Canine minute virus
|Canine minute virus|
|EM of canine parvovirus|
|Group:||Group II (ssDNA)|
|Species:||Carnivore bocaparvovirus 1|
Canine minute virus (or minute virus of canines; MVC) is a strain of Carnivore bocaparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae that infects dogs. It is similar to bovine parvovirus in its protein structure and DNA. A virus causing respiratory disease in humans has been called human bocavirus due to its similarity to these viruses. Canine minute virus was originally discovered in Germany in 1967 in military dogs, although it was originally thought to not cause disease. Dogs and puppies are infected orally, and the virus is spread transplacentally to the fetuses. Symptoms are seen most commonly between the ages of one to three weeks and include severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and anorexia. In severe cases, illness can be fatal.
In experimental infections, the virus is spread transplacentally when the dam is infected between 25 and 30 days of gestation and can result in abortion. When the dam is infected between 30 and 35 days, the puppies were sometimes born with myocarditis and anasarca. Pathological lesions in fetuses in experimental infections were found in the lung and small intestine.
The canine parvovirus is highly contagious and affects dogs that are unvaccinated. This virus was first discovered in the early 1960’s and has spread worldwide. The canine parvovirus infects all dogs that are unvaccinated and it is most common in young dogs four months old and younger. To help prevent the spread of the canine parvovirus in young dog’s owners need to be provided with information on what the disease is, what the signs, symptoms and treatments consist of, and how to prevent this deadly virus. There are two clinical syndromes that an infected dog with the canine parvovirus can contract which are gastrointestinal enteritis and myocardial failure. The most common clinical syndrome that is seen today is the gastrointestinal enteritis syndrome, and the myocardial failure occurs in neonatal puppies infected in utero or shortly after birth and is rarely seen today due to vaccination protocols (Van Schoor). There is no cure for the canine parvo virus it is treated symptomatically. The treatments vary from in patient to outpatient therapy. In patient therapy consists of intravenous fluid therapy, oncotic support, nutrition, antiemetics, antibiotics, antiviral treatments and antiviral medications. Outpatient therapy consists of subcutaneous fluids, antiemetics and antibiotics (Veir). Prevention of the canine parvo virus starts out when canines are young. Most puppies will receive an amount of passive immunity due to the maternally derived antibody (MDA) acquired via the colostrum. MDA protects the puppy from infection during the first weeks of life (Stavisky). There are vaccination protocols for young dogs to receive the DA2PP vaccine which is the canine distemper vaccine; it consists of the Distemper virus, Canine Adenovirus type 2, Parainfluenza and the Parvovirus. This vaccine is to be given at eight, twelve and sixteen weeks of age to help prevent the canine parvovirus. The key to help all owners and canines of the prevention of this virus is to follow the recommended vaccine schedule because this is a core vaccine and it is the number one way to not contract the virus. In conclusion, the canine parvovirus is a deadly disease that affects all canines that are unvaccinated and it has become worldwide because of how easily it is spread throughout every environment.
The genome is 5.4-kilobases in length. The termini are palindromic. There is a single P6 promoter which through the mechanism of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NP1) and two capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) are transcribed. The NS1 protein is indispensable for genome replication. The NP1 protein, unique to the Bocaparvovirus genus, appears to be critical for optimal viral replication, as the NP1 knockout mutant of MVC suffers from severe impairment of replication.
- Schwartz D, Green B, Carmichael L, Parrish C (2002). "The canine minute virus (minute virus of canines) is a distinct parvovirus that is most similar to bovine parvovirus". Virology. 302 (2): 219–23. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1674. PMID 12441065.
- McIntosh K (2006). "Human bocavirus: developing evidence for pathogenicity". J Infect Dis. 194 (9): 1197–9. doi:10.1086/508228. PMID 17041844.
- Carmichael, L. (2004). "Neonatal Viral Infections of Pups: Canine Herpesvirus and Minute Virus of Canines (Canine Parvovirus-1)". Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 2006-06-25.
- Hashimoto A (1999). "Canine parvovirus type-1 (MVC): Pathomorphological studies on the experimentally infected fetus and MVC-infected cultured cells". Canine Infectious Diseases: From Clinics to Molecular Pathogenesis. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
Stavisky, Jenny. "Parvo Puppies." (2015): n. pag. British Small Animal Veterinary Congress 2015. Web. 31 Mar. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=6671632&pid=11452>.
Van Schoor, Miranda, BVSc, BVSc (Hons), MMedVet ( Medicine). "Canine Parvovirus." Canine Parvovirus, World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2014 (2014): n. pag. Veterinary Information Network. Web. 19 Apr. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=7054783&pid=12886>.
Veir, Julia K., DVM, PhD, DACVIM (SAIM). "Canine Parvovirus Type: Does It Impact Prevention, Diagnosis or Prognosis?" (2015): n. pag. ACVIM 2012 Fort Collins, CO, USA. Web. 31 Mar. 2017. <http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=5397196&pid=11356>.