65817-6.
- George S. Cuhaj; Thomas Michael (2011). Coins of the World: Canada. Krause Publications. p. 4. ISBN 1-4402-3129-X.
- Bakan, Joel; Elliot, Robin M (2003). Canadian Constitutional Law. Emond Montgomery Publications. pp. 3–8, 683–687, 699. ISBN 978-1-55239-085-6.
- Patterson, Lisa Lynne (2004). "Aboriginal roundtable on Kelowna Accord: Aboriginal policy negotiations 2004–2006" (PDF). 1. Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament: 3. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Treaty areas". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. October 7, 2002. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Gary Brent Madison (2000). Is There a Canadian Philosophy?: Reflections on the Canadian Identity. University of Ottawa Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7766-0514-2.
- McCormick, Peter (2000). Supreme at last: the evolution of the Supreme Court of Canada. James Lorimer & Company Ltd. pp. 2, 86, 154. ISBN 978-1-55028-692-2.
- Richard Yates; Penny Bain; Ruth Yates (2000). Introduction to law in Canada. Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon Canada. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-13-792862-0.
- Sworden, Philip James (2006). An introduction to Canadian law. Emond Montgomery Publications. pp. 22, 150. ISBN 978-1-55239-145-7.
- "Ontario Provincial Police". OPP official website. 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police. "Keeping Canada and Our Communities Safe and Secure" (PDF). Queen's Printer. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Adam Chapnick (2011). The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations. UBC Press. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-0-7748-4049-1.
- Allen Sens; Peter Stoett (2013). Global Politics 5e. Nelson Education. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-17-648249-7.
- Richard Sobel; Eric Shiraev; Robert Shapiro (2002). International Public Opinion and the Bosnia Crisis. Lexington Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7391-0480-4.
- Govermant of Canada (2015). "Millennium Development Goals". Global Affairs Canada. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- "International Organizations and Forums". Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights". United Nations. 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Peter McKenna (2012). Canada Looks South: In Search of an Americas Policy. University of Toronto Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-4426-1108-5.
- Ibp Usa. Canada Intelligence, Security Activities and Operations Handbook Volume 1 Intelligence Service Organizations, Regulations, Activities. Int'l Business Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7397-1615-1.
- Haglung, David G (Autumn 2003). "North American Cooperation in an Era of Homeland Security". Orbis (Foreign Policy Research Institute) 47 (4): 675–691. doi:10.1016/S0030-4387(03)00072-3.
- "Canada". United States Department of State. 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- James Bickerton; Alain-G. Gagnon (2014). Canadian Politics: Sixth Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 423. ISBN 978-1-4426-0703-3.
- James, Patrick (2006). Michaud, Nelson; O'Reilly, Marc J, ed. Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. Lexington Books. pp. 213–214, 349–362. ISBN 978-0-7391-1493-3.
- Teigrob, Robert (September 2010). "'Which Kind of Imperialism?' Early Cold War Decolonization and Canada–US Relations". Canadian Review of American Studies 37 (3): 403–430. doi:10.3138/cras.37.3.403.
- Canada's international policy statement: a role of pride and influence in the world. Government of Canada. 2005. ISBN 978-0-662-68608-8.
- Finkel, Alvin (1997). Our lives: Canada after 1945. Lorimer. pp. 105–107, 111–116. ISBN 978-1-55028-551-2.
- Holloway, Steven Kendall (2006). Canadian foreign policy: defining the national interest. University of Toronto Press. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-1-55111-816-1.
- Terry M. Mays (16 December 2010). Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping. Scarecrow Press. pp. 218–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7516-6.
- Farnsworth, Clyde H (November 27, 1994). "Torture by Army Peacekeepers in Somalia Shocks Canada". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Jerome Klassen; Greg Albo (10 January 2013). Empire's Ally: Canada and the War in Afghanistan. University of Toronto Press. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-1-4426-6496-8.
- Vagnoni, Giselda (February 5, 2007). "Rich nations to sign $1.5 bln vaccine pact in Italy". Reuters. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (August 3, 2007). "Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Military Strength of Canada". Global Firepower. March 27, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Canadian military spending by the numbers". Ottawa Citizen. September 3, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Military expenditure of Canada". SIPRI. 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- G. Bruce Doern; Allan M. Maslove; Michael J. Prince (2013). Canadian Public Budgeting in the Age of Crises: Shifting Budgetary Domains and Temporal Budgeting. MQUP. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7735-8853-0.
- Jason Clemens; Niels Veldhuis (2012). Beyond Equalization: Examining Fiscal Transfers in a Broader Context. The Fraser Institute. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-88975-215-3.
- "Report for selected Country – Canada". International Monetary Fund. 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- "Latest release". World Trade Organization. April 17, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Index of Globalization 2010". KOF. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- "Index of Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal. 2013. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- "Jonathan Kay: The key to Canada's economic advantage over the United States? Less income inequality". National Post. December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- "Canada". OECD Better Life Index. OECD. 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "TMX Group Equity Financing Statistics – September 2014". TMX. September 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- "Imports, exports and trade balance of goods on a balance-of-payments basis, by country or country grouping". Statistics Canada. 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- Grant, Tavia (February 10, 2010). "Canada has first yearly trade deficit since 1975". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Canada's Trade Deficit Widens". Wall Street Journal. February 7, 2015.
- "Employment by Industry". Statistics Canada. January 8, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Easterbrook, WT (March 1995). "Recent Contributions to Economic History: Canada". Journal of Economic History 19: 98.
- Center for International Studies (2014). "What did Canada export in 2014?". Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
- Brown, Charles E (2002). World energy resources. Springer. pp. 323, 378–389. ISBN 978-3-540-42634-9.
- "World proven crude oil reserves by country, 1960–2011". Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. 2012.
Oil & Gas Journal's oil reserve estimate for Canada includes 5.392 billion barrels (857,300,000 m3) of conventional crude oil and condensate reserves and 173.2 billion barrels (2.754×1010 m3) of oil sands reserves. Information collated by the EIA
- Britton, John NH (1996). Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 26–27, 155–163. ISBN 978-0-7735-1356-3.
- Brendan Marshall, Director, Economic Affairs (2014). "Facts & Figures 2014 - The Mining Association of Canada" (PDF). The Mining Association of Canada. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Leacy, FH, ed. (1983). "Vl-12". Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Dr David Mosler; Professor Bob Catley (2013). The American Challenge: The World Resists US Liberalism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4094-9852-0.
- Morck, Randall; Tian, Gloria; Yeung, Bernard (2005). "Who owns whom? Economic nationalism and family controlled pyramidal groups in Canada". In Eden, Lorraine; Dobson, Wendy. Governance, multinationals, and growth. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84376-909-5.
- Hale, Geoffrey (October 2008). "The Dog That Hasn't Barked: The Political Economy of Contemporary Debates on Canadian Foreign Investment Policies". Canadian Journal of Political Science 41 (3): 719–747. doi:10.1017/S0008423908080785.
- David Johnson (2006). Thinking Government: Public Sector Management in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-55111-779-9.
- Sturgeon, Jamie (March 13, 2009). "Jobless rate to peak at 10%: TD". National Post. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Latest release from Labour Force Survey". Statistics Canada. November 6, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Yalnizyan, Armine (October 15, 2010). "The real state of Canada's jobs market". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- "Budget fights deficit with freeze on future spending". CTV News. March 4, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Canada's international investment position". The Daily. Statistics Canada. June 17, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Canada's Budget Triumph" (PDF). Mercatus Center (George Mason University). September 30, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Update of Economic and Fiscal Projections". Department of Finance Canada. 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "IMF drops forecast for Canadian economic growth". CTV News. January 20, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Canada's Trade with the World, by Region". Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. March 24, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
- "Minister Fast Congratulates the Organizers of the Canada and Free Trade with Asia Conference". Canadian International Council. 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Northern Gateway pipeline would strengthen trade ties to China". The Globe and Mail. May 7, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Pipeline economics: China needs oil, and Canada's got it". Macleans.ca. September 25, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- "Domestic spending on research and development". Statistics Canada. October 17, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- "Canadian Nobel Prize in Science Laureates". Science.ca. Retrieved February 7, 2015. Note that this source was published before 2011 and as such does not include Ralph M. Steinman.
- "Rockefeller University scientist Ralph Steinman, honored today with Nobel Prize for discovery of dendritic cells, dies at 68". Rockefeller University. October 3, 2011.
- "Canada ranked fourth in the world for scientific research". The Globe and Mail. September 26, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Top 250 Canadian Technology Companies". Branham Group Inc. 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Internet Usage and Population in North America". Internet World Stats. June 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
- Joseph A. Angelo (2009). Encyclopedia of Space and Astronomy. Infobase Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4381-1018-9.
- "The Canadian Aerospace Industry praises the federal government for recognizing Space as a strategic capability for Canada". Newswire. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Black Brant Sounding Rockets". Magellan Aerospace. 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "2011 Census: Population and dwelling counts". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- Green, Jeff (December 6, 2012). "Canada's population hits 35 million". The Toronto Star. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada, 1990 to 2008". Natural Resources Canada. 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
- Barry Edmonston; Eric Fong (2011). The Changing Canadian Population. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7735-3793-4.
- Zimmerman, Karla (2008). Canada (10th ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-74104-571-0.
- James Hollifield; Philip Martin; Pia Orrenius (2014). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition. Stanford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8047-8627-0.
- Roderic P. Beaujot; Donald W. Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2.
- Gary P. Freeman; Randall Hansen; David L. Leal (2013). Immigration and Public Opinion in Liberal Democracies. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-136-21161-4.
- Abdur Rahim (2014). Canadian Immigration and South Asian Immigrants. Xlibris Corporation. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4990-5874-1.
- "Canada welcomes highest number of legal immigrants in 50 years while taking action to maintain the integrity of Canada's immigration system". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. February 13, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "Supplementary Information to the 2016 Immigration Levels Plan". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Immigration overview – Permanent and temporary residents". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- Herbert G. Grubel (2009). The Effects of Mass Immigration on Canadian Living Standards and Society. The Fraser Institute. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-88975-246-7.
- "Government of Canada Tables 2011 Immigration Plan". Canada News Centre. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Alan Simmons (2010). Immigration and Canada: Global and Transnational Perspectives. Canadian Scholars' Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-55130-362-8.
- Custred, Glynn (2008). "Security Threats on America's Borders". In Moens, Alexander. Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States. Fraser Institute. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-88975-235-1.
- OECD (2014). OECD Environmental Performance Reviews OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2004. OECD Publishing. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-92-64-10778-6.
- "Urban-rural population as a proportion of total population, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions". Statistics Canada. 2001. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Martel, Laurent; Malenfant, Éric Caron (September 22, 2009). "2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex". Statistics Canada. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
- "Canadian population creeps up in average age". CBC. September 28, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- "2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- Meg Luxton (2011). "Changing Families, New Understandings" (PDF). Vanier institute (York University). p. 6 (PDF p 12). Retrieved February 2, 2016.
- "Education at a Glance 2014" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- "Government expenditure on education as % of GDP (%)". World Bank. 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- "Financial and human resources invested in Education" (PDF). OECD. 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
- Irving Epstein (2008). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Children's Issues Worldwide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-313-33617-1.
- Vicente Montesinos; José Manuel Vela (2013). Innovations in Governmental Accounting. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-4757-5504-6.
- "Overview of Education in Canada". Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Creating Opportunities for All Canadians". Department of Finance Canada. November 14, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2006.
- "Comparing countries' and economies' performances" (PDF). OECD. 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
- "Canadian education among best in the world: OECD". CTV News. December 7, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
- "National Household Survey Profile". Statistics Canada. 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Data table". Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- "Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". 2006 Census: Topic-based tabulations. Statistics Canada. June 12, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- Anita Kalunta-Crumpton; Texas Southern University (2012). Race, Ethnicity, Crime and Criminal Justice in the Americas. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-230-35586-6.
- "2006 Census: Ethnic origin, visible minorities, place of work and mode of transportation". The Daily. Statistics Canada. April 2, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- Pendakur, Krishna. "Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "2006 Census: Immigration, citizenship, language, mobility and migration". The Daily. Statistics Canada. December 4, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Lilley, Brian (2010). "Canadians want immigration shakeup". Parliamentary Bureau. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
- Friesen, Joe (March 9, 2010). "The changing face of Canada: booming minority populations by 2031". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Richard Moon (2008). Law and Religious Pluralism in Canada. UBC Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-7748-1497-3.
- Jamie S. Scott (2012). The Religions of Canadians. University of Toronto Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-4426-0516-9.
- Kevin Boyle; Juliet Sheen (2013). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. University of Essex – Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-134-72229-7.
- Lance W. Roberts (2005). Recent Social Trends in Canada, 1960–2000. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-7735-2955-7.
- Paul Bramadat; David Seljak (2009). Religion and Ethnicity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4426-1018-7.
- Kurt Bowen (2004). Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7735-7194-5.
- Derek Gregory; Ron Johnston; Geraldine Pratt; Michael Watts; Sarah Whatmore (2009). The Dictionary of Human Geography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-4443-1056-6.
- Bruce J. Berman; Rajeev Bhargava; Andr Lalibert (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. UBC Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7748-2515-3.
- Betty Jane Punnett (2015). International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-317-46745-8.
- Dr. David M. Haskell (Wilfrid Laurier University) (2009). Through a Lens Darkly: How the News Media Perceive and Portray Evangelicals. Clements Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-894667-92-0.
- "Religions in Canada—Census 2011". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada.
- Hans Mol, "The secularization of Canada." Research in the social scientific study of religion (1989) 1:197-215.
- Mark A. Noll (1992). A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. pp. 15–17.
- "'No Religion' Is Increasingly Popular For Canadians: Report". Huffington Post. May 15, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- "2006 Census: The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census: Highlights". Statistics Canada, Dated 2006. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- "Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2011 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "What Languages Do Canadians Speak? Language Statistics From the 2011 Census of Canada". About.com: Canada Online. October 31, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. January 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- "Official Languages and You". Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. June 16, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Bourhis, Richard Y; Montaruli, Elisa; Amiot, Catherine E (May 2007). "Language planning and French-English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997". International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 187–224. doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.031.
- Jeremy Webber (2015). The Constitution of Canada: A Contextual Analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-78225-631-1.
- Peter Auer (2010). Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation. Theories and methods. Walter de Gruyter. p. 387. ISBN 978-3-11-018002-2.
- Hayday, Matthew (2005). Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7735-2960-1.
- Heller, Monica (2003). Crosswords: language, education and ethnicity in French Ontario. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 72, 74. ISBN 978-3-11-017687-2.
- "Aboriginal languages". Statistics Canada. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- Olive Patricia Dickason (1992). Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8061-2439-1.
- Fettes, Mark; Norton, Ruth (2001). "Voices of Winter: Aboriginal Languages and Public Policy in Canada". In Castellano, Marlene Brant; Davis, Lynne; Lahache, Louise. Aboriginal education: fulfilling the promise. UBC Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7748-0783-8.
- Russell, Peter H (2005). "Indigenous Self-Determination: Is Canada as Good as it Gets?". In Hocking, Barbara. Unfinished constitutional business?: rethinking indigenous self-determination. Aboriginal Studies Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-85575-466-2.
- Rand Dyck (2011). Canadian Politics. Cengage Learning. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-17-650343-7.
- Stephen L. Newman (2012). Constitutional Politics in Canada and the United States. SUNY Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7914-8584-2.
- Shibao Guo; Lloyd Wong (2015). Revisiting Multiculturalism in Canada: Theories, Policies and Debates. University of Calgary. p. 317. ISBN 978-94-6300-208-0.
- Sonia Sikka (2014). Multiculturalism and Religious Identity: Canada and India. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7735-9220-9.
- "A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006-2009". Government of Canada. 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Theodore Caplow (2001). Leviathan Transformed: Seven National States in the New Century. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-7735-2304-3.
- Franklin, Daniel P; Baun, Michael J (1995). Political culture and constitutionalism: a comparative approach. Sharpe. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-56324-416-2.
- Garcea, Joseph; Kirova, Anna; Wong, Lloyd (January 2009). "Multiculturalism Discourses in Canada". Canadian Ethnic Studies 40 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1353/ces.0.0069.
- Emma Ambrosea & Cas Muddea (2015). "Canadian Multiculturalism and the Absence of the Far Right - Nationalism and Ethnic Politics". doi:10.1080/13537113.2015.1032033.
- Bricker, Darrell; Wright, John (2005). What Canadians think about almost everything. Doubleday Canada. pp. 8–28. ISBN 978-0-385-65985-7.
- The Environics Institute (2010). "Focus Canada (Final Report)" (PDF). Queen's University. p. 4 (PDF page 8). Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Magocsi, Paul R (2002). Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction. University of Toronto Press. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-0-8020-3630-8.
- Wisdom Tettey; Korbla P. Puplampu (2005). The African Diaspora in Canada: Negotiating Identity & Belonging. University of Calgary. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-55238-175-5.
- Tim Nieguth (2015). The Politics of Popular Culture: Negotiating Power, Identity, and Place. MQUP. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7735-9685-6.
- Maurice Charney (2005). Comedy: a geographic and historical guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 210–213. ISBN 978-0-313-32714-8.
- Mary Vipond (2011). The Mass Media in Canada (4 ed.). James Lorimer Company. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-55277-658-2.
- Ryan Edwardson (2008). Canadian Content: Culture and the Quest for Nationhood. University of Toronto Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8020-9519-0.
- David Monaghan (2013). "The mother beaver - Collection Profiles". The House of Commons Heritage. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 978-0-660-18615-3.
- Barry M. Gough (2010). Historical Dictionary of Canada. Scarecrow Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8108-7504-3.
- Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (2012). "Consolidation - Formal Documents Regulations" (PDF).
- "The Great Seal of Canada - Anthems and Symbols - Canadian Identity". Canadian Heritage. 2013. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Ruhl, Jeffrey (January 2008). "Inukshuk Rising". Canadian Journal of Globalization 1 (1): 25–30.
- Allen G Berman (2008). Warman's Coins And Paper Money: Identification and Price Guide. Krause Publications. p. 137. ISBN 1-4402-1915-X.
- "Phasing out the penny". Royal Canadian Mint. 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- W. J. Keith (2006). Canadian literature in English. The Porcupine's Quill. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-88984-283-0.
- William H. New (2002). Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 259–261. ISBN 978-0-8020-0761-2.
- K. V. Dominic (2010). Studies in Contemporary Canadian Literature. Pinnacle Technology. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-61820-640-4.
- K. V. Dominic (2010). Studies in Contemporary Canadian Literature. Pinnacle Technology. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-61820-640-4.
- Reingard M. Nischik (2000). Margaret Atwood: Works and Impact. Camden House. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-57113-139-3.
- William H. New (2012). Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8020-0761-2.
- Broadview Anthology of British Literature, The. Concise Edition, Volume B. Broadview Press. 2006. p. 1459. GGKEY:1TFFGS4YFLT.
- Robert Giddings; Erica Sheen (2000). From Page To Screen: Adaptations of the Classic Novel. Manchester University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7190-5231-6.
- Marylin J. McKay (2011). Picturing the Land: Narrating Territories in Canadian Landscape Art, 1500-1950. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7735-3817-7.
- Brock, Richard (2008). "Envoicing Silent Objects: Art and Literature at the Site of the Canadian Landscape". Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 13 (2): 50–61.
- Hill, Charles C (1995). The Group of Seven – Art for a Nation. National Gallery of Canada. pp. 15–21, 195. ISBN 978-0-7710-6716-7.
- Newlands, Anne (1996). Emily Carr. Firefly Books. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-55209-046-6.
- Pamela R. Stern (June 30, 2010). Daily life of the Inuit. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-313-36311-5.
- Geoffrey P. Hull; Thomas William Hutchison; Richard Strasser (2011). The Music Business and Recording Industry: Delivering Music in the 21st Century. Taylor & Francis. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-415-87560-8.
- Archibald Lloyd Keith Acheson; Christopher John Maule (2009). Much Ado about Culture: North American Trade Disputes. University of Michigan Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-472-02241-5.
- Edwardson, Ryan (2008). Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood. University of Toronto Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8020-9759-0.
- Frank Hoffmann (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Routledge. p. 324. ISBN 978-1-135-94950-1.
- Adam Jortner (2011). The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier. Oxford University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-976529-4.
- "'O Canada'". Historica-Dominion. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. June 23, 2008. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- Henry Roxborough, "The Beginning of Organized Sport in Canada", Canada (1975) 2#3 pp 30–43
- "National Sports of Canada Act". Government of Canada. November 5, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- "Vancouver 2010". The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
Geography and climate
Government and law
Foreign relations and military
Demography and statistics
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Canada from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Canada at DMOZ
- Canada from BBC News
- Canada from CIA World Factbook
- Canada profile from the OECD
- Canadiana: The National Bibliography of Canada from Library and Archives Canada
- Key Development Forecasts for Canada from International Futures
- Official website of the Government of Canada
- Official website of the Governor General of Canada
- Official website of the Prime Ministers of Canada