Music Canada is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization that was founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, manufacture, produce, promote and distribute music in Canada. It also offers benefits to some of Canada's leading independent record labels and distributors. Originally formed as the 10-member Canadian Record Manufacturer's Association, the association changed its name to Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA) in 1972 and opened membership to other record industry companies. In 2011, it changed its name back to Music Canada offering special benefits to some of the leading independent labels and distributors in Canada.
Music Canada is governed by a board of directors who are elected annually by association members. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the executive officers of the member companies. Graham Henderson of Universal Music Canada has been president since 15 November 2004; Brian Robertson previously held the position from 1974.
Members are divided into 3 classes:
- Class A members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing, manufacturing, or marketing sound recordings. These members hold voting rights, and currently consist of the "big four" record labels.
- Class B members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing sound recordings. These members pay a $600 annual membership fee but have no voting rights. As of 2007, there were 22 class B members.
- Manufacturing Division members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is manufacturing sound recordings.
Historically, Music Canada has represented all record labels in the country. Recently, however, some labels and other industry groups have publicly disagreed with Music Canada and claim it no longer represents them. In 2006, six well-known "indie" labels including Nettwerk left Music Canada in a dispute over Canadian content rules. They claimed the association was only protecting the interests of "the four major foreign multi-national labels," referring to EMI, Universal, Sony BMG, and Warner. Other points of contention include Music Canada's stance against the blank media tax, their support for digital locks on music, and positions against copyright reform. In 2007 a group of musicians formed the Canadian Music Creators Coalition, claiming "legislative proposals that would facilitate lawsuits against our fans or increase the labels' control over the enjoyment of music are made not in our names, but on behalf of the labels' foreign parent companies."
On February 16, 2004, Music Canada applied to the Federal Court to force five major Canadian internet service providers — Shaw Communications Inc., Telus Corp., Rogers Cable, Bell Canada's Sympatico service and Quebec's Vidéotron — to hand over the names of 29 people accused of copyright infringement through peer-to-peer file sharing. On April 2005, Vidéotron indicated its willingness to supply customer information to Music Canada.
On March 31, 2004, in the case of BMG v. John Doe, Justice Konrad von Finckenstein of the Federal Court of Canada ruled that making music available for download over the Internet was not equivalent to distribution and was thus noninfringing. The Justice compared the peer-to-peer filesharing activities to "having a photocopier in a library room full of copyrighted material" and wrote that there was no evidence of unauthorized distribution presented. The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the lower courts ruling denying the disclosure of the customers' identities, but, in reference to "what would or would not constitute infringement of copyright," stated: "such conclusions should not have been made in the very preliminary stages of this action, since they would require a consideration of the evidence as well as the law applicable to such evidence after it has been properly adduced, and could be damaging to the parties if a trial takes place." The Copyright Board of Canada earlier that year had included downloading music in the list of "private copying" activities for which tariffs on blank media applied. (Private copying is the act of copying music for personal use from a noninfringing source, and is itself noninfringing.) That made it extremely unlikely that downloaders could be successfully prosecuted, leaving only the possibility of acting against uploaders, those supplying the works to others on the networks. In 2008, the operators of the isoHunt website filed a motion with the Supreme Court of British Columbia seeking a declaratory judgment affirming the legality of their operation. The motion was denied, and the court ruled a full trial was needed. This decision was appealed by the operators of isoHunt; the appeal was also denied. In late 2009, isoHunt filed a formal suit against Music Canada and the four "major" record labels seeking "declaratory relief to clarify its legal rights."
Additionally, in October 2008, the four main members of Music Canada were sued by the estate of Chet Baker and several other artists for copyright infringement. The major claims in this lawsuit are as follows:
- That some three hundred thousand works were illegally distributed by the Music Canada's members, and
- That they failed to seek proper licensing and distribution agreements with the creators of the aforementioned works, instead placing the works on what is colloquially referred to as a "pending list" (i.e., any payments to be made for the use of the aforementioned works are reserved, pending an agreement with the artists who created the works).
As the standard punitive damages for each act of infringement is set at $20,000, and there are three hundred thousand works on the "pending lists", Music Canada could have faced punitive damages of a minimum of $6 billion. On November 8, 2011, the suit was settled out of court for over $45 million.
Gold and Platinum certification awards (Timeline)
|Certification||For releases before May 1, 2008||For releases after May 1, 2008|
|Certification||For releases before February 1, 1982||For releases before September 2002||For releases after September 2002[A]|
Digital downloads (singles)
|Certification||Before January 1, 2007[B]||Until April, 2010[C]||After May 1, 2010|
- Note that Music Canada certifies Digital-downloads always applying the most recent certifications-levels, even to those titles that are released during the time frame the CRIA (currently Music Canada) had lower certification-levels for Digital-downloads. One such example is the single "Right Round" by Flo Rida feat. Kesha, which was released in January 2009 when certification-levels for Digital-downloads were 10,000 units for Gold and 20,000 units for Platinum. The CRIA (currently Music Canada) certified it three times Platinum in October 2010, applying the latest certification-levels for sales of 240,000 units.
|Certification||For all RingTone releases|
|Certification||For all Video releases|
- A ^ One of the first physical singles that was certified with levels of Gold=5,000 and Platinum=10,000 was "A Moment Like This" by Kelly Clarkson, which was released on September 17, 2002.
- B ^ One of the first digital singles that was certified with levels of Gold=20,000 and Platinum=40,000 was "Paralyzer" by Finger Eleven, which was released as a digital track on March 6, 2007.
- C ^ One of the first digital singles that was certified with levels of Gold=40,000 and Platinum=80,000 was "OMG" by Usher, which was released as a digital track on March 30, 2010.
- "About Music Canada". Music Canada. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Canadian Recording Industry Association". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
- "Canadian Recording Industry Association Changes Name". Billboard. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Long time recording industry President Brian Robertson to step down; Graham Henderson to succeed". CRIA. 21 September 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Geist, Michael (12 September 2007). "LeBlanc on HMV and CRIA Stats". Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- "Indie labels break with CRIA over commercial radio proposal". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 April 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Geist, Michael (6 August 2009). "Manitoba Music Industry Association Distances Self From CRIA On Copyright Reform". Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- "Copyright Consulations - Canadian Music Creators Coalition (CMCC)". Industry Canada. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Joudrey, Stephanie (2005-04-22). "Canadian File Sharing Lawsuits Moving Ahead, Vidéotron To Reveal Names". ChartAttack.com. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FC 488 (F.C. 2004).
- BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FCA 193 (F.C.A 2005).
- "Statement of Claim - isoHunt vs CRIA members" (PDF). 19 November 2009.
- "Geist: Record industry faces liability over infringement". The Star (Toronto). 7 December 2009.
- Gardner, Eriq (November 12, 2011). "Why Universal Music Sued Its Insurer Over a $14.4 Million Payment to Musicians (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Music Canada. "Certification Definitions". Music Canada. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
- CRIA Reports 46% Rise for Disk Certifications. Billboard magazine. 1982-02-27. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- "Gold & Platinum Certifications: March - August 2006". CRIA. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "CRIA Gold Platinum Certifications (April 2010)". CRIA. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "What is Gold Platinum Certification?". Music Canada. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Gold & Platinum Certifications: October 2010". CRIA. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2014-10-12.
- "Gold & Platinum Certifications: April 2003". CRIA. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Amazon: Before Your Love/A Moment Like This". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Gold & Platinum Certifications: August 2007". CRIA. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Amazon: Paralyzer". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- "Gold & Platinum Certifications: June 20107". CRIA. Archived from the original on February 12, 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-26.
- "Amazon: OMG". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-24.