Canadian maritime law
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Scope of jurisdiction
Canada has adopted an expansive definition of its maritime law, which goes beyond traditional admiralty law. The original English admiralty jurisdiction was called "wet", as it concerned itself with things done at sea, including collisions, salvage and the work of mariners, and contracts and torts performed at sea. Canadian law has added "dry" jurisdiction to this field, which includes such matters as:
- marine insurance,
- warehousing and security services,
- contracts of agency, and
- contracts of carriage.
This list is not exhaustive of the subject matter.
Canadian jurisdiction was originally consolidated in 1891, with subsequent expansions in 1934 following the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, and in 1971 with the extension to "dry" matters.
The scope of Canada's jurisdiction was crystallized in 1971 in legislation creating the Federal Court of Canada:
2. ...“Canadian maritime law” means the law that was administered by the Exchequer Court of Canada on its Admiralty side by virtue of the Admiralty Act, chapter A-1 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1970, or any other statute, or that would have been so administered if that Court had had, on its Admiralty side, unlimited jurisdiction in relation to maritime and admiralty matters, as that law has been altered by this Act or any other Act of Parliament;...
42. Canadian maritime law as it was immediately before June 1, 1971 continues subject to such changes therein as may be made by this Act or any other Act of Parliament.
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This has been held by the Supreme Court of Canada, most recently in Ordon Estate v. Grail, to cover a very broad field:
71...These cases establish a number of basic principles and themes regarding the sources and content of Canadian maritime law, the role of provincial law in relation thereto, and the scope for gradual change and development in maritime law. These general principles and themes, insofar as they are relevant to the instant appeals, may be summarized as follows:
In the 2006 case of Isen v Simms, the Court endorsed a summary given by Décary JA on what does not fall within federal jurisdiction:
The accident occurred on land. The injury was caused on land by a person who was neither on the boat nor in the water. There is no contract for carriage of goods by sea. There are no goods at issue. Nothing has happened on water which could be said to be directly or even indirectly related to the accident. There is no issue as to the seaworthiness of the ship, the issue at best being one as to the roadworthiness of a boat being prepared on land for road transportation. There are no in rem proceedings. There are no concerns of good seamanship. There are no specialized admiralty laws, rules, principles or practices applicable. The accident has nothing to do with navigation nor with shipping. There is no practical necessity for a uniform federal law prescribing how to secure the engine cover from flapping in the wind when a pleasure craft is transported on land in a boat trailer. The sole factor possibly connected to maritime law is that the pleasure craft had just come out of the water and was still being secured on the trailer when the accident happened. This, clearly, is not enough to constitute an integral connection with navigation and shipping and an encroachment of civil rights and property.
The scope of maritime law has been refined by the SCC in subsequent jurisprudence:
- In 2012, in Tessier Ltée v. Quebec, it was declared that federal jurisdiction over shipping is not absolute, and must be construed in conjunction with the power to regulate works and undertakings, where the provinces are entitled to regulate transportation within their boundaries, while the federal government has jurisdiction over transportation that transcends provincial boundaries and connects the provinces with each other or with other countries.
- In 2013, in Marine Services International Ltd. v. Ryan Estate, Ordon's effect was restricted insofar as provincial jurisdiction may be affected by paramountcy and interjurisdictional immunity, as it was decided prior to the SCC's subsequent decisions on those fields in Canadian Western Bank and COPA.
- John G. O'Connor (2004-11-05). "Why the Full Extent of the Admiralty Jurisdiction of the Federal Courts has yet to be explored" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- John G. O'Connor (2011-10-28). "Admiralty Jurisdiction and Canadian Maritime Law in the Federal Courts: The next forty years" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Federal Courts Act R.S.C., 1985, c. F-7
- Ordon Estate v. Grail 1998 CanLII 771 at par. 71,  3 SCR. 437 (26 November 1998)
- Christopher J. Giaschi (2000-10-03). "The Constitutional implications of Ordon v. Grail and the expanding definition of Canadian maritime law" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- Christopher J. Giaschi (2011-04-16). "Confused seas: The application of provincial statutes to maritime matters" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Isen v Simms 2006 SCC 41 at par. 28,  2 SCR 349 (5 October 2006), endorsing Simms v Isen 2005 FCA 161 at par. 98,  4 FCR 563 (6 May 2005)
- Tessier Ltée v. Quebec (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail) 2012 SCC 23 at par. 24–25,  2 SCR 3 (17 May 2012)
- Marine Services International Ltd. v. Ryan Estate 2013 SCC 44 (2 August 2013)
- Canada Marine Act (S.C. 1998, c. 10)
- Canada Shipping Act, 2001 (S.C. 2001, c. 26)
- Marine Insurance Act (S.C. 1993, c. 22)
- Marine Liability Act (S.C. 2001, c. 6)
- Pilotage Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. P-14)
- Wylie Spicer, QC (2007-01-26). "The Long and Winding Road: In Rem Jurisdiction of the Federal Court" (PDF). Canadian Maritime Law Association. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Arthur J. Stone (2001). "Canada's Admiralty Court in the 20th Century" (PDF). McGill Law Journal. McGill Law School. 47 (3): 511–558. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- George R. Strathy (2007-01-26). "The In Personam Admiralty Jurisdiction of the Federal Court" (PDF). Canadian Maritime Law Association. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Christopher Giaschi (2012-05-12). "Developments in Canadian Maritime Law -1/1/2011 - 31/3/2012" (PDF). Canadian Maritime Law Association. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- Christopher Giaschi (2013-06-07). "Developments in Canadian Maritime Law -1/1/2012 - 1/4/2013" (PDF). Canadian Maritime Law Association. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- Christopher Giaschi (2014-09-17). "Developments in Canadian Maritime Law -1/8/2013 - 1/9/2014" (PDF). Canadian Maritime Law Association. Retrieved 2015-01-10.