Canadian postal abbreviations for provinces and territories
Canadian provincial and territorial postal abbreviations are used by Canada Post in code system of two capital letters, to represent the 13 provinces and territories on addressed mail. These abbreviations allow automated sorting. The codes replaced the inconsistent traditional system used by Canadians until the 1990s.
These abbreviations are not the source of letters in Canadian postal codes, which are assigned by Canada Post on a different basis than these abbreviations. While postal codes are also used for sorting, they allow extensive regional sorting. In addition, several provinces have postal codes that begin with different letters.
List of postal abbreviations
ISO 3166-2:CA identifiers' second elements are all the same as these; ISO adopted the existing Canada Post abbreviations.
|Abbreviation||English name||French name||Source (English)|
|AB||Alberta||Alberta||First letter of first two syllables|
|MB||Manitoba||Manitoba||First letter of first and last syllables|
|NL||Newfoundland and Labrador||Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador||Initials|
|NT||Northwest Territories||Territoires du Nord-Ouest||Initials|
|NU||Nunavut||Nunavut||First two letters|
|ON||Ontario||Ontario||First two letters|
|PE||Prince Edward Island||Île-du-Prince-Édouard||Initials of first two words|
|QC||Quebec||Québec||First and last letter|
|SK||Saskatchewan||Saskatchewan||First letter of first two syllables|
|YT[A]||Yukon||Yukon||Initials of "Yukon Territory"|
List of traditional abbreviations
Though deprecated as postal abbreviations, the following are still often used as abbreviations in other contexts. Some of the abandoned French versions included a hyphen. The eventual goal became to standardize all abbreviations into two-character units. In French, with the hyphen, it became a three-character abbreviation, yet, without it, conflict arose with US state abbreviations, e.g., a hyphenless T-N became TN (a duplicate of Tennessee); N-E became NE (a duplicate of Nebraska). Over time, the English forms became standard. Nunavut (created in 1999) does not have a former abbreviation because it did not exist when these codes were phased out, though some abbreviations can be found in other works.
|British Columbia||B.C. and C.-B.||C.-B. is the French version, for Colombie-Britannique|
|Labrador||LB||'LB' appeared in Canada Post publications (e.g., The Canadian Postal Code Directory) for the mainland section of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.|
|Newfoundland||Nfld. (later NF) and T.-N.||'NF' was the two-letter abbreviation used before the province's name changed to Newfoundland and Labrador. T.-N. is the French version, for Terre-Neuve.[D]|
|Northwest Territories||N.W.T. and T.N.O.||'T.N.O.' is the French version, for Territoires du Nord-Ouest.|
|Nova Scotia||N.S. and N.-É.||'N.-É.' is the French version, for Nouvelle-Écosse.|
|Nunavut||Nun. and Nvt.|
|Prince Edward Island||P.E.I. and Î.P.É.||'Î.P.É.' is the French version, for île du Prince-Édouard.|
|Quebec||Que. and P.Q.||'P.Q.' is the French version, for Province du Québec; later, PQ evolved from P.Q. as the first two-letter non-punctuated abbreviation. Later still, QU evolved as the second two-letter non-punctuated abbreviation, making Quebec's abbreviation consistent with other provinces insofar as using letters solely from the name of the province, but not the word "province", as PQ did. There may also have been political considerations, as "PQ" was and is common shorthand for the Parti Québécois. New York State and New York City have decided to use "QB" to identify Québec Vehicle Licence Plates.|
Choice of letters
The sources of the postal abbreviations vary. Some are from the initials of two of the words in the name of a province or territory, while others are from the first and final letter or from the first and some other letter in the name. All of these names are based on the English form of the name, though they also correspond to their French equivalents in various ways (for example, NT could be read for the first and last letters of Nord-Ouest, instead of Northwest Territories). For Quebec and New Brunswick, the two provinces with large numbers of French-speakers, the initials in both languages are identical. French equivalents of each abbreviation once existed: see Traditional abbreviations.
Avoidance of naming collision with adjacent countries
These abbreviations are fully compatible with the equivalent two-letter codes used for states and territorial areas of the United States, because no abbreviations overlap. The policy of not overlapping adjacent-country abbreviations, which helps the postal processing systems to avoid dealing with naming collisions, precludes use of NV for Nunavut (compare NV for Nevada) and TN for Terre-Neuve/Terra Nova/Newfoundland (compare TN for Tennessee). Manitoba's abbreviation, MB, is due to U.S. states already having abbreviations in all of the letters of the province's name besides "B". This policy later became a formal agreement between Canada Post and the USPS. The USPS changed the abbreviation for the U.S. state of Nebraska from NB to NE in November 1969 to avoid a conflict with New Brunswick.
The Canadian policy of adopting province abbreviations that did not overlap with the state abbreviations of adjacent countries differed from the situation in Mexico, where two-letter combinations for Mexican states were chosen by various competing commercial organizations (in the absence of any official Correos de México list) regardless of whether that combination was already in use in the United States or Canada, e.g., CO (Coahuila/Colorado), MI (Michoacán/Michigan), MO (Morelos/Missouri), NL (Nuevo León/Newfoundland and Labrador), BC (Baja California/British Columbia).
ISO 3166-2, an international standard, offers an alternative with globally unique administrative division identifiers, whose division elements are all between 1 and 3 letters long. This is very useful for software and web development, although it may be moot for established postal systems. Its codes for Canada, the U.S., and Mexico are listed at ISO 3166-2:CA, ISO 3166-2:US, and ISO 3166-2:MX, respectively.
Changes over time
Newfoundland and Labrador's abbreviation became effective 21 October 2002 to reflect the provincial name change from "Newfoundland" to "Newfoundland and Labrador" on 6 December 2001.
In 1991, the code for Quebec was changed from PQ to QC.
Nunavut's code became effective 13 December 2000; before this date, but after Nunavut's creation on 1 April 1999, the abbreviation "NT" was used for Nunavut as well as the Northwest Territories. Canadian postal codes begin with "X" for both NT and NU, the only two territorial or provincial jurisdictions to share the same initial postal code letter. However, the new code NU was chosen to stem possible confusion and to reflect the new territory's creation.
Sample of a properly formatted address
27-1643 DUNDAS ST W
TORONTO ON M6K 1V2
For International mail:
1643 DUNDAS ST W APT 27
TORONTO ON M6K 1V2
Note that the street type, unit type, and city quadrant, if applicable, are abbreviated, without periods (though using periods, or even spelling out every word in its entirety, is unlikely to affect delivery in any way). Note also, for domestic mail, the lack of a comma between municipality and province/territory, the double space between the latter and the postal code, and the single space between segments of postal code, all on one line. For domestic mail, this must be the last line of the address, while for international mail, it is followed by a final line giving only the unabbreviated country name. Addresses should be done in all-upper-case without punctuation, and the unit number may follow street number, with a suitable unit identifier, e.g., "1643 DUNDAS ST W APT 27" using the above example.
From the USPS Web Site Addressing International Mail - Address your mail correctly to be sure that it gets there
The last line of the address block area must include only the complete country name (no abbreviations) written in uppercase letters. Foreign postal codes, if used, should be placed on the line above the destination country. The following shows the order of information for the destination address
LINE 1: NAME OF ADDRESSEE
LINE 2: STREET ADDRESS OR POST OFFICE BOX NUMBER
LINE 3: CITY OR TOWN NAME, OTHER PRINCIPAL SUBDIVISION (such as PROVINCE, STATE, or COUNTRY) AND POSTAL CODE (IF KNOWN) (Note: in some countries, the postal code may precede the city or town name)
LINE 4: COUNTRY NAME (UPPERCASE LETTERS IN ENGLISH)
From the USPS IMM 122.1 Destination address
To Canada, there must be two spaces between the province abbreviation and the postal code, as shown below between “ON” and “K1A 0B1”:
The following format should always be used for destination addresses to Canada:
MS HELEN SAUNDERS
1010 CLEAR STREET
OTTAWA ON K1A 0B1
- A. ^ Commonly though unofficially YK (also used in the second-level country code domain name space yk.ca). ISO-3166-2 lists YT as official .
- C. ^ Also commonly, but unofficially Alb. in French.
- D. ^ LB was commonly used for Labrador prior to 2002. It was an official code available for optional use in lieu of NF, and was listed in the Canada Postal Guide.
- S18, ID-tagging of letter mail items. Universal Postal Union. Page vi. Accessed June 2, 2011.
- "State Abbreviations" (PDF). Historian, United States Postal Service. September 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Canadian Addressing Guide", Canada Postal Guide at the Wayback Machine (archived January 13, 2007), Canada Post, 2006; accessed July 19, 2006
- " Addressing Guidelines", Postal Guide, Canada Post, 2007; accessed December 20, 2007
- "Addressing", Postal Standards at the Wayback Machine (archived January 3, 2007), Canada Post, 2006; accessed July 19, 2006)
- "Civic Addresses", Postal Standards, Canada Post, 2007; accessed December 20, 2007)