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Candidate of Philosophy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Candidate of Philosophy can refer to the US degree or status of Candidate in Philosophy (C.Phil. or Ph.C.) granted to Ph.D. students who have been accepted as candidates for that degree, or (as a direct translation) to degrees or former degrees at bachelor's or master's level from some Scandinavian countries.

United States[edit]

In the United States, it is normal for graduate students working toward a doctorate to take coursework followed by examinations (known variously as candidacy examinations, comprehensive examinations or qualifiers) after which they become candidates for the doctorate.[1] At a few institutions, this status is officially recognized either by a degree or some other official title. This is normally intended to be an interim status, prior to the award of a doctorate, not to be confused with the terminal master's degree awarded by some programs to those who leave after their candidacy examination.[2][3] Some universities grant a Master of Philosophy degree to students who have been accepted for candidacy.[4][5][6] During the 1960s, the University of Toronto, University of Waterloo, Yale, and Rutgers all granted MPhil degrees to students who were ABD, while Indiana University, the University of Michigan, the University of Minnesota, along with the University of California and the University of Washington (described below) awarded the Candidate of Philosophy degree.

University of California[edit]

The first Candidate in Philosophy degree was first awarded at UC Berkeley in June of 1968.[1] Seven of the ten University of California campuses offer the Candidate in Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree to those who have passed the candidacy exam for the PhD in some programs. On some campuses it is only awarded to those leaving without a master's or a doctorate, however at UC San Diego such a practice seems forbidden.

University of Washington[edit]

The University of Washington awards a certificate of Candidate in Philosophy (Ph.C.) to those admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D., alongside the Candidate in Education (Ed.C.) and Candidate in Musical Arts (C.M.A.) for those admitted to candidacy for the degrees of Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) and Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.). These are designations for candidate status rather than degrees.[13]



The candidatus/candidata philosophiae degree (cand.phil.) was a master's-level first degree. It was awarded after four years' study and included a dissertation. As part of Bologna Process of degree reforms, it was abandoned in 1995/6.[14]


In Sweden, sv:filosofie kandidat (fil.kand. or FK) is the title for the holder of a bachelor's degree (filosofie kandidatexamen).[15]


In Finland, the filosofian kandidaatti (fil.kand. or FK) was a graduate degree awarded until 1994. Holders can proceed to a Master of Arts degree without further examination.[16][17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Structure of the U.S. Education System: Research Doctorate Degrees". U.S. Department of Education. February 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  2. ^ "Master's Program". Brandeis University. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  3. ^ Anne Clark Bartlett (2004). "Is It Terminal? Re-Evaluating the Master's Degree". The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association. 37 (2): 26–29. doi:10.2307/4144694. JSTOR 4144694.
  4. ^ "Master of Philosophy". Columbia University. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Doctor of Philosophy program". Yale School of Architecture. Master's Degree. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  6. ^ "PhD Requirements". Department of Economics, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, George Washington University. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  7. ^ "The Candidate in Philosophy Degree". UC Berkeley. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  8. ^ "Regulations of the Davis Division of the Academic Senate". UC Davis. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  9. ^ "ADVANCEMENT TO CANDIDACY". UCLA. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  10. ^ "General Catalog 2016-2017" (PDF). UC Riverside. p. 62. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  11. ^ "Requirements for the Candidate in Philosophy (C. Phil.) Degree at San Diego". UC San Diego. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Requirements for Graduate Degrees in Philosophy | Department of Philosophy - UC Santa Barbara". www.philosophy.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  13. ^ "Scholastic Regulations". University of Washington. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Reforms and previous systems". Ministry of Higher Education and Science (Denmark). Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  15. ^ "filosofie kandidat" (in Swedish). Nationalencyklopedin. 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Graduation and Diplomas". University of Helsinki. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Lyhenteitä: a – fil. toht. (Abbreviations: a - fil.)". fi:Kielikello (in Finnish). Institute for the Languages of Finland. April 2000. Retrieved 26 August 2017.