Canadian Internal Waters
Canadian Internal Waters is a Canadian term for the waters on the landward side of the baselines of the claimed territorial sea of Canada. The area includes, but may not be limited to, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, Queen Charlotte Sound, Hecate Strait, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the Bay of Fundy, and the Northwest Passage.
Most countries, including Canada, define their internal waters according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. UNCLOS is ratified by 160 states and entities including the European Union.
The legal status of a section of the Northwest Passage is disputed: Canada considers it to be part of its internal waters, fully under Canadian jurisdiction according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The United States and most maritime nations consider them to be an international strait, which means that foreign vessels have right of "transit passage". In such a régime, Canada would have the right to enact fishing and environmental regulation, and fiscal and smuggling laws, and laws intended for the safety of shipping, but not the right to close the passage.
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