Canadian Vickers

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Canadian Vickers Limited
Fate absorbed into Canadair in 1944
Successor Canadair and Versatile Vickers (using Canadian Vickers as brand only)
Founded 1911
Defunct 1944
Headquarters Montreal, Canada
Parent Vickers Limited

Canadian Vickers Limited was an aircraft and shipbuilding company that operated in Canada during the early part of the 20th century until 1944. A subsidiary of the UK parent, it built its own aircraft designs as well as others under licence. Canadair absorbed the Canadian Vickers Ltd. aircraft operations in November 1944.

Shipbuilding[edit]

The British H-class submarine HMS H4 at Brindisi in August 1916
The Battle-class trawler HMCS Armentières

In 1907 British shipbuilding and weapons manufacturing conglomerate Vickers Sons & Maxim began investigating possible locations for a shipyard in Montreal.[1] Vickers Sons & Maxim intended to use the shipyard as a repair facility for transatlantic shipping traffic entering Montreal.[2] Vickers Sons & Maxim was invited by the Government of Canada in 1911 to establish a Canadian division to manufacture vessels for the nascent Royal Canadian Navy. According to naval historian Marc Milner, "the Harbour Commission and the city of Maisonneuve offered Vickers a first-class location" to establish the yard, and "an extended lease on the land and deferred taxes."[3] Vickers Sons & Maxim established Canadian Vickers Ltd. in June 1911 and constructed the shipyard between Rue Notre-Dame and the St. Lawrence River.[1] Canadian Vickers ordered the construction of a large floating drydock, which was opened in 1912.[1][3] Due to the establishment of Canadian Vickers, Montreal became one of Canada's leading shipbuilding centres.[1] The shipyard's first full year of operation was 1914, a year marked by the beginning of the First World War.[2]

During the First World War the yard assembled American-designed Holland 602 type submarines on behalf of the British Royal Navy.[4] The hulls were Canadian-built, but the machinery and equipment were American. They were known as the British H-class submarine in the Royal Navy and were the first submarines to cross the Atlantic Ocean under their own power. Canadian Vickers (along with Polson Iron Works of Toronto) also constructed the first vessels specifically designed for the Royal Canadian Navy, the Battle-class naval trawlers.[5]

  • H1 – Launched May 1915
  • H2 – Launched June 1915
  • H3 – Launched June 1915. Mined and sunk July 1916
  • H4 – Launched June 1915
  • H5 – Launched June 1915. Rammed and sunk March 1918
  • H6 – Launched June 1915. Interned and purchased by the Dutch January 1916
  • H7 – Launched June 1915
  • H8 – Launched June 1915
  • H9 – Launched June 1915
  • H10 – Launched June 1915. Disappeared 1918

This shipyard would go on to produce many civilian and military ships in Canada, including:

Canadian Vickers also manufactured luxury yachts and vessels that were later converted as yachts:

Following the First World War, labour militancy grew within Quebec. In June 1919, Canadian Vickers workers led labour action in Montreal as part of larger strike actions within the shipbuilding industry. The labour strike was a result of demands for maximum 8-hour shifts. Employees of Canadian Vickers coordinated with other work forces in Montreal, though shortly after it began, disagreements over a general strike led the labour action to falter.[9] The end of the First World War also saw a reduction of shipping orders and increased competition among shipbuilders. This led to consolidation among shipyards and Canadian Vickers' parent company, Vickers merged with Armstrong Whitworth to form Vickers-Armstrongs. In 1926, Frank Ross of Montreal Dry Dock Limited and two business partners sought to acquire Canadian Vickers from its parent company. Negotiations began in March and were agreed to in November. In 1928, Ross merged Montreal Dry Dock Ltd. with Canadian Vickers. During the 1930s, the yard survived the Great Depression with repair contracts and constructing manufacturing turbines and structural steel.[10]

The shipyard was reacquired by Vickers in 1956.[11] It was renamed Vickers Canada Limited in 1978 after being sold to Canadian interests and renamed several times again by the last owners Marine Industries, eventually (as Versatile Vickers Inc[12][13] in 1981 and MIL Vickers in 1987). Shipbuiding operations ceased by 1988.[11]

Aerospace[edit]

Canadian Vickers ventured into aircraft manufacturing in 1923 when it won a contract to supply Vickers Viking flying boats to the recently formed Canadian Air Force (Royal Canadian Air Force from 1924). Between 1923 and 1944, Canadian Vickers produced over 400 aircraft, some of which were original Vickers' designs while the remainder were other manufacturers' designs built under license.

This Canadian Vickers OA-10A operated in several countries postwar as a utility transport, including Hong Kong, Sweden and Kenya
Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A at RIAT, England in 2009. A version of the PBY-5A Catalina, this aircraft was built in 1944 for the Royal Canadian Air Force
A Vickers Vedette replica at the Western Canada Aviation Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba

In July 1941, the Canadian government awarded Canadian Vickers a contract to produce PBV-1 "Canso" amphibians (a version of the Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat) for the Royal Canadian Air Force. Many of the aircraft were delivered to the United States Navy as the PBV-1; also to the United States Army Air Forces as the OA-10A for rescue work.

To speed Canso production, the government authorized construction of a new manufacturing facility at Cartierville Airport in Ville Saint Laurent, on the north-western outskirts of Montreal, and appointed Canadian Vickers to manage the plant's operation on the government's behalf. Independently Boeing also produced Catalinas in Canada.

In 1944, business pressure compelled Canadian Vickers to ask the government to relieve it of its management responsibilities regarding the Cartierville plant. Ottawa agreed and entered into a management contract with Canadair Limited, a new company founded by a small group of former senior Canadian Vickers personnel headed by Benjamin W. Franklin (no relation to his famous namesake). On 4 November 1944, Canadair Limited took over operation of the plant. In September 1946, Canadair Limited and the plant were acquired by the Electric Boat Company of Groton, Connecticut.

In 1952, Electric Boat bought Consolidated Vultee and combined it, Canadair, and several smaller companies to form General Dynamics Corporation. General Dynamics later became one of the largest U.S. aerospace corporations. Canadair remained a General Dynamics subsidiary until January 1976 when it was re-acquired by the Canadian government.

In December 1986, the government again sold Canadair, this time to Bombardier Inc., a Quebec-based international conglomerate. Today, Canadair itself no longer exists as a separate entity having been absorbed into Bombardier Aerospace.

Canadian Vickers aircraft designs[edit]

License production[edit]

Other aircraft work[edit]

Unbuilt aircraft[edit]

For aircraft built after 1944, those aircraft were built under the Canadair name.

Railcars[edit]

Versatile Vickers used the former Canadian Vickers plant briefly to build rail cars in the 1960s and 1970s during the period of turmoil at the shipyard in Montreal. The rail car products were mostly built under contract, or licensed from other rail car builders or as joint production efforts. In 1979 Vickers name was changed from Canadian Vickers Ltd. to Vickers Canada, Inc. following the purchase of its shares by the Canadian management from the British holding company. In 1981 the name was again changed to Versatile Vickers, Inc. This company went out of business in 1990.

1963–1967 MR-63 subway cars built for the Montreal Metro which opened in 1966, and were based on GEC Alsthom's MP 59 trains for the Paris Metro. To be retired 2015–2017.
1969 Commuter Cab car (Bi-level "Town Car" coaches and gallery cars) built as a variant of the Pullman Company Gallery coaches for the Canadian Pacific Railway's Montreal suburban service; later re-classified as AMT 900 series cars.[14] Rebuilt early 2000s and now retired.
1972–1977, Car shells supplied by Canadian Vickers or the Budd Company for General Electric for Metropolitan Transportation Authority and Connecticut Department of Transportation M2 railcars.
1980 PATCO II railcars were manufactured by Canadian Vickers under a license from the Budd Company for the Port Authority Transit Corporation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Linteau 1985, p. 84
  2. ^ a b Pritchard 2011, p. 51
  3. ^ a b Milner 2002, p. 24
  4. ^ Milner 2002, p. 46
  5. ^ Boutiller 1982, pp. 99–100
  6. ^ Fleet, Yacht Charter. "BART ROBERTS Yacht – Canadian Vickers – Yacht Charter Fleet". yachtcharterfleet.com. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  7. ^ "CLUB ATLANTIC a Motor Yacht by Canadian Vickers Shipyards – Charter World Luxury Yachts and Superyachts". charterworld.com. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  8. ^ "CHRISTINA O a Motor Yacht by Canadian Vickers Shipyards – Charter World Luxury Yachts and Superyachts". charterworld.com. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  9. ^ Heron 1998, pp. 110–13
  10. ^ Pritchard 2011, pp. 49, 51–52
  11. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2011-02-24. 
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  13. ^ Proc, Jerry. "Halifax Class Frigates". jproc.ca. Retrieved 17 October 2016. 
  14. ^ Gryfe, Alan (November 30, 2001). "Montréal Rail Roster". Transit Canada. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 

Bibliography

  • Boutiller, James A., ed. (1982). RCN in Retrospect, 1910–1968. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0196-4. 
  • Campbell, Patrick J. (2006). At the End of the Final Line – A Brief History of Aircraft Manufacturing at Canadian Vickers and Canadair from 1923 to 1984. Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec: Shoreline. ISBN 1-896754-49-X. 
  • Heron, Craig, ed. (1998). The Workers' Revolt in Canada, 1917–1925. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8082-0. 
  • Linteau, Paul-Andre (1985). The Promoters' City: Building the Industrial Town of Maisonneuve 1883–1918. Translated by Robert Chodos. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 0-88862-782-3. 
  • Larry, Milberry (1979). Aviation in Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 0-07-082778-8. 
  • Milner, Marc (2010). Canada's Navy: The First Century (Second ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9604-3. 
  • Pritchard, James (2011). A Bridge of Ships: Canadian Shipbuilding during the Second World War. Montreal, Quebec and Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3824-5.