Canadian Pacific Hotels

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Canadian Pacific Hotels (CPH) was a division of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) that primarily operated hotels across Canada. CPR restructured the division as a subsidiary in 1963.[1]

                      Empress Hotel, Victoria BC, 2013                                      Château Frontenac, Quebec City QC, 2009

Early hotels[edit]

Place Viger Hotel & station, Montreal, c.1900

Since passenger revenue made a significant contribution to railway profitability,[2] facilities, such as hotels, were essential for attracting passenger traffic. The three earliest locations (Mount Stephen House, Glacier House and North Bend) were initially only dining stops, necessary because steep railway grades made hauling a dining car uneconomical.[3] Thomas Sorby's design for these three hotels was inspired by Swiss Chalets.[4]

Former CP hotel, Balfour BC, 1918

Hotels were established mainly at locations that connected with other passenger rail or ferry routes, but some rural locations, especially in the Canadian Rockies/Selkirk Mountains, became tourist destinations in their own right. After the success of the original Banff Springs Hotel, described as a "Tudor chalet in wood",[5] CPR lobbied the government to create Banff National Park, the first in Canada.[6] Indisputably, national parks protected CPH's commercial interests in such localities.[7] The opportunity to participate in mountaineering excursions, led by professional Swiss guides, featured in CPH's promotion of the respective accommodation.[8] Scenic images, often including a hotel, illustrated the CPH publicity brochures.[9]

Urban and township land sales financed the construction of the early hotels.[10] In the late-19th to early-20th century, CPH commonly adopted a châteauesque architectural style for building, or enlarging, significant hotels.[11] The earliest example was Château Frontenac.[12] Notable features included steeply pitched copper roofs, blue-green from oxidation, ornate gables, dormer windows, and an irregular placement of towers and turrets.[13]

The visual appeal of this design prompted other railway companies to imitate it.[14] CPR, or its later competitors, Canadian Northern Railway and Grand Trunk Pacific Railway that became Canadian National Railway (CN), built grandiose railway hotels in every major Canadian city.[15] However, CPR quickly reverted to a simpler style of a flat roof and limited ornamental features when designing most city hotels.[14]

With growing automobile traffic, and tourists seeking cheaper accommodation, CPH retained only the more profitable urban and destination hotels. The resort hotels opened in summer only.[16] Year round opening began in 1969 for Banff Springs Hotel,[17] and in 1974 for Chateau Lake Louise.[18]

Bungalow camps & tea houses[edit]

French River Bungalow Camp, ON, c.1945

Each bungalow camp, comprising a group of cabins with a communal lodge, was in a relatively remote forest area, reached by hiking or horseback. Although initially catering to an elite, mainly American, tourist, they ultimately attracted a broader audience. The log cabin at Lake Louise (1891–1893) was perhaps a forerunner to this concept.[19] The subsequent adoption of the log design not only created a pioneer appearance, but also provided the necessary insulation for a cold mountainous region.[20] CN copied the concept at Jasper Park Lodge.[21] Despite the rustic cabin exteriors, the interiors contained the modern comforts of the period.[22] Presented as more adventurous than a hotel stay, it was scarcely roughing it.[23] Although primarily in the west, Ontario also had three camps.

The CPH rest structures and teahouses, at scenic locations along nearby trails, similarly adopted a rustic design. Teahouses existed at Summit Lake, Twin Falls, Natural Bridge, Lake Agnes and the Plain of Six Glaciers, the latter two still operating. Most rest houses were one-storey cabins at lower elevations.[24]

CPH initially encouraged automobile travel by building camps along the Banff-Windermere Highway, which opened in 1923.[23] In the 1930s, the term "bungalow" disappeared from the Canadian lexicon. When automobile vacationers switched to inexpensive campgrounds at this time, CPH disposed of the least profitable bungalow camps, followed by the remainder in the 1950s.[25]

Later hotels[edit]

After a 24-year break in building or acquiring properties, CPH constructed a series of hotels and motels during 1955–1999. The larger ones mostly adopted the "Chateau" prefix. Several international properties were operated, before exiting that market.

Chains acquired[edit]

Jasper Park Lodge on Lac Beauvert, Jasper AB, 2005

In 1988, CPR purchased the Canadian National Hotels chain, making Canadian Pacific Hotels and Resorts the nation's largest hotel owner.[26] In 1998, CPR purchased the Canadian Delta Hotels chain[27] and the international Princess Hotels chain.[28] The following year, San Francisco-based Fairmont Hotels and Resorts chain was acquired. Minority shareholders were Kingdom Hotels (USA) Ltd. and Maritz Wolff & Co, each holding a 16.5 per cent interest. All CPH properties were branded as either Fairmont or Delta. In 2001, CPH was renamed Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.[29] Later that year, Canadian Pacific Limited spun off all of its subsidiaries into separately traded companies, which included Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.[30]

In 2006, Kingdom Hotels International and Colony Capital, which also owned the Raffles and Swissôtel chains, bought Fairmont.[31] The following year, BC Investment Management Corp. bought Delta Hotels.[32] In 2015, AccorHotels acquired a controlling interest in FRHI, adding the Fairmont, Raffles, and Swissôtel chains to its Luxury Hotel Brands portfolio.[33] That year Marriott International bought the Delta chain.[34]

Canadian portfolio[edit]

Once under CP brand[edit]

Bungalow camps[edit]

Name Opened
[35]
Locality Disposals/Redevelopment
Emerald Lake Bungalow    1901 Emerald Lake BC 1959[25] beginning of several lessee changes;[36] 1979 Pat & Connie
O'Connor acquired.[37] Fairmont appears to still hold crown lease.[38]
Moraine Lake Bungalow    1913 Moraine Lake AB 1930s sold.
Lake O'Hara Bungalow    1920 Lake O'Hara BC 1954 Brewster-Ford Mountain Lodges;[39] lodge still operates;[40]
Fairmont appears to still hold crown lease.[41]
Lake Windermere Bnglw.    1920 Lk. Windermere BC 1929 sublease for girls' camp.[42] Fairmont appears to still hold crown lease.[43]
Wapta Lake Bungalow    1921 Wapta Lake BC 1954 subleased;[25]
Storm (Castle) Mtn. Bnglw.    1922 Storm Mountain BC 1930s subleased;[25] Storm Mountain Lodge.[44]
Yoho Valley Bungalow    1922 Yoho Nat. Park BC 1954 subleased;[25] The Whiskey Jack Hostel is the only surviving building.[45]
Radium (Sinclair) Hot
Springs Bungalow
   1923 Radium BC 1948 subleased to Addison;[46] 2001 Addison's Bungalow Camp relocated.[47]
Vermilion River Bungalow    1923 Vermilion River BC 1929 closed; 1932 subleased to Victor H. Lord, who revived it;[48]
now known as Kootenay Park Lodge; several subsequent sublessees.[49]
Devil's Gap Bungalow    1923 Kenora ON 1961 sold to Austin H. Ford;[50] 2008 abandoned;
2019 partially destroyed by fire.[51]
Nipigon River Bungalow    1923 Nipigon ON 1935 sold to Don Gapen, who ran as Chalet Lodge for several decades;
2018 Red Rock First Nation, refurbished and reopened.[52][53]
French River Bungalow    1923 French River ON 1945 sold to Clarence Honey; 1965 beginning of several ownership changes;
1988–92 major renovations followed by 3 owners; now French River Lodge.[54][55]

Hotels[edit]

Name Opened Locality From chain/owner CP Hotels 1999 rename[29]        Disposals/Redevelopment       
Grand Hotel c.1875 Caledonia
Springs
ON 1905 unknown Grand Hotel 1915 closed; 1920 demolished.[56]
Mount Stephen House 1886
1902(extn)
Field BC N/A Mount Stephen
House
1918 YMCA hostel;[57]
1954 largely demolished;
1963 remainder demolished.[58]
Glacier House 1887
multi(extn)
Glacier BC N/A Glacier House 1925 closed; 1929 demolished.
Fraser Canyon House
[59]
1887(1st)
1928(2nd)
North Bend BC N/A N. Bend Hotel 1927 fire destroyed; 1929 rebuilt;[60]
1941 closed;[61] 1978 demolish.[59]
Hotel Vancouver (1st) 1888[62] Vancouver BC N/A Hotel Vancouver 1915 demolished after main section
of new hotel completed.[63]
Banff Springs Hotel 1888(1st)
1914(extn)
1928(extn)
Banff AB N/A Banff Springs
Hotel
The Fairmont
Banff Springs
.
[64]
1926 fire destroyed wooden 1888
building, leaving only 1914
concrete wing.[65]
The Algonquin Resort 1889(1st)
multi(extn)
1914(2nd)
multi(extn)
St. Andrews NB 1905 St. Andrews
Land Co.
[66] The
Algonquin
Resort
The Fairmont
Algonquin
.
1914 fire destroyed 1889 building;
2012 sold; 2013 Marriott
Autograph Collection.[67]
Cornwallis Hotel[68] 1892(1st)
1930(2nd)
Kentville NS 1911 Dominion
Atlantic

acquired
Cornwallis Inn 1963 Franklin brothers; 1976 closed;
Don Wallace appt/off. conversion.[69]
Château Frontenac 1893
1924(extn)
Quebec City QC N/A Château
Frontenac
Fairmont
Le Château
Frontenac
.[70]
Chateau Lake Louise 1894(1st)
multi(extn)
1912(extn)
multi(extn)
Banff AB N/A Chateau
Lake Louise
Fairmont
Chateau
Lake Louise
.[71]
1924 fire destroyed wooden
building, leaving only 1912
concrete wing.[72]
Hotel Revelstoke 1897[73] Revelstoke BC N/A Hotel
Revelstoke
1928 closed.[73]
Place Viger Hotel/Stn. 1898 Montreal QC N/A Place Viger
Hotel/Stn.
1935 closed & disused;
2020 under redevelopment.[74]
Manoir Richelieu 1899(1st)
1929(2nd)
La Malbaie QC 1998 Ray
Malenfant
Manoir
Richelieu
Fairmont
Le Manoir
Richelieu
.[75]
1928 fire destroyed 1899 building.
Hotel Sicamous 1900[66] Sicamous BC N/A Hotel Sicamous 1932 leased out; 1956 closed;[76]
1964 demolished.[73]
private residence c.1900 St. Andrews NB 1907 Henry
Osburn
[77] The Inn[78] 1919 land swap with town;[77]
1937 destroyed.[79]
Station Hotel[78] 1901 McAdam NB N/A McAdam
Hotel/Stn.
1959 closed;[80] now museum.
The Pines, Digby 1903(1st)
1929(2nd)
Digby NS 1917 Harry B.
Churchill
The Pines,
Digby
1928 closed 1903 building;
1965 Nova Scotia govt. property;
2001 NS Signature property.[81][82]
Royal Alexandra Hotel 1906[66] Winnipeg MB N/A Royal
Alexandra
1967 closed; 1971 demolished.[83]
The Empress (hotel) 1908
multi(extn)
Victoria BC N/A The
Empress
The Fairmont
Empress
.[84]
Kootenay Lake Hotel 1911[73] Balfour BC N/A Kootenay
Lake Hotel
c.1915 closed; 1917 sanitorium;
1929 destroyed.[73]
Château Laurier 1912
multi(extn)
Ottawa ON 1988 Canadian
National
Château
Laurier
Fairmont
Chât. Laurier
.[85]
Cameron Lake
Chalet/Station
1912[73] Cameron
Lake
BC N/A Cameron Lake
Chalet
1966 closed;[86]
1970 demolished.[87]
Incola Hotel
(or) Hotel Incola
1912[73] Penticton BC N/A Incola Hotel
(or) Hotel Incola
1942 leased to local syndicate;[88]
1950 sold to Hencott Houses;[89]
1959 sold to Jack C. Young;[90]
1966–1975 multiple owners;[91]
1979 closed; 1981 demolished.[73]
Palliser Hotel 1914
1929(extn)
Calgary AB N/A Palliser
Hotel
The Fairmont
Palliser
.[92]
Hotel Macdonald 1915
1953(extn)
Edmonton AB 1988 Canadian
National
Hotel
Macdonald
Fairmont Hotel
Macdonald
.[93]
1983 demolition of 1953 extension.
Hotel Vancouver (2nd) 1916 Vancouver BC N/A Hotel Vancouver 1939 repurposed as World War II
barracks; 1946 veteran housing;
1948 vacated; 1949 demolished.
Jasper Park Lodge
cabins first; main lodge 1923;
more buildings, replace main
lodge 1953; more buildings.
1922
1923(1st)
1953(2nd)
Jasper AB 1988 Canadian
National
Jasper Park
Lodge
Fairmont
Jasper Park
Lodge
.[94]
1952 fire destroyed 1923 lodge.
Newfoundland Hotel 1926(1st)
1982(2nd)
St. John's NL 1988 Canadian
National
Hotel
Newfoundland
The Fairmont
Newfoundland
.
2009 Sheraton Newfoundland.[95]
Hotel Saskatchewan 1927 Regina SK N/A Hotel
Saskatchewan
1980 onwards various operators;
1993 Radisson property;[96]
2015 Marriott
Autograph Collection.[97][98]
Lord Nelson Hotel 1928
multi(extn)
Halifax NS N/A Lord Nelson
Hotel
1947 sold to local interests.[99][100]
Royal York Hotel 1929
1959(extn)
Toronto ON N/A Royal York
Hotel
The Fairmont
Royal York
.[101]
Château Montebello 1930 Montebello QC N/A Château
Montebello
Fairmont
Le Château
Montebello
.[102]
1930 leased by Seigniory Club;
1970 CP resumed operation.
Lakeside Inn 1931[103] Yarmouth NS N/A Lakeside Inn 1960 sold to be nursing home.[104]
Hotel Vancouver (3rd) 1939 Vancouver BC 1988 Canadian
National
Hotel
Vancouver
Fairmont Hotel
Vancouver
.[105]
Timberline Hotel 1955[106] Banff AB 1963 Timberline
Hotel Ltd.
[107] Timberline Hotel 1966 terminated lease;[108]
2005 renamed the Juniper Hotel
by Decore Hotels.[109][110]
The Queen Elizabeth
Hotel
1958 Montreal QC 1988 Canadian
National
Queen
Elizabeth
Hotel
Fairmont
The Queen
Elizabeth
.[111]
Chateau Lacombe Hotel 1966 Edmonton AB N/A Chateau
Lacombe Hotel
1991 Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza;
1995 Crowne Plaza Chateau
Lacombe; 2013 independent.
Château Champlain 1967 Montreal QC N/A Château
Champlain
1995 Montreal Marriott
Château Champlain.[112]
Winnipeg Inn then
Westin Hotel Winnipeg
1970[113] Winnipeg MB 1998 Westin
Hotels
The Lombard The Fairmont
Wpg.[113][114]
Le Baron Hotel 1970[115] Trois-Rivières QC N/A Le Baron Choice Hotel Urbania;
c.2012 rename Rodeway Inn.[116]
North Star Inn 1971[117] Winnipeg MB N/A North Star Inn 1983 Delta; 1998 Radisson.[118][119]
Red Oak Inn 1972[120] Brandon MB N/A Red Oak Inn c.1982 Royal Oak Inn;
1990 Genesis acquired;
2017 Choice Clarion
Hotel & Suites.[121][122][123]
Hotel Beauséjour 1972[124] Moncton NB 1988 Canadian
National
Hotel
Beauséjour
Deltaª
Beauséjour.[125]
Chateau Halifax 1973[126] Halifax NS N/A Chateau Halifax Deltaª Halifax. 2019 SilverBirch Hotel Halifax.
[127][128][129]
Red Oak Inn 1974[130] Thunder Bay ON N/A Red Oak Inn 1993 Victoria Inn Hotel
& Convention Centre[121][131]
Red Oak Inn 1974[132] Peterborough ON N/A Red Oak Inn 1998 Princess Gardens
seniors residence.[133][134]
Le Château
de l'Aéroport
1977 Mirabel QC N/A Le Château
de l'Aéroport
2002 hotel abandoned;
2004 airport abandoned.
Chateau Calgary
Airport
1979[135] Calgary AB N/A Chateau
Calgary Apt.
Deltaª Calg. Apt
In-Terminal.[136]
Prince Edward Hotel 1982[137] Charlottetown PE N/A Prince Edward
Hotel
Deltaª Prince
Edward.[138]
Sheraton Toronto Apt. 1982[139] Scarborough ON 1998 Sheraton
[140]
Deltaª
Toronto E.[139]
L'Hôtel 1984 Downtown
Toronto
ON 1988 Canadian
National
L'Hôtel 1993 InterContinental Crowne
Plaza Toronto Centre;
2003 rename InterContinental
Toronto Centre.[141]
Hotel/Lodge Kananaskis 1987[142] Kananaskis
Village
AB N/A Hotel/Lodge
Kananaskis
Deltaª Lodge
at Kananaskis.
2015 Marriott Pomeroy
Kananaskis Mtn. Lodge.[142][143]
Chateau Whistler 1989[144] Whistler BC N/A Chateau
Whistler
The Fairmont
Chateau
Whistler.[145]
Skydome Hotel 1989[146] Downtown
Toronto
ON N/A Skydome Hotel 1999 Renaissance Toronto Dtn;[147]
2017 rename Toronto
Marriott City Centre Hotel.[148]
Waterfront Centre 1991[149] Vancouver BC N/A Waterfront
Centre
The Fairmont
Waterfront.[150]
Chateau Mt. Tremblant 1996[151] Mt-Tremblant QC N/A Chateau Mt.
Tremblant
Fairmont
Tremblant.[152]
Vancouver Airport Place 1999[153] Richmond BC N/A Vancouver
Airport Place
The Fairmont
Vancouver Airport[154]
ª Marriott prefix added to name after 2015 acquisition.

Once under Delta brand[edit]

(See Delta Hotels)

US/international portfolio[edit]

Once under CP brand[edit]

Bahamas

  • Balmoral Beach Hotel, Nassau, Bahamas - now Sandals Royal Bahamian Resort
  • Lucayan Harbour Inn and Marina, Freeport, Bahamas, demolished to build Grand Bahama Yacht Club

Curaçao

  • Curaçao Plaza, Willemstad - now Plaza Hotel Curaçao

Germany

Israel

Mexico

United States

  • Franklin Plaza, Philadelphia, operated 1979–1984 - now Sheraton Philadelphia Downtown.

Acquired Fairmont properties[edit]

Name Opened Locality Disposals/Redevelopment
The Fairmont New Orleans    1893 Downtown New Orleans, Louisiana 2005 closed; 2007 sold; 2009 reopened by
Waldorf Astoria as The Roosevelt New Orleans
[155][156]
Fairmont San Francisco    1907 San Francisco, Northern California [157]
The Plaza    1907 Midtown Manhattan, New York City [158]
Fairmont Copley Plaza    1912 Downtown Boston, Massachusetts [159]
The Fairmont Dallas    1969 Downtown Dallas, Texas [160]
Fairmont Chicago    1987 Chicago, Illinois [161]
The Fairmont San Jose    1987 Downtown San Jose, Southern California [162]

Acquired Princess properties[edit]

Name Opened
[163]
Locality 1999 rename Disposals/Redevelopment
The Hamilton Princess    1884 Pembroke, Bermuda The Fairmont
Hamilton Princess
[164]
Pierre Marques    1958 Acapulco, Mexico The Fairmont
Pierre Marques
2015 independent: The Pierre Mundo Imperial [165][166]
Acapulco Princess    1971 Acapulco, Mexico The Fairmont
Acapulco Princess
2015 independent: The Princess Mundo Imperial [165][167]
The Southampton Princess    1972 Southampton Parish, Bermuda The Fairmont
Southampton
[168]
Princess Glitter Bay    1981 Saint James, Barbados The Fairmont
Glitter Bay
2004 sold;
c.2006 converted to Royal Glitter Bay Villas.
[169]
Royal Pavilion    1987 Saint James, Barbados The Fairmont
Royal Pavilion
[170]
Scottsdale Princess    1987 Scottsdale, Arizona The Fairmont
Scottsdale Princess
[171]


Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Gazette, 11 Jan 1964". www.newspapers.com. p. 81. For Canadian Pacific hotels, 1963 was a year of diversification. A new subsidiary, Canadian Pacific Hotels Limited, was set up to operate hotel and motor hotels under management….
  2. ^ Lam 2011, p. 25.
  3. ^ Finch, David A.A. (1987). "A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway in Glacier National Park, B.C., 1884–1930" (PDF). www.parkscanadahistory.com. Environment Canada. p. 64.
  4. ^ Lam 2011, p. 86.
  5. ^ Lam 2011, p. 97.
  6. ^ Lam 2011, pp. 41–44, 66.
  7. ^ Young & Coates 2016, p. 282.
  8. ^ Young & Coates 2016, p. 277.
  9. ^ Lam 2011, pp. 4, 56.
  10. ^ Kalman 1968, p. 11.
  11. ^ Lam 2011, p. 103.
  12. ^ Kalman 1968, p. 12.
  13. ^ Lam 2011, p. 102.
  14. ^ a b Kalman 1968, p. 19.
  15. ^ Lam 2011, p. 1.
  16. ^ "Canadian Pacific Hotels brochure, 1919". www.library.ubc.ca. p. 1.
  17. ^ "Travel to and within Canada on Canadian Pacific". www.trainweb.org.
  18. ^ "Rockies Life in the '70s" (PDF). www.albertamagazines.com.
  19. ^ Lam 2011, pp. 164, 174–175.
  20. ^ Lam 2011, p. 189.
  21. ^ Lam 2011, p. 190.
  22. ^ Lam 2011, p. 198.
  23. ^ a b Young & Coates 2016, p. 285.
  24. ^ Lam 2011, pp. 193, 207.
  25. ^ a b c d e Lam 2011, p. 230.
  26. ^ "Red Deer Advocate, 8 Feb 1988". www.newspapers.com. p. 21.
  27. ^ "Vancouver Sun, 11 Mar 1998". www.newspapers.com. p. 34. CP Hotels will pay up to $34 million in cash to Delta's owners, the Realstar Group...and Lai Sun Group....
  28. ^ "National Post, 12 Jun 1998". www.newspapers.com. p. 1. Canadian Pacific….$780-million deal to buy the Caribbean and U.S. chain of Princess Hotels.
  29. ^ a b "Fact Sheet: New Hotel Management Company "Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc."". www.hotel-online.com.
  30. ^ "Prince George Citizen, 4 Oct 2001". www.newspapers.com. p. 7.
  31. ^ "Edmonton Journal, 31 Jan 2006". www.newspapers.com. p. 47. Fairmont Hotels & Resorts….to sell….hotel chain to investor Alwaleed bin Talel, and a US investment firm for $3.9 billion US….Prince Alwaleed's Kingdom Hotels International and….Colony Capital LLC….will pay $45 a share….Colony Capital bought….Raffles Holdings last year….including 23 Swissotels…Fairmont will continue to be managed in Canada, and it will remain a separate brand from Raffles.
  32. ^ "Edmonton Journal, 3 Oct 2007". www.newspapers.com. p. 58. Delta Hotels Ltd. has been bought by British Columbia Investment Management Corp…which takes the Delta chain out of the hands of Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc.
  33. ^ "CBC News, 9 Dec 2015". www.cbc.ca.
  34. ^ "Cision, 27 Jan 2015". www.newswire.ca.
  35. ^ Lam 2011, p. 164.
  36. ^ "Washington Post, 6 Dec 1987". www.washingtonpost.com.
  37. ^ "Canadian Rocky Mountain Resorts History". www.crmr.com.
  38. ^ "Canadian Pacific Hotels. Emerald Lake Chalet". www.library.ubc.ca.
  39. ^ "Lake O'Hara Lodge". www.albertaonrecord.ca.
  40. ^ "Lake O'Hara Lodge History". www.lakeohara.com.
  41. ^ "Canadian Pacific Hotels. Lake O'Hara Lodge". www.library.ubc.ca.
  42. ^ Bradley, Ben (2012). "By the Road: Fordism, Automobility, and Landscape Experience in the British Columbia Interior,1920–1970" (PDF). www.ucalgary.ca. p. 382.
  43. ^ "Canadian Pacific Hotels. Lake Windermere Camp". www.library.ubc.ca.
  44. ^ "Storm Mountain Lodge". www.stormmountainlodge.com.
  45. ^ MacDonad, Graham A. (1994). "The Alpine Architectural Heritage of the Four Mountain Parks An Historical Review and Assessment" (PDF). www.parkscanadahistory.com. p. Appendix.
  46. ^ "Kootenay National Park Chronology". www.pc.gc.ca.
  47. ^ "Addison's Bungalows". www.radiumhotsprings.com.
  48. ^ Lam 2011, p. 192.
  49. ^ "Kootenay Park Lodge". www.kootenayparklodge.com.
  50. ^ "Vancouver Sun, 19 May 1961". www.newspapers.com. p. 27. Canadian Pacific Railway has sold its Devil's Gap Lodge summer resort near Kenora, Ontario, to Austin H. Ford….
  51. ^ "CTV News, 21 Apr 2019". www.ctvnews.ca.
  52. ^ Lake Nipigon, Where the Great Lakes Begin , p. 137, at Google Books
  53. ^ "CBC News, 21 Jun 2018". www.cbc.ca.
  54. ^ "French River C.P.R. Bungalow Camp". www.trainweb.org.
  55. ^ "French River Lodge". www.frenchriverlodge.com.
  56. ^ "Glengarry Life" (PDF). www.cornwallcommunitymuseum.wordpress.com. Glengarry Historical Society. 1988. pp. 19–20.
  57. ^ "Province, 6 Nov 1926". www.newspapers.com. p. 3. In April, 1918, the Canadian Pacific Railroad….in Field, turned over the hotel to the Young Men's Christian Association….
  58. ^ "Calgary Herald, 18 Dec 1963". www.newspapers.com. p. 26. Mount Stephen House…has disappeared….In 1918, CP turned over the operation….to the YMCA and it became a railroad employees' rooming and boarding house…In 1953, when…a new station was to be built at Field….The Railroad YMCA returned the building to the railway company, and the following year saw the removal of the greater portion of the building. The new wing of 1902 was left standing alone, as a rooming house only. This year….the old building disappeared.
  59. ^ a b "Branchline, Sep 1995" (PDF). www.bytownrailwaysociety.ca. pp. 9–11.
  60. ^ "'Vanishing BC: North Bend". www.michaelkluckner.com.
  61. ^ "Province, 4 Nov 1941". www.newspapers.com. p. 9.
  62. ^ "The Daily Colonist, 18 May 1888". www.archive.org. p. 1.
  63. ^ "Western Call, 19 Mar 1915". www.library.ubc.ca. p. 5.
  64. ^ "The Fairmont Banff Springs". www.travelweekly.com.
  65. ^ "Banff Springs Hotel". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  66. ^ a b c Canadian Pacific: Facts and Figures. Montreal: Canadian Pacific Railway Foundation Library. 1946. p. 166.
  67. ^ "Algonquin Resort St. Andrews By-The-Sea". www.travelweekly.com.
  68. ^ "Cornwallis Hotel". www.dardpi.ca.
  69. ^ "ChronicleHerald, 3 May 2019". www.thechronicleherald.ca.
  70. ^ "Fairmont Le Château Frontenac". www.travelweekly.com.
  71. ^ "Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise". www.travelweekly.com.
  72. ^ "Chateau Lake Louise". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca.
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h Stathis, Kelly (2019). "Canadian Pacific Railway hotels in B.C.: Part 2". www.library.ubc.ca.
  74. ^ "Gare Viger". www.placegareviger.com.
  75. ^ "Fairmont Le Manoir Richelieu". www.travelweekly.com.
  76. ^ "Times Colonist, 4 Jul 1956". www.newspapers.com. p. 33.
  77. ^ a b Sullivan, David (2005). The Algonquin, St. Andrews N.B : On Passamaquoddy Bay. Pendlebury Press. p. 89. ISBN 0973935804.
  78. ^ a b Reed, Hayter. "Hotels & Boarding Houses on the line of the C.P.R., 1912". www.library.ubc.ca. p. 12.
  79. ^ "Pansy Patch". www.davidsullivan.ca.
  80. ^ "Beginning & growth of McAdam". www.rootsweb.com.
  81. ^ "Digby Pines History". www.digbypines.ca.
  82. ^ "Digby Pines Golf Resort". www.travelweekly.com.
  83. ^ "Royal Alexandra Hotel". www.mhs.mb.ca.
  84. ^ "The Fairmont Empress Hotel Victoria". www.travelweekly.com.
  85. ^ "Fairmont Château Laurier". www.travelweekly.com.
  86. ^ "Cameron Lake Chalet". www.youtube.com.
  87. ^ "Alberni Valley Times, 6 Oct 1970". www.newspapers.com. p. 8. So Cameron Lake Chalet….has been demolished leaving only a few concrete footings….
  88. ^ "Vancouver Sun, 23 May 1942". www.newspapers.com. p. 2. A syndicate….taken over the Hotel Incola from the Okanagan Hotel Company, with which the Canadian Pacific Railway has been largely associated.
  89. ^ "Province, 24 Jun 1950". www.newspapers.com. p. 32. Incola Hotel…. has been sold to Hencott Houses Ltd…..
  90. ^ "Times Colonist, 1 Sep 1959". www.newspapers.com. p. 11. The 76-room Incola Hotel….has been sold for $250,000. Purchaser is Jack C. Young….
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  92. ^ "The Fairmont Palliser". www.travelweekly.com.
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References[edit]