Canadian Federation of Students
|Key people||Jessica McCormick (Chairperson)|
|Office location||Ottawa, Ontario, Canada|
The Canadian Federation of Students (CFS) is the largest student organization in Canada. While formed in 1981, CFS in fact represents a long tradition of internationally-concerned, social justice-oriented, politically-critical national student organizations including the National Union of Students (Canada), the Canadian Union of Students, the National Federation of Canadian University Students, the Canadian Student Assembly, and the Student Christian Movement of Canada (SCM). Like national student organizations before them, the stated goal of the CFS is to represent the collective voice of Canadian students and work at the federal level for high quality, accessible post-secondary education.
- 1 Structure
- 2 History
- 3 Membership disputes
- 4 Legal cases (advocacy)
- 5 Government relations
- 6 Current political positions
- 7 Current campaigns
- 8 Services
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The name "Canadian Federation of Students" is generally used to designate three legally distinct organizations: the national CFS, one of the provincial components of the CFS, or CFS-Services.
CFS and CFS-Services share the same bylaws and decision-making structures. These structures include biannual general meetings, where every member students' union receives one vote regardless of its local membership, and an executive, which includes representatives of each provincial affiliate. In provinces where a significant number of students' unions are members of the CFS, the affiliated component (e.g. CFS-BC, CFS-Ontario) has its own general meetings and executive, the latter being formed by representatives of the local students' unions. In October 2009 CFS-Quebec ceased to operate as a recognized provincial affiliate of the CFS.
The CFS was officially formed on October 18, 1981, from the merger of two national organizations - the National Union of Students in Canada and the Association of Student Councils - and student federations from five Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan). The goal of the merger was to create a united student movement in Canada that could provide student-oriented services and political representation at the federal and provincial levels of government. Part of the impetus to organize came from the federal government's announcement of $2 billion of cuts from Established Program Financing (including cuts to federal transfer payments for health and education). Another impetus was raising tuition fees, which had been a major issue for CFS' precursor organization. the NUS, starting in the late 1970s.
The founding conference was held at Carleton University between October 14–19, 1981. Mike McNeil was elected as the organization's first Chairperson, along with Mike Walker (Treasurer), former NUS treasurer Kirk Falconer (International Affairs Commissioner), Kathie Cram (Women's Commissioner), Brian Robinson (Graduate Student Representative), Ben Freedman (Member at Large), and Leslie Neilson (Member at Large). The Federation's bylaws and constitution were finalized and over 50 motions were passed during the plenary. After hearing speeches by Salvadoran and Chilean students, delegates passed motions condemning human rights violations and anti-student policies in those countries.
A campaign strategy was also launched to oppose the federal government's planned cut to Established Program Financing (EPF). The slogan for the campaign was "Access not axe us" and it called for an establishment of an all-grant system and a public inquiry into the future of post-secondary education. The campaign also called for alliance building with community groups and public sector workers to gain support and fight against cutbacks to social programs. The campaign was named after a research report of the same name, by Bruce Tate. The report focused on effects of the Government of Canada's cutback to education and highlighted issues such as access and tuition fee levels.
The conference ended with a student presence in Question Period in the Canadian House of Commons, a meeting with Secretary of State Gerald Regan, and a one-on-one debate between Chairperson Mike McNeil and Member of Parliament John Evans (parliamentary secretary to Finance Minister Allan MacEachen) in the Snake Lounge at Carleton University. Delegates attending Question Period were denied entry by security guards. Mike McNeil and delegates were not satisfied with the outcome of the meeting with Gerald Regan.
Evolution of membership
In 1992, the CFS resolved that it would be a “partner in the International Student Trade, Environment and Development Program.” Member locals were urged “to consider hosting international guests from the US.A and Mexico during the fall of 1992 to contribute to the national dialogue of the effects on the education system of the North American Free Trade Agreement.” (CFS Minutes, May 24-3th Centre Universitaire Saint-Louis Maillet, Edmundston, New Brunswick).
The CFS reached a membership of 440,000 students from 65 member students' unions in 1993-1994.
Overall, 20 membership votes were held in 1994-1995, with the net result that 59 member students' unions formed the CFS in September 1996. 
Between 1995 and 2007, over twenty students' unions joined the CFS, including many graduate students' associations and part-time students' associations.
Several large undergraduate students' associations voted to certify during the same period. In 2002, the University of Toronto Students' Administrative Council, which had never been part of a national students' union before, voted to join the CFS. At the November 2005 Annual General Meeting of the Federation, the positive result of certification votes at both University of Manitoba Students' Union and the University of Saskatchewan Students' Union were ratified. The latter vote result was challenged by former USSU director, and in 2007, the courts ruled the vote to be of no force or effect. The CFS website continues to list the USSU as Local 17. In October 2007, USSU voted to keep prospective membership in the CFS and hold a referendum in the next two years; however, in September 2009 the USSU voted to rescind that motion and claims that its certification is void.
In March 2008, students at four campuses (Cape Breton University, Simon Fraser University, Kwantlen University-College, and Graduate students at University of Victoria) held votes to decertify with the CFS. The negative media coverage of the CFS was one of the reasons listed by the Kwantlen Student Association representatives for calling the decertification votes. Members at CBU, the SFU and the UVic (graduate students) voted to decertify. CFS representatives did not participate in the Cape Breton referendum, noting that the CBUSU failed to give proper notice. Fellow CFS members from other campuses participated in the Simon Fraser decertification vote, but then national chairperson Amanda Aziz stated that problems with the voting process could result in the outcome not being recognized by the CFS. The UVGSS result was not contested by the CFS. The Canadian Federation of Students petitioned the BC Supreme Court to postpone the Kwantlen referendum after Kwantlen Students Association representatives hired Schiffner Consultants to run the decertification vote (contrary to CFS bylaws but in accordance with KSA standard operating procedures). Then-KSA chairperson Laura Anderson claimed that the Federation was attempting to stall the vote, but the court granted the CFS the injunction and the decertification vote was rescheduled for April 2008. Three weeks after the referenda at SFU and UVic (graduate students), Kwantlen students voted to remain members of the CFS.
In the fall of 2008, the largest bilingual student association in Canada, the Student Federation of the University of Ottawa, re-joined the CFS.
In October 2009 students at Carleton, Guelph, and Concordia organized a decertification drive, resulting in petitions meeting the threshold necessary to initiate decertification votes. Students at the University of Victoria Students' Society, and the Graduate Student Association at the University of Calgary collected enough signatures to initiate a decertification vote.
In the spring of 2010, undergraduate students at the University of Guelph and the Alberta College of Art and Design and graduate students at the University of Calgary and McGill University attempted to hold decertification votes. Only the Alberta College of Art and Design vote followed the CFS bylaws for decertification. Several irregularities in the conduct of the students' unions at McGill and Calgary were citied by the CFS as reasons for invalidating the decertification votes.
In March 2011, undergraduate students at the University of Victoria voted to decertify from the CFS.
In January 2012, students of Laurentian University at Georgian College in Barrie joined the CFS as the Laurentian Students' Union (Local 111). In a February 7, 2012 article that appeared in The Concordian, it was reported that the CFS was alleging that the Concordia Students' Union owed $1.8 million in unpaid membership dues going back as far as the 1990s. Lex Gill, then-president of the CSU firmly denied the CFS's claim.
In March 2014, Capilano university students voted by referendum to terminate their membership.
The CFS is a defendant in a suit launched by the Concordia Students' Union seeking recognition of a decertification vote in 2011. The National Executive refused to grant a decertification vote before $1.8 million in alleged outstanding membership fees were remitted. The then-president of the Concordia Students' Union, Lex Gill, firmly denied this claim: "I am completely firm in my conviction that we do not owe the CFS $1.8 million and never have." In 2015, CFS Entities and CSU reached an agreement that the CSU "membership has been terminated." The Concordia Graduate Student Association (GSA) has also terminated its membership. The details of the agreement remain confidential. 
Simon Fraser University
The CFS is currently the defendant in a case brought by the Simon Fraser Student Society (SFSS) at Simon Fraser University over the validity of a decertification vote in March 2008. After a summary trial was rejected, the judge ruled that the SFSS had the option of holding another vote or continuing to resolve the legality of the disputed decertification through a trial. The judge urged both parties to consider settling the matter out of court before spending large amounts of money on a full length trial. In early January, 2012, the CFS/CFS-Services/CFS-British Columbia and the SFSS agreed to an undisclosed settlement and ceased all court action.
University of Guelph
The Central Student Association representing undergraduate University of Guelph students submitted an injunction on February 16, 2010 against the CFS and its affiliates  for denying the student association a decertification vote as a result of a dispute over the validity of a petition required to initiate decertification.
Without providing reasons for judgement, Justice O'Connor of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice ordered that a decertification vote be conducted and administrated by a referendum oversight committee (ROC) based on CFS bylaws (consisting of two representatives selected by the CFS and two representatives selected by the student association). Justice O'Connor modified the committee by appointing former Ontario Superior Court Justice James Chadwick as a fifth member of the committee to act as an independent third party to break deadlocks should the two parties disagree on administration of the vote.
The court-ordered decertification vote was conducted online in early April 2010. Guelph students allegedly voted 73.5% in favour of decertification in an online poll conducted by the university administration. On CFS and CFS-O appealed Justice O'Connor's decision and the matter was held on May 31, 2011. Unfortunately, the application Judge, Justice O'Connor failed to provide any reasons for his decision, meaning it was impossible to review the appeal. The Appeals Court Judges ordered the matter be heard by a different Judge.
University of Victoria
The University of Victoria Students' Society (UVSS) representing undergraduate University of Victoria students submitted legal action against the CFS in November 2010 to seek a vote on decertification. The dispute centered around a petition submitted by UVic student Jose Barrios in the Fall of 2009 that had the required 10% of signatures needed to initiate decertification. In Spring 2010, the CFS National Executive rejected this petition because hundreds of students signed a second petition calling for their names to be removed from Barrios decertification petition list. In November 2010, Barrios initiated legal action against the CFS.
Mr. Justice Malcolm D. Macaulay of the Supreme Court of British Columbia heard oral arguments from both sides on January 6 and 7, 2011. On February 1, 2011, Justice Macaulay ruled that the use of a 'counterpetition' to nullify the original petition 'must fail' and ordered that the process to hold a referendum on continued membership must move forward. On the applicability of the second 'counterpetition', Justice Macaulay wrote: “The national executive of the CFS invoked a process that was not contemplated by the bylaws in effect at the time and, as a result, applied an irrelevant consideration in determining that the petition was not in order. The adoption of a process outside the bylaws amounted to an excess of jurisdiction.”
The CFS refused to grant a decertification vote until the UVSS paid $100,000+ in outstanding membership dues. The UVSS rejected the claim that it owed money  and took the CFS to court on February 17. The UVSS argued that by bringing up this issue so late, the CFS was making an intentional move to delay a vote from occurring before the end of the 2010-2011 academic year. Justice Macaulay ruled for the vote to take place regardless of outstanding dues. In March 2011 UVic undergraduate students voted to decertify the Canadian Federation of Students. The National Federation recognized the result, but the CFS-BC refused, claiming the vote did not apply to the provincial affiliate. A subsequent legal battle ensued, leading to a new successful UVSS petition effort to trigger a CFS-BC membership vote. In 2013, one month before the UVSS was scheduled to vote on its CFS-BC membership, the CFS-BC voted to terminate the UVSS's membership, marking the official end of all UVSS membership ties to the Canadian Federation of Students.
Legal cases (advocacy)
Student loan bankruptcy
The legally separate but closely related affiliate, the Canadian Federation of Students-British Columbia (CFS-BC), in participation with the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and British Columbia Teachers' Federation, won a case against Translink for refusing to put CFS-BC Vote Education advertising on buses that Translink deemed to be partisan advertising during an election. The case was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada, where it ruled that Translink's actions violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and in doing so, the Court set the precedent that "arms-length" government agencies such as Translink do come under Charter scrutiny.
A large part of the CFS' mandate is to lobby the federal government from its national office in Ottawa. Over the years, CFS representatives have testified to dozens of House of Commons committees, including the Standing Committee on Finance and the Standing Committee on Humans Resources Development and Persons with Disabilities (student loans). In 2009, the CFS national chairperson was invited to deliver a workshop on lobbying policy-makers at a conference hosted by the Federated Press.
In addition to the ongoing testimonies and meetings, the CFS holds an annual Lobby Week that brings together dozens of students from across Canada to meet with their local Members of Parliament and Senators. In 2010, over 175 meetings were held to lobby for more affordable post-secondary education.
Current political positions
In 2004, the CFS joined the coalition Canadians for Equal Marriage.
Boycott of Israel
On August 20, 2014, the Ontario branch of the Canadian Federation of Students, representing more than 300,000 university students, passed a motion to boycott Israel, by joining the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (or BDS) Movement in support of Palestine. This motion received no opposition at the Annual General Meeting, and was said to “endorse a number of solidarity tactics that have been called for by Palestinian civil society," by one of the group's executive members. The motion was put forward by Ryerson University Students' Union, whose president went on record as stating that universities should not “remain complicit” through investments and ties with academic institutions that support or profit from what he termed “Israeli war crimes,” while making no mention of his views on Hamas.
Criticism to the resolution has included several concerns: (1) It falls outside of the mission and vision of the organization, and by boycotting Israeli academics, this would actually go against one of the CFS' objectives "to provide a common framework within which students can communicate, exchange information, and share experience, skill and ideas."  (2) It may shut down dialogue and stifle debate. (3) It has been declared undemocratic, and was passed during a time when most students are not in class. (4) Its calls for a comprehensive set of punitive measures against Israel alone, as the only country singled out for condemnation, at the expense of addressing the world’s worst human rights violators, would be an example of a double standard against the State of Israel. This had led to legitimate concerns that the action could be perceived as anti-Israel, rather than pro-Human Rights, activism. (5) The BDS movement's strong affiliation with Students for Justice in Palestine and other members who have engaged in anti-Semitic actions, has undermined its credibility, leading Canadian MPs to denounce the BDS movement as hateful, deceitful and representative of a “new anti-Semitism poisoning our Canadian campuses.” 
The CFS actively lobbies on tuition-related issues, including holding rallies and national "days of action" to address such issues as tuition freezes and reductions in student loans. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the only province where all public college and university students' are members of the CFS, students pay the second-lowest average undergraduate tuition fees in Canada. There, tuition fees were reduced by 25% in the 1990s and have remained frozen. The current Progressive Conservative government has pledged to keep the freeze in place until the end of their mandate, and recently eliminated the interest on the provincial portion of student loans.
Rock the Vote
The CFS has also been involved with attempting to increase turnout (particularly among students and young people) in elections. For example, in 2005 CFS-British Columbia (the provincial chapter of the CFS), the Langara Students' Union and the Corus Entertainment owned radio station C-FOX led a "non-partisan" campaign registering young voters in BC called Rock the Vote BC, based on the Rock the Vote campaign drives used by the Republican and Democratic parties in the 2004 US election to register young voters. Elections BC did not endorse the initiative because of concerns of partisanship.
The CFS was one of several groups admonished by the Commissioner of Canada Elections in October 2002 for having failed to submit an elections advertising report by the established deadline. The Commissioner notes that the report was filed by CFS in May 2002.
Aboriginal student issues
The National Aboriginal Caucus is the mechanism with the CFS by which Aboriginal students can organize campaigns. The Caucus has its own budget and runs campaigns such as Where's the Justice for Aboriginal Peoples.
Graduate student issues
The Canadian Federation of Students is the only student organization in Canada with a distinct graduate caucus that elects its own directors and operates with its own budget. Known as the National Graduate Caucus (NGC), 60,000 graduate students at 31 campuses across Canada currently comprise the NGC.
Commercialization of research
The NGC campaigns to oppose commercialization of university research because its research shows that pressures from industry partners can threaten academic freedom and the public interest. It points to cases such as those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy as examples of commercialization run amok.
In 2006 the NGC began working with Christopher Radziminski, alumnus from the University of Toronto, to support his battle with the University of Toronto and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) over research conducted with ERCO Worldwide. The former student alleges that a drinking water experiment in Wiarton, Ontario was not accurately reported in scholarly journals, posing a serious health risk to Canadians. The NGC is supporting a judicial review of NSERC's decision not to press for an investigation at the University of Toronto.
The NGC has an active campaign to reduce fees charged to graduate students after their residency period. Graduate student unions affiliated to the NGC urge graduate students to sign pledges that they will not make alumni donations until their university reduces post-residency fees.
The NGC has been lobbying the federal government in partnership with several organizations over current reform of the Canadian Copyright Act. This involves a letter writing campaign to MPs and participation in developing the Creative Commons project.
The NGC advocates for increased graduate student funding in the form of scholarships and training programmes.
The Canadian Federation of Students-Services (CFS-Services) is a legally separate branch of the Federation, founded in the early 1980s as the successor organization to the Association of Students' Councils Canada (AOSC). Services made available to individual student members or member students' unions of the CFS include:
- Travel CUTS and the International Student Identity Card (see below);
- the StudentSaver Discount Card;
- the Student Work Abroad Program (SWAP);
- the National Student Health Network (NSHN), a non-profit health and dental benefits buying consortium;
- a handbook and dayplanner producing service, which aims to reduce the cost per handbook to the individual students' unions, through economies of scale;
- Website Service, a comprehensive web authoring solution for students' unions that allows them to easily publish and maintain database driven websites.
Travel CUTS (Canadian Universities Travel Service) is a travel agency that was majority-owned and operated by CFS-Services (CFS-S), which operates in Canada and the United States. In 2009, Travel CUTS was sold to Merit Travel Group.
As a member of the International Student Travel Confederation, Travel CUTS is the Canadian issuing agent for the International Student Identity Card (ISIC), an internationally recognized student identification that also provides access to discounts on travel. Services at Travel CUTS are not restricted to members of the CFS, but full members can obtain an ISIC at no charge. The ISIC is considered to be the most direct financial benefit associated with CFS membership.
In 1996, the University Students' Council at the University of Western Ontario initiated a lawsuit against CFS-Services, to be later joined by three other student societies (Alma Mater Society of the University of British Columbia, Queen's Alma Mater Society and University of Alberta Students' Union). The plaintiffs "alleged the CFS-Services illegally transferred assets from the AOSC, including Travel CUTS, to itself at a 1987 meeting". A settlement was reached in 2006 through which the plaintiffs acquired 24 per cent of Travel CUTS and two seats on its board of directors.
- "About the CFS - Principles". Canadian Federation of Students. 2002. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
- "Bylaws" (PDF). Canadian Federation of Students. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- "CFS - About". Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- "CFS-Ontario contacts". Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Terry Yuk Shing Wu (1985). "Federal Contributions to Postsecondary Education Under the Established Programs Financing: Trends and Implications". Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Moses, Nigel (June 2004). "Forgotten Lessons: Student Movements Against Tuition Fee Hikes in Ontario in the 1960s and 1970s". trans/forms, insurgent voices in education. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Nancy Boyle, "CFS: Working together for change" The Charlatan, October 22, 1981.
- Ben Schaub "International policy workshop focuses on human rights", The Charlatan, October 22, 1981
- Bob Cox, "Access not axe us" The Charlatan, October 22, 1981
- Susan Sherring, "Evans spars with hostile crowd of students", The Charlatan, October 22, 1981
- Susan Sherring, "Students not welcome to sit in House of Commons" The Charlatan, October 22, 1981
- "CFS unites Student Voice" The Ubyssey, October 22, 1981
- John Besley (May 29, 1995). "CFS continues to fight pull-out referenda". The Peak. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Erica Simpson (February 5, 2002). "SAC joins Canadian Federation of Students". The Strand. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Macleans.ca staff (August 28, 2007). "Canadian Federation of Students loses appeal and U of S membership — Precedent-setting decision may affect McGill's upcoming membership referendum". macleans.ca.
- USSU (October 11, 2007). "University Students' Council Minutes" (PDF (SEE P. 331)).
- USSU (September 17, 2009). "University Students' Council Minutes" (PDF (SEE PP. 183&NDASH;184)).
- Erin Millar (2008-04-11). "Simon Fraser, Victoria and Cape Breton vote to leave the CFS". Macleans OnCampus. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- "David Karp "CFS goes to BC Supreme Court to delay Kwantlen referendum"". The Gateway. March 19, 2008. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Laura Anderson, "MEDIA RELEASE // Canadian Federation of Students files BC Supreme Court Petition to halt Student Referendum" [Kwantlen Student Association]'s 'Defederation' Campaign, http://studentunion.ca/cases/kwantlen08/KSA%20-%20Canadian%20Federation%20of%20Students%20files%20BC%20Supreme%20Court%20Petition%20to%20halt%20Student%20Referendum%20-%20March%2011,%202008.pdf
- Erin Millar (2008-04-11). "Kwantlen votes to stay in the CFS". Macleans OnCampus. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Samya Kullab (2008-09-27). "Another one rides the CFS bus". The Varsity. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- Karstens-Smith, Gemma. (April 1, 2011). UVic students vote no to CFS. The Martlet Retrieved from http://cupwire.ca/articles/45297
- Canadian Press (2014-08-20). "Ontario university students unions vote to join boycott against Israel". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Daniel Koren (2014-08-22). "Ontario Students Pass BDS Resolultion". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Tammy Wolinsky (2014-08-22). "With Us or Against". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Surprise, Surprise: Student Union Boycotts Israel". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- http://cfs-fcee.ca/about/mission-and-vision/. Missing or empty
- Jen Gerson (2014-04-04). "Ryerson student union becomes only the latest to support Israel Boycott campaign". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Jason Reiskind (2014-08-20). "UN human rights inquiry on Gaza inherently biased". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- ShalomLife Team (2014-08-21). "Jewish Student Physically and Verbally Assaulted by Palestinian Students". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Ynet News (2014-08-13). "Irish Pro-Palestinians Remove Israeli Products in Belfast Supermarket". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Elliot Hamilton (2014-08-22). "Op-Ed: Losing Patience with Students for Justice in Palestine’s anti-Semitism". Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Statistics Canada (2005-09-01). "University tuition fees". Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (2009-03-26). "Newfoundland and Labrador Budget 2009". Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Scott Newman. The (CFS)-Files. The Peak, Simon Fraser University's Student Newspaper. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- Megan Stewart. Political, not partisan, says Rock the Vote. Martlett — University of Victoria's independent newspaper. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
- "House of Commons—Private Bills" (PDF). Canada Gazette Part I 136 (43). 2002-10-26.
- National Graduate Caucus, Canadian Federation of Students. Accessed July 27, 2008:<http://www.cfs-fcee.ca/ngc/english/ngc.php>
- CFS - National Graduate Caucus
- Alex Kazia, Naushad Ali Husein, Jade Colbert, "Welcome to your corporate campus," The Varsity, Accessed July 27, 2008: <http://www.thevarsity.ca/article/3219-welcome-to-your-corporate-campus>
- Feds draw on study of controversial chemical for new drinking water guidelines
- CFS - Media
- "Canadian Federation of Student on Copyright Reform", The Creator's Copyright Coalition, April 29, 2008 <http://www.creatorscopyright.ca/op-ed/2008-04-29/canadian-federation-of-students-on-copyright-reform
- CFS - Services
- "Report concerning the Canadian Federation of Students - Benefits of membership" (PDF). Student Federation of the University of Ottawa. July 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-02.[dead link]
- Smusiak, Cara (2006-03-03). "Travel CUTS lawsuit settled". Queens Journal (Queens University). Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Shearon, Kimberley (2006-03-03). "Travel Cuts suit settled". The Charlatan. Retrieved 2008-08-31.