stand watch over Canada's national memorial,
, with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the foreground.
history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, and the role of the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. Much of this military history of Canada is commemorated today with memorials across the country and around the world. Canadian memorials commemorate the sacrifices made as early as the Seven Years' War to the modern day War on Terror. As Newfoundland was a British Dominion until joining Confederation in 1949, there are several monuments in Newfoundland and Labrador and abroad which were dedicated to Newfoundland servicemen and women.
There are currently 6,293 war memorials in Canada registered with the National Inventory of Military Memorials, which is under the Canadian
Department of Veterans Affairs. There are also war memorials across the world, some of which are operated by the  Commonwealth War Graves Commission, which are dedicated to Canada as well as the Commonwealth members. There currently are 17 in France, six in Belgium, four in the United Kingdom, two in Afghanistan and in South Korea and one each in Egypt, Hong Kong, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates.
War memorials in Canada [ edit ]
Colonial period [ edit ]
Battle of Cook's Mill Memorial
Cooks Mill, Ontario
42°59′52″N 79°10′30″W / 42.997895°N 79.174913°W Commemorates the
Battle of Cook's Mill, fought during the War of 1812.
Battle of Crysler's Farm Memorial
42°41′39″N 81°42′18″W / 42.69417°N 81.70500°W Dedicated to those who fought and died in the
victory at Crysler's Farm.
Battle Hill Memorial
Southwest Middlesex, Ontario
42°59′52″N 79°10′30″W / 42.997895°N 79.174913°W Commemorates the
Battle of Longwoods, fought during the War of 1812.
Canadian Volunteer Monument
43°39′45.55″N 079°23′36.01″W / 43.6626528°N 79.3933361°W Honours
University of Toronto student volunteers who fell during the Battle of Ridgeway Lime Ridge, or died of wounds received in action or from disease contracted in service while defending her frontier in June 1866.
43°09′36.37″N 079°03′10.99″W / 43.1601028°N 79.0530528°W Dedicated to Major General
Isaac Brock, one of Canada's heroes of the War of 1812.
Defence of York Monument
43°38′34″N 079°23′01″W / 43.64278°N 79.38361°W In memory of officers, non-commissioned officers and men who were killed or died of wounds
defending York (present-day Toronto).
James Wolfe Monument
Quebec City, Quebec
46°47′59.81″N 071°13′29.79″W / 46.7999472°N 71.2249417°W Dedicated to General
James Wolfe, remembered chiefly for his victory over the French, and establishing British rule in Canada.
Monument to the War of 1812
43°38′12″N 079°24′00″W / 43.63667°N 79.40000°W Monument to the Canadian participation in the
War of 1812 
Stoney Creek Battlefield Memorial
43°12′59.9″N 079°45′59.4″W / 43.216639°N 79.766500°W Commemorates the victory at the
Battle of Stoney Creek, fought during the War of 1812.
Halifax, Nova Scotia
44°38′36.67″N 063°34′20.93″W / 44.6435194°N 63.5724806°W Dedicated to Major Augustus F. Welsford and Captain William B.C.A. Parker, who died during the
Crimean War; Second oldest war monument in Canada; only Crimean War Monument in North America
Wolfe and Montcalm Obelisk
Quebec City, Quebec
46°48′40″N 071°12′19″W / 46.81111°N 71.20528°W Oldest war monument in Canada. Commemorates
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and James Wolfe, the French and British commanders of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
North-West Rebellion and the Boer War [ edit ]
First and Second World Wars [ edit ]
The war memorial sculptors at work in Canada in the years following the Great War include:
Emanuel Hahn, George W. Hill, Frank Norbury, Walter Allward, Hamilton MacCarthy, Coeur de Lion MacCarthy, Alfred Howell, Sydney March, Elizabeth Wyn Wood, Henri Hebert, J. Massey Rhind, Hubert Garnier, Nicholas Pirotton, Charles Adamson, Frances Loring, and Ivor Lewis.
Camp X Memorial
43°51′20.28″N 078°53′00.06″W / 43.8556333°N 78.8833500°W Honours the men and women of
Camp X who served during the Second World War.
Halifax, Nova Scotia
44°37′08.76″N 063°33′55.93″W / 44.6191000°N 63.5655361°W Dedicated to the Canadian servicemen and women who died at sea during both World Wars and includes the
Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Merchant Navy and the Canadian Army.
52°07′45.43″N 106°38′34.05″W / 52.1292861°N 106.6427917°W Military memorial which is a part of the
University of Saskatchewan.
The Saskatoon Cenotaph
52°07′48.8″N 106°39′37.15″W / 52.130222°N 106.6603194°W Designed by Francis Henry Portnall (1928), this tall granite plinth incorporating a public clock face is a part of the City Hall Square
Vimy Memorial Bandshell
52°07′28.24″N 106°39′33.42″W / 52.1245111°N 106.6592833°W The Vimy Memorial Bandshell in Kiwanis Park was built in 1937 to honour the men and women that served in the First World War at the
Battle of Vimy Ridge. 
Memorial Clock Tower
52°50′00.66″N 110°51′39.76″W / 52.8335167°N 110.8610444°W Dedicated to the local men who fought and died in both World Wars.
War Memorial of Montreal West
45°28′21.00″N 073°36′49.32″W / 45.4725000°N 73.6137000°W Honours those from the town of Montreal West who died in the First World War
Montreal Clock Tower
45°30′44.44″N 073°32′44.84″W / 45.5123444°N 73.5457889°W Dedicated to Canadian naval sailors who died during the First World War.
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Memorial
Victoria, British Columbia
48°25′14.20″N 123°22′16.66″W / 48.4206111°N 123.3712944°W Dedicated to Canadian volunteers of the
Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion during the Spanish Civil War.
Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion Memorial
45°26′24.61″N 075°41′47.05″W / 45.4401694°N 75.6964028°W Dedicated to Canadian volunteers of the Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion during the Spanish Civil War.
National War Memorial
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
47°34′03.28″N 052°42′13.67″W / 47.5675778°N 52.7037972°W Memorial for soldiers who served with the
Dominion of Newfoundland during the First World War.
45°26′27.08″N 075°41′45.90″W / 45.4408556°N 75.6960833°W Dedicated to missing airmen of the Second World War. Sometimes known as the Commonwealth Air Force Monument.
43°39′48.78″N 079°23′42.52″W / 43.6635500°N 79.3951444°W Commemorates members of the
University of Toronto who served in the World Wars.
Vancouver, British Columbia
49°16′55.56″N 123°06′36.72″W / 49.2821000°N 123.1102000°W Dedicated to Vancouverites who served in the First World War.
45°29′55.03″N 073°34′07.75″W / 45.4986194°N 73.5688194°W Dedicated to Montrealers who died in the First World War.
Sherbrooke War Memorial
45°24′02″N 071°53′29″W / 45.40056°N 71.89139°W Dedicated to citizens of Sherbrooke who fought in the First World War
Saint-Lambert Cenotaph by
Dedicated to citizens of Saint-Lambert who fought in the First World War
Ashburnham Memorial Park
44°18′36″N 078°18′10″W / 44.31000°N 78.30278°W Memorial to the men of Peterborough who died in the First World War.
Great War Memorial
Niagara Falls, Ontario
43°05′23.81″N 079°04′22.57″W / 43.0899472°N 79.0729361°W Memorial to those who died in the First and Second World Wars.
Vancouver, British Columbia (pictured);
"Bronze Angel", by sculptor, Coeur Lion MacCarthy, war memorial depicts the angel of victory raising up a young soldier to heaven at the moment of his death, 1921 commemorates 1,115
Canadian Pacific Railway employees killed during the First World War erected at the Canadian Pacific Railway stations. 
45°26′42″N 075°39′57″W / 45.44500°N 75.66583°W A sheltered space in the National Cemetery of Canada that honours the memory of Canadian servicemen who died in Canada and the United States and who were cremated.
Animals in War Memorial / Les animaux en temps de guerre
45°25′21.84″N 075°41′31.68″W / 45.4227333°N 75.6921333°W A memorial by David Clendining to animals (mainly mules, horse, dogs, pigeons) that have served for Canada in military conflicts since World War I and is located in
Monument des Braves
46°32′22.38″N 072°45′12.85″W / 46.5395500°N 72.7535694°W Honours those who died in both world wars
Cross of Sacrifice
Quebec City, Quebec
46°48′31.9″N 071°12′43.85″W / 46.808861°N 71.2121806°W Honours those who died in the wars of 1914-1918, 1939-1945, 1950-1953
1945 – present [ edit ]
Generic war memorials [ edit ]
48th Highlanders Memorial
43°39.00′057″N 79°23′34.76″W / 43.66583°N 79.3929889°W Dedicated to those who served with the Canadian forces, erected by the 48th Highlanders of Canada.
Bruce Park Cenotaph
49°52′38.77″N 097°13′34.10″W / 49.8774361°N 97.2261389°W Dedicated to the memory of those who died in the First World War, the Second World War, Korea, and to Canadian peacekeepers.
Calgary Soldiers' Memorial
51°03′03″N 114°05′20″W / 51.05083°N 114.08889°W Dedicated to Calgarian soldiers who have given their lives in war and military service overseas.
East and West Memorial Buildings
45°25′10″N 75°42′21″W / 45.419517°N 75.70573°W Dedicated to all Canadians who served in war. The building houses the
Department of Veteran Affairs.
44°15′46.7″N 080°33′05.5″W / 44.262972°N 80.551528°W Honouring the local men who enlisted for the First and Second World Wars and did not return.
Monument aux braves de N.D.G.
45°28′20.89″N 073°36′49.44″W / 45.4724694°N 73.6137333°W Commemorates the combatants who died during the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War.
Scarborough War Memorial
43°42′08.98″N 079°15′14.03″W / 43.7024944°N 79.2538972°W Commemorating the soldiers from
Scarborough who died in World War I, World War II and Korean War.
National Aboriginal Veterans Monument
45°25′18.04″N 075°41′34.66″W / 45.4216778°N 75.6929611°W Commemorates the
Aboriginal peoples ( First Nations, Inuit and Métis) who served with the Canadian forces during armed conflicts.
'The Response' – the Canadian National War Memorial
45°25′26.53″N 075°41′43.79″W / 45.4240361°N 75.6954972°W Commemorates the Canadian participation and its soldiers fallen in armed conflict.
Next of Kin Memorial Avenue
52°08′49.36″N 106°39′29.27″W / 52.1470444°N 106.6581306°W Memorial for the
First World War and ensuing wars.
Old City Hall Cenotaph
43°39′07.70″N 079°22′54.21″W / 43.6521389°N 79.3817250°W Dedicated to Torontonians who lost their lives during the First World War,
Second World War and the Korean War.
Ontario Veterans Memorial
43°39′40.63″N 079°23′28.04″W / 43.6612861°N 79.3911222°W Dedicated to the Canadian military who served from the
Fenian raids to the Campaign Against Terror. 
Garden of the Unforgotten
43°53′39.66″N 078°51′46.07″W / 43.8943500°N 78.8627972°W Dedicated to the servicemen of Oshawa who lost their lives during the First World War, Second World War and the Korean War
45°25′29.64″N 075°41′59.64″W / 45.4249000°N 75.6999000°W Located in the
Peace Tower, it holds all seven volumes of the Books of Remembrance, recording every Canadian killed in service, from Canada's first overseas campaign, the Nile Expedition, to the present.
45°25′43.58″N 075°41′47.49″W / 45.4287722°N 75.6965250°W Commemorates Canadian soldiers who served, or are currently serving in
United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Per ardua ad astra
43°39′16.56″N 079°23′17.6″W / 43.6546000°N 79.388222°W Dedicated to Canadian airmen who fought.
50°26′52.88″N 104°36′44.18″W / 50.4480222°N 104.6122722°W Honour those Regina citizens who served in the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.
Royal Canadian Navy Monument
45°25′14.99″N 075°42′37.45″W / 45.4208306°N 75.7104028°W Commemorates the men and women who have served or are serving with the Royal Canadian Navy.
Shaunavon War Memorial
49°38′52.12″N 108°24′23.34″W / 49.6478111°N 108.4064833°W Designed by Francis Henry Portnall (1926) to honour those citizens who served in the War
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
45°25′26.53″N 075°41′43.79″W / 45.4240361°N 75.6954972°W Dedicated to all the unidentified Canadian soldiers and is part of the
National War Memorial.
44°06′01.44″N 077°34′31.44″W / 44.1004000°N 77.5754000°W Dedicated to all Canadians fallen in conflict
45°25′27.92″N 075°41′42.67″W / 45.4244222°N 75.6951861°W Commemorating fourteen signal figures from the military history of the country, from French
colonial rule, to the Second World War.
42°59′15.66″N 081°14′48.54″W / 42.9876833°N 81.2468167°W Commemorates the local soldiers who died during the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.
Thunder Bay Cenotaph
Thunder Bay, Ontario
48°26′15.9″N 089°13′34.88″W / 48.437750°N 89.2263556°W Commemorates the local soldiers who died during the First, the Second and the Korean Wars.
Welland-Crowland War Memorial
42°59′51″N 079°15′31″W / 42.99750°N 79.25861°W Designed by
Elizabeth Wyn Wood, commemorates not only the war dead but also those who served at home.
War memorials overseas [ edit ]
First World War [ edit ]
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
Beaumont-Hamel, Somme, France
50°04′24.80″N 002°38′53.09″E / 50.0735556°N 2.6480806°E Commemorating the
Royal Newfoundland Regiment's participation in the Battle of the Somme.
Bourlon Wood Memorial
50°10′24.51″N 003°07′09.14″E / 50.1734750°N 3.1192056°E Commemorates the participation of Canadian soldiers and memorial for Canadian soldiers who died during the First World War.
Canadian National Vimy Memorial
50°22′46.55″N 002°46′26.36″E / 50.3795972°N 2.7739889°E Commemorating the
Battle of Vimy Ridge.
50°03′15.12″N 002°45′05.19″E / 50.0542000°N 2.7514417°E Commemorating the Canadian participation in the Battle of the
Courtrai Newfoundland Memorial
50°50′19.47″N 003°17′06.69″E / 50.8387417°N 3.2851917°E Commemorating the actions of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment during the
Battle of Courtrai.
50°14′02.90″N 002°59′50.12″E / 50.2341389°N 2.9972556°E Commemorating the breaking of the
50°03′54.31″N 002°51′13.24″E / 50.0650861°N 2.8536778°E Dedicated to the Newfoundlanders who fought during the
Battle of Le Transloy.
Hill 62 (Sanctuary Wood) Memorial
50°50′03.79″N 002°56′50.08″E / 50.8343861°N 2.9472444°E Commemorating the defence of the
Le Quesnel Memorial
Le Quesnel, France
49°46′29.96″N 002°36′33.85″E / 49.7749889°N 2.6094028°E Commemorating the Canadian participation in the
Battle of Amiens.
Masnières Newfoundland Memorial
50°07′24.4″N 003°12′42.2″E / 50.123444°N 3.211722°E Commemorates the actions of the
Royal Newfoundland Regiment during the First Battle of Cambrai, of World War I.
50°51′07.41″N 002°53′28.55″E / 50.8520583°N 2.8912639°E Commemorating the defenders that died in the Ypres Salient and whose graves are unknown.
50°16′14.17″N 002°53′35.95″E / 50.2706028°N 2.8933194°E Commemorates the Royal Newfoundland's participation during the
Battle of Arras.
50°53′51.89″N 003°00′47.63″E / 50.8977472°N 3.0132306°E Commemorating the
Battle of Passchendaele.
Saint Julien Memorial
50°53′58.65″N 002°56′26.41″E / 50.8996250°N 2.9406694°E Commemorating the Canadian participation in the
Second Battle of Ypres.
Lyndhurst, Hampshire, England
50°52′08.36″N 001°37′26.81″W / 50.8689889°N 1.6241139°W Also known as the Canadian Fireplace it commemorates the
Canadian Forestry Corps and lumbermen who worked with the Portuguese
Thelus Military Cemetery
50°21′40.72″N 002°47′17.336″E / 50.3613111°N 2.78814889°E Commemorating the
Battle of Vimy Ridge, including the graves of almost 300 Commonwealth soldiers, most of whom are Canadian.
Second World War – present [ edit ]
Bergen op Zoom Canadian War Cemetery
Bergen op Zoom, Netherlands
51°30′07″N 004°19′49″E / 51.50194°N 4.33028°E Cemetery for 1118 Commonwealth soldiers, 971 of whom are Canadian. It is adjacent to the
Bergen op Zoom War Cemetery, which contains the graves of 1284 Commonwealth soldiers.
Canadian WW2 Section
Brookwood, Surrey, England
51°18′01″N 000°38′27.39″W / 51.30028°N 0.6409417°W Brookwood has a WW1 and this WW2 Canadian Section adjacent to the Canadian Records Hall with sculpted beaver and legend 'A Mari usque ad Mare'
Gapyeong Canada Monument
Gapyeong County, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
37°52′36.71″N 127°31′48.79″E / 37.8768639°N 127.5302194°E Dedicated to the sacrifices made by the Canadian forces during the Korean war, especially at the
Battle of Kapyong.
Groesbeek Canadian War Cemetery
51°47′53.92″N 5°55′54.76″E / 51.7983111°N 5.9318778°E Cemetery for the dead from the Second World War.
Kandahar Airfield Memorial and Memorial Inuksuk
31°30′21″N 065°50′52″E / 31.50583°N 65.84778°E The Airfield Memorial is dedicated to Canadians who have fallen in the
War in Afghanistan and the Inuksuk to those Canadians, as well as other coalition members who were killed in fighting in Afghanistan.
35°53′40.57″N 014°30′28.27″E / 35.8946028°N 14.5078528°E Dedicated to
Commonwealth aircrew (including Canadians) who fought, and lost their lives, in the Mediterranean during the Second World War.
Monument to Canadian Fallen (
Korean War Monument)
United Nations Memorial Cemetery
Busan, South Korea
35°07′41″N 129°05′49″E / 35.12806°N 129.09694°E Located where 378 Canadians are buried. An identical monument is in downtown Ottawa.
National Canadian Liberation Monument
Celebrating the liberation of the Netherlands by Canadians, featuring the sculpture
Man with Two Hats, identical to one in Ottawa.
The 31 paintings of Canadian War Memorials by F.A. (Tex) Dawson were unveiled just outside
Currie Hall in the Mackenzie Building at Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston on Wednesday 7 April 2010. Jack Pike, the chairman of the Royal Military College of Canada Museum's board of directors, said they had found a permanent and appropriate home. "We are delighted to have these paintings," he said in front of the assemblage of paintings, each representing a different memorial in a different setting and different seasons. "These are symbolic of sacrifice and remembrance and they do the whole thing so well." 
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
The Unending Vigil: A History of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, 1917–1967 (1967). Robert Shipley,
To Mark Our Place (1987). Herbert Fairlie Wood and John Swettenham,
Silent Witnesses (1974).
External links [ edit ]