Canadian Pacific 2816

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Canadian Pacific 2816
CPR 2816 Locomotive.JPG
The Canadian Pacific 2816 Empress on an excursion in 2008.
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
BuilderMontreal Locomotive Works
Serial number68535
Build dateDecember 1930
 • Whyte4-6-4
Gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Driver dia.75 in (1.9 m)
Length91 ft 1 in (27.76 m)
Adhesive weight194,000 lb (88 t)
Loco weight351,200 lb (159.3 t)
Total weight643,100 lb (291.7 t)
Fuel typeCoal (Converted to burn oil during restoration)
Fuel capacity17 short tons (15 t)
Water cap12,000 imp gal (55,000 l; 14,000 US gal)
Boiler pressure275 psi (1.90 MPa)
Cylinder size22 in × 30 in (559 mm × 762 mm)
Performance figures
Power output4,700 hp (3,500 kW)
Tractive effort45,254 lbf (201.30 kN)
OperatorsCanadian Pacific Railway
Official nameEmpress
Last runMay 26, 1960
DispositionIn storage

Canadian Pacific 2816, named Empress, is a 4-6-4 H1b Hudson type steam locomotive built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1930 for the Canadian Pacific Railway. After being used for heavy passenger service, the locomotive was retired in 1960 and donated to Steamtown, USA at Bellows Falls, Vermont in 1964. After an extensive restoration, the locomotive returned to service in 2001 and was used by the Canadian Pacific Railway in occasional excursion service until 2012. The 2816 is the only non-streamlined H1 Hudson to have survived into preservation.

First career[edit]

No. 2816 was one of ten H1b-class (the "H" meant the 4-6-4 wheel configuration, the "1" was the design number and the "b" meant it was the second production run) 4-6-4 Hudson built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in late 1930.[1] It was first assigned to the line between Winnipeg and Fort William, Ontario.[1] Later, it was transferred to service between Windsor, Ontario, and Quebec City, and finally it ran a commuter train between Montreal and Rigaud, Quebec.[1] It made its last run on May 26, 1960, after more than 2 million miles (3.2×10^6 km) in active service.[2] In January 1964, the locomotive was sold to Steamtown, USA, which evolved into the Steamtown National Historic Site in 1986.[1]


CP 2816 on static display at Steamtown, USA Bellows Falls, Vermont, C. 1978

When Steamtown USA moved from Bellows Falls, Vermont, to Scranton, Pennsylvania, in the 1980s, No. 2816 was relocated to the new site with the rest of the collection.[1] When the National Park Service took over from the Steamtown Foundation, No. 2816 moved to the Steamtown National Historic Site, and the NPS decided to divest itself of foreign locomotives.[1] In September 1998, the Canadian Pacific purchased No. 2816 after hearing of its availability from the crews who were running the Royal Hudson No. 2860, who had been looking for parts for 2860 and were offered the entire locomotive.[3]

The locomotive was transported from Scranton to Montreal via Binghamton and Albany, New York, before being shipped cross country to the BC Rail steam shops in Vancouver for restoration. The locomotive was completely stripped down and rebuilt, "the most thorough rebuild undertaken on a steam locomotive in North America since the end of their era" according to CPR News.[4] The restoration team was able to use over 800 technical drawings of CPR Hlb class locomotives from the Canada Science and Technology Museum to completely restore 2816 to its 1950s appearance and to its original specifications.[4] During restoration, the locomotive was converted to burn oil and equipped with modern amenities such as a radio and a diesel control unit. The restoration took over two years and cost over $2,000,000, making it one of the most costly locomotive restorations in Canada. CPR was confident in the restoration enough to announce on April 19, 2000, that 2816 would become an ambassador for the railway in the railway's new heritage steam program.[2]

Excursion career[edit]

In September 2001, the locomotive made its first trial run from the BC Rail steam shops to its new home of Calgary.[5] It then rejoined the Canadian Pacific fleet as a special excursion locomotive and for public relations. Among other uses, 2816 is used to raise money for school lunch programs and the Children's Wish Foundation.[6]

Between 2001 and 2012, 2816 travelled across Canada and the United States. The 2816 is one of the most well-known locomotives in North America, along with Milwaukee Road 261, Southern Pacific 4449, Union Pacific 844, Union Pacific 3985, Santa Fe 3751, Norfolk & Western 611, Norfolk & Western 1218, Pere Marquette 1225, Nickel Plate 765 and Royal Hudson 2860.

At the end of the 2008 season, Canadian Pacific put the steam program on hold (with exception of previously promised engagements) due to financial issues caused by the poor economy. 2816 did not operate at all in 2009, although the steam program was able to take advantage of this down time to do some extensive maintenance work on 2816 and its passenger car fleet. 2816 returned to operation on June 6, 2010. It was used in Rocky Mountain Express, a 2011 IMAX film which follows the locomotive on a journey from Vancouver to Montreal while telling the CPR's history.

In 2012, Canadian Pacific CEO Fred Green stepped down and E. Hunter Harrison succeeded him.[7] Harrison had no interest in running steam locomotive operations and discontinued the steam program.[7] Because of this, No. 2816's excursion operations were ceased and the locomotive is in storage at Calgary with its future in limbo.[7]

Picture gallery[edit]

Preservation and other remaining H1 Hudsons[edit]

Of the five surviving Canadian Pacific Hudsons out of the original 65 built between 1929 and 1940, the 2816 is the only survivor of the non-streamlined H1a and H1b classes built in 1929 and 1930 numbered 2800–2819. The four other remaining sister engines to 2816 are the semi-streamlined Royal Hudsons numbered 2820–2864. The remaining Royal Hudsons are numbers 2839 (H1c), 2850 and 2858 (both H1d) and the 2860 (H1e). Currently, 2816 and 2860 are the only operating 4-6-4 Hudsons in North America; no American 4-6-4 Hudsons are operational.


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Canadian Pacific Railway No. 2816". National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Stephens, Bill (July 2000). "CP 4-6-4 2816 to head program". Trains. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. 60 (7): 20. ISSN 0041-0934.
  3. ^ Smith, Ian (October 2001). "CPR 2816 Reborn for 21st-Century Service" (PDF). Branchline. Bytown Railway Society. pp. 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Rebirth of a mechanical Wonder". CPR News (2). 2001.
  5. ^ "CPR 2816 Back in Steam After 40 Years" (PDF). Canadian Rail. Canadian Railroad Historical Association. Winter 2002. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  6. ^ "2816 Empress steam train launches tour benefiting the Children's Wish Foundation of Canada". May 24, 2011. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Gunnoe, Chase (November 19, 2015). "CP or NS: which has a soul for preservation?". Trains. Archived from the original on February 25, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2019.

External links[edit]