Cancer signs and symptoms
Cancer symptoms are changes in the body caused by the presence of cancer. They are usually caused by the effect of a cancer on the part of the body where it is growing, although the disease can cause more general symptoms such as weight loss or tiredness. There are more than 100 different types of cancer with a wide range of different signs and symptoms which can manifest in different ways.
- The presence of unusual lump in the body
- Changes in a mole on the skin, such as size, color or shape thickness
- A persistent cough or hoarseness
- A change in bowel habits, such as unusual diarrhea or constipation
- Difficulty in swallowing or continuing indigestion
- Any abnormal bleeding, including bleeding from the vagina, or blood in urine or faeces
- A persistent sore or ulcer
- Difficulty passing urine
- Unexplained weight loss
- Unexplained pain
- Unexplained tiredness or fatigue
- Skin changes such as an unexplained rash or unusual texture
- Unexplained night sweats
- Abdominal pain
Increased Lactate Production
The Warburg Effect states that cancer cells in the presence of oxygen and glucose take a different path of energy production. Cancer cells are observed to convert glucose in the presence of oxygen into lactate through lactate dehydrogenase instead of traditionally putting pyruvate though the TCA cycle for oxidative phosphorylation. However, cancer cells still carry out oxidative phosphorylation but not primarily for the purpose of energy production but for biomass production through utilizing the intermediates from TCA cycle. This unique metabolism of cancer cells opens doors for possible cancer treatments including targeting lactate dehydrogenase and TCA intermediate production.
- Possible symptoms of cancer. Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 07 December 2013
- "Symptoms of Cancer". WebMD. Retrieved 2016-04-04.
- Corbet, Cyril; Feron, Olivier (2017). "Cancer cell metabolism and mitochondria: Nutrient plasticity for TCA cycle fueling". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 1868 (1): 7–15. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2017.01.002. PMID 28110019.