Canary Wharf

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Canary Wharf
Central business district
Canary Wharf from Greenwich riverside 2022-03-18.jpg
Canary Wharf viewed from Greenwich riverside 2022
Canary Wharf is located in Greater London
Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
Location within Greater London
Population68,700 (Millwall, Blackwall and Cubitt Town, East India and Lansbury and Limehouse wards 2011 Census)
OS grid referenceTQ375802
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtE14
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
51°30′18″N 0°01′21″W / 51.5050°N 0.0225°W / 51.5050; -0.0225Coordinates: 51°30′18″N 0°01′21″W / 51.5050°N 0.0225°W / 51.5050; -0.0225

Canary Wharf is an area of London, England, located near the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Canary Wharf is defined by the Greater London Authority as being part of London's central business district, alongside Central London.[1] With the City of London, it constitutes one of the main financial centres in the United Kingdom and the world,[2] containing many high-rise buildings including the third-tallest in the UK, One Canada Square,[3] which opened on 26 August 1991.[4]

Developed on the site of the former West India Docks, Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 sq ft (1,500,000 m2) of office and retail space. It has many open areas, including Canada Square, Cabot Square and Westferry Circus. Together with Heron Quays and Wood Wharf, it forms the Canary Wharf Estate, around 97 acres (39 ha) in area.


The Canary Wharf area in 1899 showing West India Docks and the Isle of Dogs
Plaque on commemorative sculpture of 1987 to the London Docklands Development Corporation as seen in 2021
East view from Cabot Square

Canary Wharf is located on the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs.

West India Dock Company[edit]

From 1802 to the late 1980s, what would become the Canary Wharf Estate was a part of the Isle of Dogs (Millwall), Limehouse, and Poplar and was one of the busiest docks in the world. West India Docks was primarily developed by Robert Milligan (c. 1746–1809) who set up the West India Dock Company.

Port of London Authority[edit]

The Port of London Authority was established in 1909 and took control of West India Dock. Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No. 32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock. This was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Islands fruit trade. It is located on the Isle of Dogs, the quay and warehouse were given the name Canary Wharf.[5]

London Docklands Development Corporation[edit]

After the 1960s, when cargo became containerized, port industry began to decline, leading to all the docks being closed by 1980.[6][7] After the docks closed in 1980, the British Government adopted policies to stimulate redevelopment of the area, including the creation of the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) in 1981 and the granting of Urban Enterprise Zone status to the Isle of Dogs in 1982.[7]

The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm, former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB), came up with the idea to convert Canary Wharf into a back office. Further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district and included the LDDC developing an inexpensive light metro scheme, the Docklands Light Railway, to make use of a large amount of redundant railway infrastructure and to improve access.

The project was sold to the Canadian company Olympia & York[8] and construction began in 1988, master-planned by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill with Yorke Rosenberg Mardall as their UK advisors, and subsequently by Koetter Kim. The first buildings were completed in 1991, including One Canada Square, which became the UK's tallest building at the time and a symbol of the regeneration of Docklands. By the time it opened, the London commercial property market had collapsed, and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992.

Initially, the City of London saw Canary Wharf as an existential threat. It modified its planning laws to expand the provision of new offices in the City of London, for example, creating offices above railway stations (Blackfriars) and roads (Alban Gate). The resulting oversupply of office space contributed to the failure of the Canary Wharf project.

Canary Wharf Group[edit]

In October 1995, an international consortium that included investors such as Alwaleed, bought control for $1.2 billion. Paul Reichmann, of Olympia & York, was named chairman, and Canary Wharf went public in 1999.[9] The new company was called Canary Wharf Limited, and later became Canary Wharf Group.

In 1997, some residents living on the Isle of Dogs launched a lawsuit against Canary Wharf Ltd for private nuisance because the tower interfered with TV signals. The residents lost the case.[10]

Recovery in the property market generally, coupled with continuing demand for large floorplate Grade A office space, slowly improved the level of interest. A critical event in the recovery was the much-delayed start of work on the Jubilee Line Extension, which the government wanted ready for the Millennium celebrations.

In March 2004, Canary Wharf Group plc. was taken over by a consortium of investors, backed by its largest shareholder Glick Family Investments[11] and led by Morgan Stanley using a vehicle named Songbird Estates plc.

Tallest buildings[edit]

This table lists completed buildings in Canary Wharf that are at least 100 metres tall.

Image Name Height Floors Completion date Notes
Metres Feet
1 Londres 097..jpg One Canada Square 235 771 50 1991 The third-tallest completed building in the United Kingdom, the tallest being The Shard. Designed by Cesar Pelli, it was the tallest building in the United Kingdom upon completion in 1991. Multi-tenanted; occupiers include BNY Mellon, the CFA Institute, Clearstream, European Energy Exchange, Euler Hermes, the International Sugar Organization, Mahindra Satyam, MetLife, Moody's Analytics and Reach.[12]
2 Canary Wharf and Isle of Dogs 22.12.2019 (ammended).png Landmark Pinnacle 233 764 75 2020 Residential tower (tallest residential building in Europe[13])
3 Newfoundland Quay building.jpg Newfoundland 220 722 60 2019 Residential tower.[14]
4 SouthQuayPlazaCanaryWharf.jpg South Quay Plaza 215 705 68 2020 Residential tower
5 One Park Drive, Canary Wharf.jpg One Park Drive 205 673 57 2019 Residential tower
6 HSBC Building London.jpg 8 Canada Square 200 655 42 2002 The joint eleventh-tallest completed building in the United Kingdom. Occupied by HSBC as its global headquarters.[15]
7 Citigroup EMEA Centre.jpg 25 Canada Square 200 655 42 2001 The joint eleventh-tallest completed building in the United Kingdom. 25 Canada Square and 33 Canada Square together form a single complex known as the Citigroup Centre. Primarily occupied by Citigroup as its EMEA headquarters.[16] Other tenants include Gain Capital, 3i Infotech, Crossrail, Instinet, Munich Re, MWB Group, FIS, Interoute, NYK and Wells Fargo.
8 Wardian Tower East.png Wardian London (East Tower) 187 614 55 2019 Residential tower
9 The Madison.png The Madison 182 597 53 2019 Residential tower
10 Wardian West Tower.png Wardian London (West Tower) 168 552 50 2019 Residential tower
11 Barclays HQ.jpg One Churchill Place 156 513 32 2005 Occupied by Barclays as its global headquarters.[17] Currently the eighth-tallest building in the United Kingdom, it was originally planned to be 50 storeys in height, but was scaled down to 31 after the 11 September attacks.
12= 40 Bank Street Heron Quay London.jpg 40 Bank Street 153 502 33 2003 Multi-tenanted; occupiers include Allen & Overy, ANZ Bank, China Construction Bank, Duff & Phelps, Saxo Bank, and Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom.[12]
12= Jp morgan building.jpg 25 Bank Street 153 502 33 2003 Occupied by JPMorgan Chase as its European headquarters since 2012.[18]
14 10 Upper Bank Street London.jpg 10 Upper Bank Street 151 495 32 2003 Occupied by Clifford Chance as its global headquarters.[19] Other occupiers include FTSE Group, Infosys, Mastercard, Deutsche Bank, and Total.[12]
15 10 Park Drive
Wood Wharf
150 492 43 2019 Residential tower[20]
16 Cropped image of Baltimore Tower - 30435639090 bf141ef3b1 o.jpg Arena Tower 149 489 45 2017 Residential tower
17 Pan Peninsula London.jpg Pan Peninsula (East Tower) 147 484 48 2008 Residential tower
18 MaineTowerCanaryWharf.jpg Maine Tower (Harbour Central Block D) 144 472 42 2018 Residential tower
19 22 Marsh Wall.jpg 24 Marsh Wall 140 458 44 2010 Residential tower
29 25 Churchill Place, Canary Wharf.jpg 25 Churchill Place 130 426 23 2014 The building housed the European Medicines Agency from early 2014 until March 2019 when they relocated to Amsterdam[21] and Ernst & Young from 2015.
21= Novotel Hotel Canary Wharf.jpg 40 Marsh Wall 128 420 39 2017 Hotel operating as 'Novotel Canary Wharf'
21= GRID Building
10 George Street
Wood Wharf
128 420 35 2018 Residential tower
23 Harbour Central Block C.jpg Harbour Central Block C 125 410 36 2018 Residential tower
24 Pan Peninsula London.jpg Pan Peninsula (West Tower) 122 400 39 2008 Residential tower
25 Dollar Bay Tower E14 9BX.jpg Dollar Bay Tower 109 358 31 2016 Residential tower
26 OneWestIndiaQuay.jpg 1 West India Quay 108 354 36 2004 Floors 1–12 are occupied by a Marriott Hotel.[22] Floors 13–33 house 158 apartments.
27 33 Canada Square.jpg 33 Canada Square 105 344 18 1999 33 Canada Square and 25 Canada Square together form a single complex, see above for details.

Corporations and agencies[edit]

Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 sq ft (1,500,000 m2) of office and retail space, of which around 7,900,000 sq ft (730,000 m2) (about 49%) is owned by Canary Wharf Group.[23] Around 105,000 people work in Canary Wharf,[24] and it is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks, professional services firms, and media organisations, including Barclays, Citigroup, Clifford Chance, Credit Suisse, Ernst & Young, Fitch Ratings, HSBC, Infosys, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, MetLife, Moody's, Morgan Stanley, Royal Bank of Canada, Deutsche Bank, S&P Global, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, State Street, The Economist Group and Thomson Reuters,.[25] Until 2018, Canary Wharf also hosted two European Union agencies, European Medicines Agency[26] and European Banking Authority,[27] that moved to Amsterdam and Paris respectively due to Brexit.



West India Quays and Poplar Dock are two marinas that are used as moorings for barges and private leisure river craft and is owned by the Canal & River Trust.[28][29]


A local public library, called Idea Store Canary Wharf, is in Churchill Place shopping mall and run by Tower Hamlets Council which opened on Thursday 16 March 2006 as part of the Idea Store project[30] and is the borough fourth Idea Store.[31]


Canary Wharf hosts two multiplexes (cinemas), one on West India Quay run by Cineworld.[32][33] and another at Crossrail Place called Everyman Cinema.[34]


Canada Square

Canada Square is one of the central squares at Canary Wharf. It is a large open space with grass, except during the winter when it is converted into an ice rink. The square is named after Canada, because the original developers of modern Canary Wharf, Olympia & York, wanted to reflect their heritage. Underneath the square is Canada Place shopping mall.

Westferry Circus

Westferry Circus is on the west side of Canary Wharf. It is a garden at ground level, and below is a roundabout allowing traffic to flow through. The garden is enclosed by bespoke hand-crafted ornamental railings and entrance gates by artist Giuseppe Lund. The area has a long history, dating back to 1812, when the Poplar and Greenwich Roads Company operated a horse ferry between Greenwich and the Isle of Dogs. It operated on the West Ferry and East Ferry Roads, which the names survived. Westferry Circus was chosen as the name for the roundabout and park by virtue of its proximity to Westferry Road.

Cabot Square

Cabot Square is one of the biggest squares at Canary Wharf, with a large fountain at the centre. The inner perimeter has additional fountains covered by trees. The square has large circular glass ventilation holes to allow gases to escape from the underground car park. The square is named after John Cabot and his son Sebastian, who were Italian explorers who settled in England in 1484.

Churchill Place

Churchill Place is an area on the east side of Canary Wharf. It is named after Winston Churchill.

Columbus Courtyard

A small square on the west side of Canary Wharf named after Christopher Columbus. The first phase of Canary Wharf was completed in 1992, 500 years after Columbus arrived in America.

Chancellor Passage

A passageway south of Cabot Square. Named after Richard Chancellor who sailed with Sir John Willoughby from Greenwich on their voyage through the White Sea to Moscow.

Wren Landing

Small area north of Cabot Square. Leads to North Dock footbridge towards Port East. Named after British architect Christopher Wren.

Local government elections[edit]

Every four years, residents of Canary Wharf ward elect two councillors to represent them on Tower Hamlets Council.

Canary Wharf (2) 2018 Result[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Andrew Wood 883
Labour Kyrsten Perry 760
Labour Anisur Anis 758
Conservative Tom Randall 754
Aspire Mohammed Talukdar 700
Aspire Helen Begum 456
Liberal Democrats Kevin Lyons 315
PATH Yusuf Ahmed 236
Liberal Democrats Gareth Shelton 222
Green Andrew Grey 215
Independent Natasha Bolter 141
Green Alasdair Blackwell 137
Rejected ballots 12
Turnout 3,101 33.8
Registered electors 9,150
Conservative hold Swing
Labour gain from Tower Hamlets First


Canary Wharf is served by London-wide, regional, national and international transport connections.


Canary Wharf is in London fare zone 2, and several stations can be found throughout the estate.

Stations in Canary Wharf only offer direct connections to London and Berkshire destinations. Regional and national National Rail connections can be found elsewhere in London, including at Liverpool Street, Lewisham, London Bridge, Stratford, Stratford International and Waterloo.[37]


The A1020 Lower Lea Crossing, heading towards Canary Wharf. A shared use path for cycles and pedestrians also crosses the bridge.

Major roads near Canary Wharf include:

Air pollution[edit]

A large building heads up into the sky. Only a portion of the building is visible, as the top is engulfed in a thick fog.
Low cloud and fog at Canary Wharf

Transport for London (TfL) and the London Borough of Tower Hamlets monitor the air quality around Canary Wharf.

In 2017, an automatic monitoring station in Blackwall found that local air quality failed to meet UK National Air Quality Objectives, recording an annual average Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) concentration of 56 μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic metre). The National Objective is set by the government at 40 μg/m3.

Alternative stations nearer Canary Wharf recorded cleaner air. Monitors at the Limehouse Link/Westferry Road junction and on Prestons Road recorded a 2017 annual average NO2 concentration of 40 μg/m3, which Tower Hamlets argue fails to meet the UK National Objective.[39]


London Buses routes 135, 277, D3, D7, D8, N277 and N550 call at bus stops near Canary Wharf. Bus 135 links Canary Wharf directly to Liverpool Street in the City of London, and bus D8 to Stratford.[40]


Several Riverboat services call at Canary Wharf Pier, including:

Tower, London Bridge City and Blackfriars are in the City of London. Oyster Cards are valid for travel on TfL-coordinated riverboat services.[41]


London City Airport is three miles from Canary Wharf. Over 4.8 million passengers passed through City Airport in 2018. The airport serves domestic and international destinations, including New York.[42][43]

London City Airport is on the DLR. Passengers from Canary Wharf can change trains at Poplar for services to the Airport.[36]


The Canary Wharf Group, London Borough of Tower Hamlets and Transport for London (TfL) provide cycling infrastructure in and around Canary Wharf. Several leisure and commuter routes pass through or near the estate, including:

Cycle Superhighway 3 passes to the north of Canary Wharf and links the estate to the City of London, Westminster and Hyde Park on a predominantly traffic-free route.


Opened in 2003,[50] the Museum of London Docklands is one of the main attractions in the area.

Canary Wharf has been reported since 2017 as part of the Pokémon Go augmented reality game to being the home for the most wanted Pokémon gyms in London including Canary Wharf DLR station and Montgomery Square.[51]

Canary Wharf Group published an official Pokémon map for PokéStop's and Pokémon Gyms, the managing director for retail Camille Waxer said in 2016 that Pokémon Go has serious potential to attract new audiences to the area, particularly food and drink outlets are seeing an increase in footfall.[52]

Canary Wharf hosts the "Winter Lights" art installations each January.[53]

Canary Wharf features in both the Doctor Who and Torchwood franchises as the fictional base of the Torchwood Institute, an organisation created by Queen Victoria to combat extraterrestrial threats. Canary Wharf features heavily as the staging post for the 2007 Cyberman invasion of Earth and is heavily damaged during a resulting battle between the Cybermen and the Daleks.

Thom Yorke of Radiohead, during their concert Live at the Astoria in May 1994,[54] explained their song Fake Plastic Trees is about Canary Wharf.


The East London Advertiser (formerly The Docklands & East London Advertiser) is a local newspaper printing weekly and also online.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Greater London Authority 2008, p. 6.
  2. ^ Greater London Authority 2008, p. 4.
  3. ^ "United Kingdom Skyscraper Diagram". Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  4. ^ A. Beaumont (2015). Contemporary British Fiction and the Cultural Politics of Disenfranchisement: Freedom and the City (illustrated ed.). Springer. p. 40. ISBN 9781137393722.
  5. ^ The West India Docks: The buildings: warehouses, Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 284–300 Archived 29 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 July 2008
  6. ^ West India Docks (1803–1980) Archived 3 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (Port Cities) accessed 22 July 2008
  7. ^ a b "History". Canary Wharf Group. Archived from the original on 23 June 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
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  9. ^ Khan, Riz (2005). Alwaleed, Businessman Billionaire Prince. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 120–121. ISBN 9780060850302.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]