Canadian Light Rail Vehicle

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CLRV
CLRV 4059 Glamour Shot.jpg
A 506 Carlton car crosses the Main Street Bridge.
ManufacturerL1: SIG
L2: UTDC
Constructed1977–1981[1]
Number built196
Number in service67[1]
Number scrapped129
Fleet numbersL1: 4000–4005
L2: 4010–4199
Capacity42–46 seated*, 74 at peak with standees[1]
*during rebuilds 4 seats removed
Operator(s)Toronto Transit Commission
Depot(s)Roncesvalles, Russell (Connaught)
Line(s) servedToronto Streetcar System
Specifications
Car length15.226 m (49 ft 11 in)[2]
Width2.540 m (8 ft 4 in)
(2.591 m or 8 ft 6 in over rub rails)[2]
Height3.625 m (11 ft 11 in)[2]
Floor height1.125 m (3 ft 8 in)[2]
Platform heightcurb height or level with rail head
Entry4 steps (3 risers inside plus step up from outside)
Doors2 (1 dual bi-fold front door; 2 paired double leaf rear doorways)
Maximum speed80 km/h (50 mph)[3]
Weight22,685 kg (50,012 lb)
Power output2 x 136 kW (182 hp) continuous
Acceleration1.47 m/s2 (4.8 ft/s2) or 5.3 km/(h⋅s); 3.3 mph/s
Deceleration1.6 m/s2 (5.2 ft/s2) or 5.8 km/(h⋅s); 3.6 mph/s
Emergency: 3.46 m/s2 (11.4 ft/s2) or 12.5 km/(h⋅s); 7.7 mph/s
Electric system(s)600 V DC overhead
Current collection methodTrolley pole
Minimum turning radius10.973 m (36 ft)
Braking system(s)Air (Westinghouse Air Brake Company)
Track gauge4 ft 10 78 in (1,495 mm) – TTC gauge
ALRV
TTC Bombardier ALRV 4239.jpg
ManufacturerMAN and UTDC
Urban Transportation Development Corporation
Constructed1982 (prototype)
1987–1989[1]
Number built52 and 1 prototype
Number in service0
Number scrapped50 and 1 prototype
Fleet numbers4900 (prototype)
4200–4251 (standard)[1]
Capacity61 seated, 108 at peak with standees[1]
Operator(s)Toronto Transit Commission
Line(s) servedToronto Streetcar System
Specifications
Car length23.164 m (76 ft 0 in)[4]
Width2.540 m (8 ft 4 in)
(2.591 m or 8 ft 6 in over rub rails)[4]
Height3.626 m (11 ft 11 in) to roof; roof equipment additional[4]
Floor height1.125 m (3 ft 8 in)[2]
Platform heightcurb height or level with rail head
Entry4 steps (3 risers inside plus step up from outside)
Doors3
Articulated sections1 section with 2 articulations
Maximum speed80 km/h (50 mph)[3]
Weight36,745 kg (81,009 lb)
Power output4 × 65 kW (87 hp) continuous
Acceleration1.2 m/s2 (3.9 ft/s2) or 4.3 km/(h⋅s); 2.7 mph/s
Deceleration1.6 m/s2 (5.2 ft/s2) or 5.8 km/(h⋅s); 3.6 mph/s
Emergency: 3.13 m/s2 (10.3 ft/s2) or 11.3 km/(h⋅s); 7.0 mph/s
Electric system(s)600 V DC Overhead
Current collection methodTrolley pole
Minimum turning radius36 ft (10.973 m)
Braking system(s)Air (Westinghouse Air Brake Company)
Track gauge4 ft 10 78 in (1,495 mm) – TTC gauge

The Canadian Light Rail Vehicle (CLRV) is a streetcar used by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).Two variants have been produced: the standard single-module CLRV and the longer articulated double-module Articulated Light Rail Vehicle (ALRV).

The last two ALRVs were officially retired on September 2, 2019; the remaining CLRVs are expected to be retired by the end of 2019.[5][6]

History[edit]

CLRV[edit]

Starting at the end of the 1970s and into the 1980s, the TTC's fleet of PCC streetcars approached (or exceeded in some cases) the end of their useful lives. Many Toronto citizens, and especially a group known as "Streetcars for Toronto" led by Steve Munro, had fought successfully against the TTC's plan to convert the remaining streetcar lines to buses, which necessitated a new streetcar model to replace the aging PCCs. The "Canadian Light Rail Vehicle" was an attempt at a new, standardized streetcar design to be used in Toronto and in other new streetcar developments throughout the country. There was also a similar attempt of this "standardized vehicle" concept made in the United States around the same time with the US Standard Light Rail Vehicle, with cars built by Boeing Vertol for Boston's Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority and the San Francisco Municipal Railway.

Hawker Siddeley Canada proposed their version of a streetcar in 1972 known as the Municipal Service Car, which had a bus-like chassis and a semi-low floor design with front and rear doors similar to that of the CLRV fleet. The project was abandoned the following year when the TTC selected the CLRV design. No Municipal Service Car prototypes were ever produced and only concept drawings remain of this vehicle.

The first six CLRV cars (4000–4005) were manufactured by SIG of Zurich, Switzerland, and used as prototypes for Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC) (now Bombardier) to manufacture subsequent CLRVs at the Thunder Bay works of Hawker Siddeley Canada (today also part of Bombardier). The original order was for 200 CLRVs, of which ten were to be built by SIG and 190 by Hawker Siddeley. However, the order was reduced by four vehicles to 196 in order to provide parts to construct a prototype Articulated Light Rail Vehicle (number 4900). The four CLRVs removed were from the SIG portion of the order; thus, there were no CLRVs numbered 4006–4009. The 190 Hawker Siddeley CLRVs were numbered 4010–4199.[7][2] CLRV car 4000 had a pantograph when being tested by SIG on the Orbe-Chavornay railway and was converted to trolley pole before being delivered to Toronto.[2]

On December 29, 1977, the first CLRV, SIG-built 4002, arrived at the Hillcrest Complex aboard a railway flatcar. On September 30, 1979, after a year of testing and modification, CLRVs started service on route 507 Long Branch (today the western portion of route 501 Queen).[7]

Twenty-two CLRVs were to run on an open-track Scarborough LRT line (to be later built as an ICTS line). Thus, for suburban operation, the UTDC originally specified an outside-frame bogie that later proved problematic in street operation,[7] and designed the vehicles for speeds up to 110 kilometres per hour (70 mph). The bogies would derail at switches in street trackage and have noise and vibration problems.[8] Replacing the original Bochum wheels with SAB wheels (similar to PCC wheels) corrected these problems. The Bochum wheels had a rubber layer between the hub and the steel tire (rim), which would flex rather than pulling the opposite wheel through a single-point switch.[9]

The CLRV electronics include 1970s-era solid state power controls. In later years, the propulsion control system became unreliable and difficult to maintain as obsolete electronic and electrical parts became difficult to source.[9]

The CLRVs originally had sealed windows and no air conditioning. Later, the windows were modified to allow passengers to open them.[9]

The CLRVs were delivered with couplers for multiple-unit operation. Between 1984 and 1988, the couplers were removed, and a safety shield was placed over the front coupler pocket.[2]

ALRV[edit]

As with the CLRV prototypes, the ALRV prototype, numbered 4900, was tested with a pantograph on standard gauge tracks before delivery to the TTC. Built in 1982, prototype 4900 had features that were not implemented on either CLRVs or production ALRVs such as hand controls instead of foot controls, and electronic destination signs instead of linen rollsigns.[4] The prototype had couplers while subsequent production units did not.[10]

Prototype 4900 ran trials in Toronto from August 10, 1982, until February 25, 1983, with a break when it was displayed at the 1982 Canadian National Exhibition. After completion of the trial runs, car 4900 was stored at the St. Clair Carhouse until March 7, 1987, when it was shipped to the UTDC testing facility in Kingston, Ontario. On March 24, 1988, following a test run, it was rear-ended by another streetcar on the test track and suffered extensive damage. It was scrapped in 1997.[4]

The 52 production ALRV cars were built by UTDC using bogies and articulations supplied by MAN SE of Germany. Assembly of the first 11 cars took place in Thunder Bay, while that of the remaining 41 cars took place in Kingston. They are numbered 4200–4251.

The first production ALRV, number 4200, was shipped to Toronto on June 11, 1987. It underwent further testing and modifications after its arrival. Car 4204 was the first of the production ALRVs to go into revenue service, doing so on the 507 Long Branch route on January 19, 1988.[4]

Marketing[edit]

The previous attempt (made in the United States) to design a US standard light rail car was unsuccessful, and the resulting cars proved troublesome to both transit systems that had purchased them. While the CLRV had fared better for Toronto's streetcar system, other cities in both the US and Canada expressed little interest in the design, which thus remained almost exclusive to Toronto's streetcar system. This made the cars increasingly difficult and costly to maintain, as they required specially-made parts, including electronic modules no longer available.

In 1980, cars 4027, 4029 and 4031 were leased and tested by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) to run on the Green Line.[11] During this time, the cars were occasionally operated as two- and three-car trains. However, the MBTA did not adopt the CLRV design for its light rail fleet.[2]

Other than the TTC, the UTDC had only one other buyer for its light rail products. The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority purchased 50 vehicles that were double-ended and articulated. They were subsequently sold second hand to Sacramento and Salt Lake City.[2]

CLRVs were built with couplers for multiple-unit control. Although not used in Toronto, the CLRV could be configured for double-end operation and high-platform boarding.[7]

Characteristics[edit]

The design and operation of the CLRVs and ALRVs carried over features from the highly successful PCCs that they replaced, having a similar interior layout, and the same two green bull's-eye lights in the upper corners of the front, above the destination sign, which uses back-lit roller boards. Braking and acceleration were controlled by the operator with the same pedal layout used on the PCC's, including the dead man's switch which was used to apply the parking brake when the vehicle was not in motion.

Other features include fluorescent lighting and chopper controls to save energy.[7]

Unlike the CLRVs, the ALRVs have a large box sitting on the roof of each of the two articulated sections. Each box houses an air intake to ventilate the larger ALRV interior. All of the TTC's ALRVs were delivered without couplers, and a safety shield covers both of the empty front and rear coupler pockets.[4] Compared with the CLRVs, the ALRVs had limited acceleration due to their extra weight and because trolley pole pickup limited the amount of power they could draw.[9]

When the CLRVs and ALRVs were delivered in the 1970s and 1980s respectively, they were equipped with gongs as the sole audible warning signal. Most cars were retrofitted with horns in the late 1990s to combat automobile accidents when the 510 Spadina right-of-way streetcar opened. Initially, the horns were salvaged from retired H1 and M1 subway cars which were replaced by the T1 subway cars. However, during the CLRV/ALRV streetcar fleet overhaul project between 2011 and 2012 the TTC reconfigured the streetcar horns with new air horns or automobile-type electric horns.[2]

CLRV 4041 with roof-mounted air conditioning unit

CLRV 4041 is the only member of the CLRV/ALRV fleet to have an air conditioning unit, which the TTC installed in 2006. The unit was a long roof-mounted box with beveled sides that gave 4041 a look distinct from that of other CLRVs. TTC operator Stanley Mamaraj[who?] described 4041's air conditioning as "The cool air comes down. You can feel it, it's nice and cool."[12] However, after a ride on 4041, Steve Munro[who?] described the air conditioning as "nowhere near as aggressive as it is on some buses or on the T1 subway cars. Moreover, depending on where you are in the car, you may not feel the effect at all because the cool air does not blow out evenly. When I rode back north on a non-A/C car, I sat beside the open window and was actually cooler than I had been on 4041."[13]

Starting in 2006, the TTC installed a Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) security camera system on all surface vehicles including the CLRV/ALRV fleet as well as buses. The system is to deter crime on vehicles and help catch trouble-makers. It uses four cameras to make high-quality images stored in a 24-hour loop.[14]

Until at least 2014, CLRV/ALRV streetcars, as well as buses, used a 1970s, pager-like communication system for Transit Control to communicate with operators. It was essentially a text-based system that could send messages to 10 vehicles at a time, and each operator had to acknowledge the message before Transit Control could communicate with other operators. In 2014, the TTC requested funding for a new radio system.[15]

A promotional graphic published by the TTC in 2009 illustrated that an ALRV could replace 55 automobiles carrying 61 passengers (assuming 1.11 passengers per auto) during the AM rush.[16]

Since December 2015, the CLRVs and ALRVs have accepted fare payments by Presto card and have since been installed system-wide including all TTC buses and subway stations as of December 2016.[17]

To coincide with the Presto rollout on the CLRV/ALRV fleets, the TTC also introduced a proof-of-payment (POP) system across all streetcar routes in the TTC network (including the CLRV and ALRV streetcar fleets and the aforementioned replacement shuttle buses that operate in place of streetcars) in an effort to speed up services. The POP system allows riders with proof of payment—such as a paper transfer, TTC pass or Presto card—to board at any door of the vehicle. Riders are subject to random fare inspections, and riders paying by cash or token continue to have to board at the front door of the vehicle to pay at the farebox and are required to take a paper POP transfer from the driver to show when requested.[18]

Operator training[edit]

The TTC's LRV training simulator, located at the Hillcrest Complex

A mockup of a CLRV which was used to train new streetcar operators is located at Hillcrest. The training simulator consisted of an operator cab, front steps and part of the front of a streetcar.[19]

Operators also train with a real streetcar. The signs on the vehicle identify it as a training car.

Later years[edit]

Since 2014, the CLRV and ALRV streetcars have been in the process of being retired and replaced by low-floor Flexity Outlook vehicles, the first of which were first put into service on the 510 Spadina route.[20] The reasons for replacement are accessibility as well as the age and declining reliability of the CLRV and ALRV fleets.

Accessibility[edit]

The CLRV/ALRV cars, like the PCCs, have high floors and steps at every doorway, and are therefore not wheelchair accessible, severely limiting their use by people with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the doors are separated by vertical stanchions in the centre of each doorway, making each opening too narrow to accommodate wheelchairs, making accessibility retrofits more difficult and costly. With the passage of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) mandating all public transport to be fully accessible by 2025, the TTC saw the need to replace them with accessible vehicles as early as 2005. TTC staff explored a number of possible means to make the old fleet wheelchair-accessible, including constructing level boarding platforms, lowering the track level, installing wheelchair lifts, and attaching wheelchair-accessible trailers, but concluded that none of these options were practical,[21][22] and replacing the cars was the best option.

In 2008, the TTC installed automatic stop announcements on all surface vehicles, including the CLRVs and ALRVs, to satisfy the requirements of the AODA. An LED device displays stop names in text, accompanied by a recorded voice announcing the stop names. This is to aid riders with hearing and vision problems.[22][23] In 2016, the TTC announced it would also install external announcement systems on all of its surface vehicle fleet, again including the CLRVs and ALRVs, to announce the route and destination of the vehicle to passengers waiting to board.[24]

The TTC initially intended to have all streetcar routes fully accessible by the end of 2019 through the exclusive use of Flexity Outlook vehicles. Despite this goal, it announced plans in 2015 to use some high-floor inaccessible CLRV/ALRV vehicles to supplement the low-floor accessible Flexity Outlook streetcars during peak hours on selected routes until approximately 2024, when projections indicated it would have enough of the Flexity vehicles available to provide accessible service on all streetcar routes.[24] By June 2019, however, the TTC planned to retire the remainder of the CLRV/ALRV fleet by the end of 2019 as originally scheduled.[5]

Winter operational issues[edit]

During the polar vortex winter seasons of 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019, many of the CLRV and ALRV streetcars broke down operating in temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) due to their age. On one of the worst days in January 2014, 48 streetcars failed to run for the morning rush hour.[25] On December 28, 2017, when the temperature was again −20 °C, 45 older streetcars could not leave the carhouse.[26] During an extreme cold snap from January 20 to 22, 2019, the TTC withdrew all CLRV/ALRV cars from service due to the high risk of the cars breaking down in the cold weather. Instead, only Flexity Outlook streetcars were used and supplemented by buses.[27]

The older streetcars use pressurized air passing through tubes and valves to operate such things as suspension, braking, windshield wipers, doors and the rail sander (for traction under icy conditions). Condensation can freeze and block the air tubes causing a variety of malfunctions. Over time, salt erodes the air tanks and the tubing gets brittle and leaks leading to less efficient air flow which may cause the compressor beneath the tail of the car to overheat and break down.[25]

To address these problems in December 2015, the TTC performed fixes taking 2–3 days per streetcar to implement. These included the installation of new air tanks and filters, the replacement of old tubing to the windshield wipers, repairs on the valves controlling air flow to the rail sanders, overhaul of the brake valves, and the correction of any suspension system deficiencies.[25]

Bus substitutions[edit]

Buses have temporarily replaced streetcars on some routes because of a streetcar shortage. The reasons for this are the declining reliability of the aging CLRV/ALRV fleet, delays in the delivery of new replacement vehicles,[28] and the increase in ridership on other streetcar routes.[29] as well sometimes during an extreme cold snap which causes some of these vehicles to not operate properly.

In January 2017, the TTC claimed that delays in delivery of the new wheelchair-compatible and air-conditioned Flexity Outlook streetcars had resulted in both streetcar and bus shortages. Because the old CLRV/ALRV streetcars require extra maintenance, only 170 of the 200 old streetcars could be put into service. This shortage lead to the replacement of streetcars by buses on some routes, which in turn lead to a reduction of service on some bus routes.[28][30]

On February 19, 2018, the TTC replaced the CLRV streetcars on routes 505 Dundas and 506 Carlton with buses, and reassigned those streetcars to other routes such as 504 King and 511 Bathurst to handle crowding from increased ridership. (Ridership on 504 King increased by 25% since the implementation of a pilot transit mall along downtown King Street.) However, some reassigned CLRV streetcars went to end the bus substitution on 511 Bathurst.[29][31] Streetcar service on route 506 Carlton resumed on September 2, 2018, while replacement buses were brought back to route 511 Bathurst on that same date, but returned to streetcars as of June 23, 2019.

Replacement parts[edit]

As the TTC's CLRV/ALRV streetcar fleet has aged, many parts used by these older streetcars are no longer available from outside suppliers. If a CLRV or ALRV is damaged in a breakdown, collision or derailment, parts need to be replaced or be bent back into shape. For this purpose, the TTC employs a blacksmith to craft and repair parts. The blacksmith also supplies tools such as switch irons and towing drawbars for streetcars.[32]

The use of salt brine to de-ice city streets has corroded parts on the older streetcars so much that such parts must often be cut off the car. The TTC Harvey Shops must manufacture some of the replacements sections, such as the chevrons which attach the bogies to the car body. The upholstery department constructs the bellows used between the articulated sections of the ALRV. Each set of bellows takes 240 hours to construct from a vinyl-like material using electric sewing machines.[33]

Refurbishment[edit]

In 2006, the TTC was planning to refurbish 100 CLRVs to extend their life and possibly to add air conditioning. This plan was shelved by December 2016, and the only visible outcome was that CLRV 4041, effectively a prototype for refurbishment, became the only CLRV with air conditioning, sporting a visually distinct air conditioning unit on its roof.[12][9]

In June 2015, the TTC started a program to rebuild and extend the life of 30 CLRVs and 30 ALRVs because of delays in delivery of the new Flexity streetcars. 56 employees were assigned to work on this program. Refurbishing each ALRV was expected to take about 55 days and cost $800,000. The cost for each CLRV was expected to be about $200,000. The total cost was budgeted at $33.1 million. The work was to be completed by 2017.[33][34]

The refurbishment of 30 ALRVs alone was budgeted at $24.5 million, with an option to refurbish another 10. The remaining 12 ALRVs were to be stripped of useful parts and scrapped. The refurbishments included repairing corrosion, repainting, installing new energy-efficient LED lights, upgrading the floors, refreshing the seats, and overhauling the pneumatic, brake and traction systems. This was expected to extend the life of the cars until 2024.[35][34] The first renovated ALRV (4217) entered service on October 15, 2015.[36] However, the TTC stopped the ALRV refurbishment program after completing 20 cars at a cost of $26 million. The TTC hoped to have 10 of the refurbished ALRVs in service on any given day, but found that only two or three were fit for service with the others awaiting repairs mainly due to electrical problems. Because of budget constraints, the refurbishing had excluded electrical work.[34]

Retirement[edit]

Row of retired CLRVs and ALRVs at the Leslie Barns. Note that CLRV 4102 (retired 2017) is missing parts.[37]

The CLRV and ALRV cars are being gradually retired from service as more new Flexity low-level streetcars arrive and enter service. It was expected in 2015 that the last ALRV/CLRV vehicles would be retired by 2024.[35] In 2016, the TTC proposed to use 30 to 40 ALRVs to supplement Flexity streetcars until 2024 to address increased ridership.[24] However, by September 2018, the ALRV fleet had so deteriorated that the TTC indicated they intended to use the few ALRVs to supplement some rush-hour services.[38] In May 2019, the TTC ran the remaining ALRV fleet for 926 km (575 mi) after it had been grounded since late 2018. One ALRV had a failure in its compressed air system. In mid-2019, the remaining ALRV fleet (about 10 vehicles) remained on standby for supplemental service.[39]

The remaining ALRVs were officially retired from service on September 2, 2019. On that date, ALRVs 4204 and 4207 made commemorative last runs during the afternoon, shuttling along Queen Street between Russell Carhouse (Queen and Greenwood) and Wolseley Loop (Bathurst and Queen) with free rides for the occasion.[6] The TTC intends to retain and preserve one ALRV as a legacy vehicle.[40]

As of September 2019, 44 CLRVs were in service.[41] The TTC plans to retire the remaining in-service CLRVs by the end of 2019.[5]

Some of the retiring CLRV and ALRV streetcars were auctioned off in bulk to museums and collectors, but most were broken up for scrap starting in 2015.[35] Some noteworthy retirements include:

Decommissioning schedule
as of February 2019[42][43]
Year CLRV ALRV Total
2013 1 0 1
2014 1 1 2
2015 7 0 7
2016 16 5 21
2017 30 0 30
2018 28 31 59
2019 113 15 128
Total 196 52 248
  • CLRV 4063 was the first to be retired. In 2006, it was intended to be the first prototype for the TTC's CLRV overhaul program, which was to include a complete reconstruction of the body as well as new propulsion and control systems. However, after the car was stripped, the overhaul program was cancelled. Because of a diminishing supply of spare parts for the active fleet, it was decided that the unit would be scrapped and all usable parts be salvaged for repairs to the existing fleet. The shell was sold for scrap in March 2009 to Future Enterprises of Hamilton, Ontario.[37]
  • ALRV 4231 was retired in mid-2014 and was used to supply parts until its scrapping in May 2015. It was the first ALRV to be retired and scrapped.[44]
  • CLRV 4062 was the second CLRV retired, after it suffered a serious collision with TTC bus 7807 on December 27, 2014.[45] Previously, the TTC repaired CLRVs damaged in collisions, even those heavily damaged. Instead CLRV 4062 was retired in January 2015.[37]
  • CLRV 4162, retired in March 2015, was the third CLRV to be retired but the first because of age, wear and tear.[37]
  • CLRV 4005 was retired in May 2015 and scrapped in July 2015. It was the first of the six SIG-built CRLVs to be retired.[37]
  • CLRV 4000, the first CLRV by number and one of the six SIG CLRVs built, was shipped to a Hamilton scrap yard on December 9, 2017 from the Leslie Barns.[46]

Coverage[edit]

As of September 1, 2019, the remaining CLRVs can be found on the following routes:

Routes 501 Queen, 504 King, 508 Lake Shore, 509 Harbourfront, 510 Spadina and 512 St. Clair have been fully converted to low-floor Flexity streetcars, while streetcars on routes 502 Downtowner, 503 Kingston Road and 505 Dundas have been temporarily replaced with accessible TTC buses due to construction projects or a shortage of available streetcar vehicles.[47][1][5][48][49]

See also[edit]

Similar vehicles[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Service Summary – September 1, 2019 to October 12, 2019" (PDF). Toronto Transit Commission. September 1, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bow, James (December 3, 2017). "The Canadian Light Rail Vehicles (The CLRVs)". Transit Toronto. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  3. ^ a b TTC – The Coupler – Wheels of Progress Archived January 28, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Toronto Transit Commission. Retrieved on March 16, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Bow, James (January 30, 2017). "The Articulated Light Rail Vehicles (The ALRVs)". Transit Toronto. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d "Chief Executive Officer's Report – May 2019 Update" (PDF). Toronto Transit Commission. May 8, 2019. p. 43. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Bañares, Ilya (August 28, 2019). "Monday is your last chance to ride the TTC's old, articulated streetcars". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 30, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e Thompson, John (January 5, 2018). "The car that saved Toronto's streetcars". Railway Age. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  8. ^ Munro, Steve (October 21, 2007). "A Short History of the CLRV". Steve Munro. Archived from the original on January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018. Indeed, the original plans for the Scarborough line were based on CLRV operation. However, the engineers working on this had only a vague grasp of transit basics, and they determined that the new cars had to travel at up to 70mph (roughly 110kph) for suburban operations. ... Further problems ensued because the wheels chosen for these vehicles were incompatible with our track, notably at switches where cars tended to derail. This problem was fixed, eventually, along with the worst of the noise and vibration issues by a change to the type of wheel we now see on the CLRVs, itself a descendent of the PCC design.
  9. ^ a b c d e Munro, Steve (December 29, 2006). "New Streetcars Sooner, Not Later?". Steve Munro. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  10. ^ Munro, Steve (June 16, 2010). "Multiple Unit CLRV and ALRV Operation". Steve Munro. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  11. ^ "4029 and 4031 at Arborway Station in Boston, Massachusetts". Archived from the original on May 26, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  12. ^ a b "First Air Conditioned TTC Streetcar Unveiled". CityNews. July 26, 2006. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  13. ^ Munro, Steve (July 21, 2006). "The Air Conditioned Streetcar". Steve Munro. Archived from the original on January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  14. ^ "T.T.C. Starts Camera Installation On Buses & Streetcars". CityNews. October 30, 2006. Archived from the original on November 1, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  15. ^ Kupferman, Steve (December 17, 2013). "You'll never believe how ancient the TTC's technology actually is (there's a blacksmith involved)". Toronto Life. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  16. ^ "2013 TTC Operating Statistics". Toronto Transit Commission. 2013. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018. Unlocking Gridlock
  17. ^ "TTC PRESTO Fare System". Toronto Transit Commission. 2018. Archived from the original on October 27, 2018. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  18. ^ "TTC Proof of Payment (POP)". Toronto Transit Commission. 2018. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  19. ^ Bateman, Chris (September 29, 2014). "The TTC's new life-sized streetcar simulator is not a toy—but it looks like one". Toronto Life. Archived from the original on September 30, 2014. Halfway down a long corridor inside the TTC's Hillcrest facility, on Bathurst Street, there's a room marked "streetcar simulator." Inside is a state-of-the-art training device on which the next generation of TTC streetcar drivers will earn their wheels.
  20. ^ Kim Brown (August 31, 2014). "New TTC streetcars make their debut". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on September 1, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2014. Torontonians taking the Spadina streetcar might have noticed something different when they stepped on board today. That's because the Toronto Transit Commission has finally launched the first of its new streetcars.
  21. ^ "Accessible Transit Services Plan – 2006 Status Report". Toronto Transit Commission. February 22, 2006. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  22. ^ a b "Accessible Transit Services Plan: 2008 Status Report, and Status of Accessibility Standards". Toronto Transit Commission. February 18, 2009. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  23. ^ Lostracco, Marc (December 28, 2007). "Hero: TTC Automated Announcements". The Torontoist. Archived from the original on October 31, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
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General[edit]

External links[edit]