Canini (tribe)

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Temporal range: 9–0 Ma Late MiocenePresent[1]
Canini portraits.jpg
Canina (represented by the golden jackal) and Cerdocyonina (represented by the crab-eating fox)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Canini
Fischer de Waldheim, 1817[2]

Canini is a taxonomic rank which represents the dog-like tribe of the subfamily Caninae (the canines), and is sister to the fox-like tribe Vulpini. The Canini came into existence 9 million years ago. This group was first represented by Eucyon, mostly by Eucyon davisi that was spread widely across North America[1] and is basal to the other members of the tribe.[3] Its members are informally known as true dogs.


The critical features that mark the Canini as a monophyletic group include the consistent enlargement of the frontal sinus, often accompanied by the correlated loss of the depression in the dorsal surface of the postorbital process; the posterior expansion of the paroccipital process; the enlargement of the mastoid process; and the lack of lateral flare of the orbital border of the zygoma.

Members of this tribe include:

Subtribe Description Image Genus Species
Canina Fischer de Waldheim, 1817 The wolf-like canines.[4] Arctic Wolf in Montebello, Québec, Canada.jpg Canis Linnaeus, 1758
Dhole (Asiatic wild dog) cropped.jpg Cuon Hodgson, 1838
Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas mesomelas) 2.jpg Lupulella Hilzheimer, 1906
Lycaon pictus (Temminck, 1820).jpg Lycaon Brookes, 1827
Cynotherium sardous restoration.jpg Cynotherium Studiati, 1857
Eucyon davisi.JPG Eucyon Tedford and Qiu (1996)
  • Eucyon davisi
The American Museum journal (c1900-(1918)) (Aenocyon dirus) transparent background.png Aenocyon

Merriam, 1918

Cerdocyonina Tedford et al., 2009 The South American, fox-shaped canines. [4] Bush dog at Chester Zoo 1.jpg Speothos Lund, 1839
Atelocynus microtis en amazonie péruvienne.jpg Atelocynus Cabrera, 1940
Lobo Guará andando.jpg Chrysocyon Smith, 1839
Falkland Island wolf, Dusicyon australis OMNZVT2369 !1pub (cropped).jpg Dusicyon C. E. H. Smith, 1839
Culpeo MC.jpg Lycalopex Burmeister 1854
Crab-eating Fox.JPG Cerdocyon C. E. H. Smith, 1839
Protocyon Giebel 1855
Theriodictis Mercerat, 1891
  • Theriodictis platensis

Common names of most of the South American canines include "fox", based on resemblance, but they are more closely related to wolves than to vulpini, the Eurasian and North American foxes.

Ventral portion of grey wolf and crab-eating fox skulls. Note how the palatine bone extends past the tooth row of the latter.

The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh et al. (2005),[5] modified to incorporate recent findings on Canis species,[6] Lycalopex species,[7] and Dusicyon.[8]


Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog) Tibetan mastiff (transparent background).png

Canis lupus (grey wolf) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate I).png

Canis latrans (coyote) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate IX).png

Canis anthus (African golden wolf) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XI).png

Canis simensis (Ethiopian wolf) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate VI).png

Canis aureus (Golden jackal) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate X).png

Cuon alpinus (dhole) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLI).png

Lycaon pictus (African wild dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIV).png

Lupulella adusta (side-striped jackal) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIII).png

Lupulella mesomelas (black-backed jackal) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XII).png


Speothos venaticus (bush dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XLIII).png

Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate VII).png

Dusicyon australis (Falkland Islands wolf)


Lycalopex vetulus (hoary fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXI).png

Lycalopex sechurae (Sechuran fox or Peruvian desert fox)

Lycalopex fulvipes (Darwin's fox)

Lycalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XVII).png

Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox or chilla)

Lycalopex culpaeus (culpeo or Andean fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XIV).png

Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XV).png

Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog) Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XVI).png


  1. ^ a b c d Tedford, Richard H.; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. hdl:2246/5999.
  2. ^ Fischer de Waldheim, G. 1817. Adversaria zoological. Memoir Societe Naturelle (Moscow) 5:368–428. p372
  3. ^ Zrzavý, Jan; Duda, Pavel; Robovský, Jan; Okřinová, Isabela; Pavelková Řičánková, Věra (2018). "Phylogeny of the Caninae (Carnivora): Combining morphology, behaviour, genes and fossils". Zoologica Scripta. 47 (4): 373–389. doi:10.1111/zsc.12293. S2CID 90592618.
  4. ^ a b Wayne, Robert K. (June 1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218–224. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-x. PMID 8337763.
  5. ^ Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Jaffe, David B.; Kamal, Michael; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  6. ^ Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; et al. (2015). "Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–2165. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.
  7. ^ Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; et al. (2016). "Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Genetics and Molecular Biology. 39 (3): 442–451. doi:10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2015-0189. PMC 5004827. PMID 27560989.
  8. ^ Slater, G.J.; Thalmann, O.; Leonard, J.A.; Schweizer, R.M.; Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J.P.; et al. (2009). "Evolutionary history of the Falklands wolf". Current Biology. 19 (20): R937–R938. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.018. hdl:10261/58562. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 19889366.

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