|Canis lupus dingo|
|Subspecies:||C. lupus dingo|
|Canis lupus dingo|
(Canis dingo Meyer, 1793)
C. antarticus (Kerr, 1792) [suppressed ICZN], C. familiaris australasiae (Desmarest, 1820), C. australiae (Gray, 1826), C. dingo (Meyer, 1793), C. dingoides (Matschie, 1915), C. macdonnellensis (Matschie, 1915), C. familiaris novaehollandiae (Voigt, 1831), C. papuensis (Ramsay, 1879), C. tenggerana (Kohlbrugge, 1896), C. hallstromi (Troughton, 1957), C. harappensis (Prashad, 1936)
The taxon dingo refers to the native dog found in Australia but may at times also refer to some similar dogs native to peninsular and island southeast Asia and neighboring regions, such as the New Guinea singing dog. The genetic evidence indicates that the dingo clade originated from East Asian domestic dogs and was introduced through the Southeast Asian archipelago into Australia, with a common ancestry between the Australian dingo and the New Guinea singing dog.
- 1 Taxonomy
- 2 Taxonomic synonyms
- 3 Lineage
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
In 1758, the taxonomist Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the taxonomic classification of species. Canis is a Latin word meaning dog, and under this genus he listed the dog-like carnivores including domestic dogs, wolves, and jackals. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and on the next page as a separate species he classified the wolf as Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758). In 1926, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) ruled in Opinion 91 that the domestic dog Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) be placed on its official list. In 1957, the ICZN ruled in Opinion 451 that Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793) was the name to be used for the dingo and that this be placed on its official list. These are the scientific names for the dog and dingo that appear on the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology of the ICZN.
In 1978, a review to reduce the number species listed under genus Canis proposed that "Canis dingo is now generally regarded as a distinctive feral domestic dog. Canis familiaris is used for domestic dogs, although taxonomically it should probably be synonymous with Canis lupus." In 1982, the first edition of Mammal Species of the World included a note under Canis lupus with the comment: "Probably ancestor of and conspecific with the domestic dog, familiaris. Canis familiaris has page priority over Canis lupus, but both were published simultaneously in Linnaeus (1758), and Canis lupus has been universally used for this species". In the same year, an application was made to the ICZN to reclassify the dingo to Canis lupus dingo because it was proposed that the wolf (Canis lupus) was the ancestor of dogs and dingoes, however the application was rejected.
In 2003, the ICZN ruled in its Opinion 2027 that the "name of a wild species ... is not invalid by virtue of being predated by the name based on a domestic form." Additionally, the ICZN placed the taxon Canis lupus as a conserved name on the official list under this opinion. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World (2005), the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus what he proposed to be two subspecies: "familiaris Linneaus, 1758 [domestic dog]" and "dingo Meyer, 1793 [domestic dog]",[a] with the comment "Includes the domestic dog as a subspecies, with the dingo provisionally separate – artificial variants created by domestication and selective breeding. Although this may stretch the subspecies concept, it retains the correct allocation of synonyms." Although the earliest scientific use of the name dingo was in Canis familiaris dingo (Blumenbach, 1780), Wozencraft mis-attributed it to Meyer from 1793 without comment.
This classification by Wozencraft is hotly debated by zoologists. Mathew Crowther, Stephen Jackson, and Colin Groves disagree with Wozencraft and argue that based on ICZN Opinion 2027, the implication is that a domestic animal cannot be a subspecies. Crowther, Juliet Clutton-Brock and others argue that because the dingo differs from wolves by behavior and morphology, and because the dingo and dog do not fall genetically within any extant wolf clade, that the dingo should be considered the distinct taxon Canis dingo. Jackson and Groves regard the dog Canis familiaris as a taxonomic synonym for the wolf Canis lupus with them both equally ranked at the species level. They also disagree with Crowther, based on the overlap between dogs and dingoes in their morphology, in their ability to easily hybridize with each other, and that they show the signs of domestication by both having a cranium of smaller capacity than their progenitor, the wolf. Given that Canis familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) has date priority over Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793), they regard the dingo as a junior taxonomic synonym for the dog Canis familiaris. Gheorghe Benga and others support the dingo as a subspecies of the dog from the earlier Canis familiaris dingo (Blumenbach, 1780).
A taxonomic synonym is a name that applies to a taxon that now goes by a different name. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed the following taxonomic synonyms with the taxon dingo under the classification Canis lupus dingo (boldface emphasis on dingo is in the original):
dingo Meyer, 1793 [domestic dog]; antarticus Kerr, 1792 [suppressed, ICZN, O.451]; australasiae Desmarest, 1820; australiae Gray, 1826; dingoides Matschie, 1915; macdonnellensis Matschie, 1915; novaehollandiae Voigt, 1831; papuensis Ramsay, 1879; tenggerana Kohlbrugge, 1896; hallstromi Troughton, 1957; harappensis Prashad, 1936.
Canis dingo, Australian dingo
For Canis dingo, the following taxa are regarded as taxonomic synonyms: antarticus [suppressed], Canis familiaris australasiae, Canis australiae, Canis dingoides, Canis macdonnellensis, Canis familiaris novaehollandiae.
In 1768, James Cook took command of a scientific voyage of discovery from Britain to New Holland, which was the name for Australia at that time. In 1770, his ship HMS Endeavour arrived in Botany Bay, which is now part of Sydney. The mission collected specimens and made notes for taking back to Britain. On return to Britain, Joseph Banks commissioned George Stubbs to produce paintings based on his observations, one of which was the "Portrait of a Large Dog from New Holland" completed in 1772. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach gathered together a collection from the Cook voyage and was the first to classify the "New Holland dog" as Canis familiaris dingo (Blumenbach, 1780).
In 1788, the First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay under the command of Australia's first colonial governor, Arthur Phillip, who made a brief description and an illustration in his journal of the "Dog of New South Wales". In 1793, the "Dog of New South Wales" was classified by Friedrich Meyer as Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793), based on the illustration. In 1947, a proposal was made to change this classification after it was discovered that the "New Holland dog" Canis antarticus (Kerr, 1792) had been specified a year earlier in a little-known work. Both Kerr and Meyer had based their classifications on the illustration of the "Dog of New South Wales", and therefore there is no reference specimen that these were based on. In 1957, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) was asked to suppress the name Canis antarticus on the grounds that Canis dingo was the common name that had been used for over 150 years. The ICZN ruled in favour of Canis dingo (Meyer, 1793) and suppressed the name Canis antarticus (Kerr, 1792) in its Opinion 451.
The taxonomic classification of the dingo remains both confused and debated. Whether the dingo was a wild or domesticated species was not clarified from Meyer's original description, which translated from the German language ambiguously reads:
It is not known if it is the only dog species in New South Wales, and if it can also still be found in the wild state; however, so far it appears to have lost little of its wild condition; moreover, no divergent varieties have been discovered.
Canis hallstromi, New Guinea singing dog
Janice Koler-Matznick and others disagree with Wozencraft, and believe that "Canis hallstromi" (New Guinea singing dog) should not be classified under Canis lupus dingo on the grounds that it has behavioral, morphological and molecular characteristics that are distinct from the wolf.
Canis tenggerana harappensis, ancient dog found in South Asia
During excavation seasons in 1924-25 and 1930–31, a team of researchers at Harappa, in modern Pakistan, collected a wide variety of ancient domestic animal remains which had been buried for 5,000 years. Also found was a dog skull, however its location and depth was not recorded and its age is not known. It is described as being morphologically similar to Canis tenggerana from Java. It had earlier been proposed that a population of early dogs had been more widespread across the region, and therefore the specimen was described as Canis tenggerana harappensis. Jackson and Groves disagree with Wozencraft, and believe that this taxon does not closely resemble the dingo.
Canis familiaris tenggerana, Java
In the late nineteenth century, naturalists working in the Tennger Mountains in eastern Java identified a dog which they named "Canis familiaris tenggerana" after the local people called the Tenggerese. A similar dog existed in the Dieng highlands, and it is assumed that pure populations of these two dogs no longer exist, mainly as a result of cross-breeding with varieties of domestic dogs. The status of the Tengger as being wild or domesticated is not clear. It has been described as a bush-dwelling dog although its morphology shows no wild adaption, and it has also been described as easy to domesticate. Jackson and Groves disagree with Wozencraft, and believe that this taxon does not closely resemble the dingo.
Canis papuensis, Papua New Guinea
In a report to the Linnean Society of New South Wales in 1882, N. De Miklouho-Maclay identified several anatomical and behavioural differences between Australian Dingoes and dogs that inhabited the coastal lowlands (Maclay Coast) of Papua New Guinea. He gave the Papuan coastal canines the scientific name Canis papuensis. The differences between Canis dingo and Canis papuensis included a much smaller brain, which he attributed to the quite different lifestyles of the two animals. There were several differences in overall looks and build. Whereas the Australian Dingo is well known for its intelligence and boldness, as well as near independence from humans, he reported that the coastal Papuan canines remained on the periphery of native villages, regularly feeding on cast-offs and human waste. Hunting on their own was almost unknown. Instead of the bold independence of the Australian dingo, the coastal dogs behaved very subserviently toward humans, exhibiting begging and grovelling. Additionally, he stated, "The Canis papuensis is very different in appearance and character from Canis dingo; is generally smaller, has not the bushy tail of the dingo...."  Jackson and Groves propose that papuensis may refer to feral dogs.
The archaeological record shows that the earliest dingo skeletal remains in Australia date to 3,450 years before present (YBP) from the Mandurah Caves on the Nullabor Plain, south-eastern Western Australia; 3,320 years YBP from Woombah Midden near Woombah, New South Wales; and 3,170 years YBP from Fromme's Landing on the Murray River near Mannum, South Australia. Dingo bone fragments were found in a rock shelter located at Mount Burr, South Australia in a layer that was originally dated 7,000-8,500 YBP. Excavations later indicated that the levels had been disturbed, and the dingo remains "probably moved to an earlier level." The earliest dingo remains in the Torres Straits date to 2,100 YBP. In New Guinea, the earliest dog bones date to 2,500–2,300 YBP from Caution Bay near Port Moresby but no ancient New Guinea Singing Dog remains have been found.
At the end of the Last glacial maximum and the rise in sea levels, Tasmania became separated from the Australian mainland 12,000 YBP, and New Guinea 6,500–8,500 YBP by the inundation of the Sahul Shelf. No remains have been uncovered in Tasmania, therefore the Dingo is estimated to have arrived in Australia between 3,500-12,000 YBP. To reach Australia through the Malay Archipelago even at the lowest sea level of the Last Glacial Maximum, a journey of at least 50 km over open sea between ancient Sunda and Sahul was necessary, indicating that the dingo arrived by boat.
Studies of the dingo maternal lineage through the use of Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) as a genetic marker indicate that dingoes are descended from a small founding population through a single founding event or no more than a few founding events either 4,600-5,400 YBP or 4,600-10,800 YPB, or 4,640-18,300 YBP, depending on mutation rate assumptions used. They remained isolated from other dogs until the arrival of Europeans.
In 1995, a researcher compared the skull morphology of the dingo to those of other dogs and wolves and concluded that the dingo was a primitive dog that may have evolved from the Indian wolf (C. l. pallipes) or the Arabian wolf (C. l. arabs). Based on phenotype, the same researcher thought that dingoes were widespread across the planet in the past but had declined due to admixture with domestic dogs. They were thought to exist in Australia as wild dogs, rare in New Guinea, but common in Sulawesi and in northern and central Thailand. Relic populations were thought to occur in Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines and Viet Nam. However, morphological comparisons (based on skull measurements) had not been undertaken on specimens to provide a better understanding. Later DNA studies indicate this proposed wide distribution to be incorrect.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. In 2004, a study compared the DNA sequences of 582 base pairs in length of maternal mDNA taken from Australian dingoes. All dingo sequences in the study were found to be either identical to, or differing by a single substitution from, a single mDNA haplotype named A29. All dingo sequences since studied exhibit haplotype A29, which falls within the Clade A haplogroup that represents 70% of domestic dogs. In 2009, a study further categorised haplotype A29 within the a2 sub-haplogroup that originated from hybridization between dog and wolf post-domestication. Later studies analysed the whole genome of a dingo provided significant evidence of admixture between the dingo and a Chinese wolf. The dingo lineage derives from dog/Chinese wolf genetic admixture.
Haplotype A29 is found in both Australian dingoes and in domestic dogs exclusively in the East Asian region: East Siberia, Arctic America, Japan, Indonesia, New Guinea and in South China, Kalimantan, and Bali. It is associated with the Siberian Husky and the American Arctic breeds, the Alaskan Malamute, Alaskan Husky, Greenland dog and the Canadian Eskimo Dog. The evidence suggests that the haplotype was introduced from East Asia or southeast Asia through the islands of the Malay Archipelago and into Australia. Haplotype A29 was one of several domestic dog mDNA haplotypes brought into the Malay Archipelago but only A29 reached mainland Australia.
The existence of a genetic subdivision within the dingo population has been proposed over two decades but has not been investigated. In 2016, a study compared DNA sequences using the entire mDNA genome (16,000 base pairs in length), and 13 DNA loci of the cell nucleus, taken from dingoes and New Guinea singing dogs. The study of their maternal mDNA provided evidence that they form a monophyletic clade (indicating that they all carried the same mutation inherited from a single female ancestor in the past). Dogs from China, Bali and Kalimantan did not fall within this clade. There are two distinct populations of dingoes in Australia based on both mitochondrial and nuclear evidence. The dingoes found today in the northwestern part of the Australian continent are estimated to have diverged 8,300 YBP, followed by a divergence of the New Guinea singing dog from the southeastern dingoes 7,800 YBP. As the New Guinea singing dog is closely related to the southeastern dingoes, these divergences are thought to have occurred somewhere in Sahul (a landmass which once included Australia, New Guinea and some surrounding islands). The New Guinea singing dog then became a distinct but closely related lineage. The Fraser Island dingoes were unique because they cluster with the southeastern dingoes but exhibit many alleles (gene expressions) similar to the New Guinea singing dog, in addition to showing signs of admixture with the northwestern dingoes. These dates suggest that dingoes spread from Papua New Guinea to Australia over the land bridge at least twice. The lack of fossil evidence from northern Australia and Papua New Guinea could be explained by their tropical climate and acidic soil, as there are generally few fossils found in these regions.
These dates were well before the human Neolithic Expansion through the Malay Peninsula around 5,500 YBP, therefore Neolithic humans were not responsible for bringing the dingo to Australia. The Neolithic included gene flow and the expansion of agriculture, chickens, pigs and domestic dogs - none of which reached Australia. There is no evidence of gene flow between Indigenous Australian and early East Asian populations. Dingoes do not carry duplications of AMY2B, the gene that allows the digestion of amylase like most other dogs, which provides evidence that they arose before the expansion of agriculture. Y chromosome DNA indicates that the dingo is an older lineage than Malay Peninsula dogs. This provides evidence that the dingo arrived in Australia before the Neolithic expansion.
In 2011, a study looked at the mDNA of the Australian dingo and the New Guinea Singing Dog. The mDNA haplotype A29, or a haplotype one step away, was found in all of the Australian dingoes and New Guinea Singing Dogs studied, indicating a common female ancestry.
In 2012, a study looked at the dingo male lineage using Y chromosome DNA (yDNA) as a genetic marker and found 2 yDNA haplotypes. Haplotype H3 could be found in domestic dogs in East Asia and Northern Europe. Haplotype H60 had not been previously reported but was one step away from haplotype H5 that could be found in East Asian domestic dogs. Only the New Guinea Singing Dog and dingoes from north-eastern Australia showed haplotype H60, which implies a genetic relationship and that the dingo reached Australia from New Guinea. Haplotype H60 and H3 could be found among the southern Australian dingoes with H3 dominant, but haplotype H3 could only be found in the west of the continent and may represent a separate entry from the northwest. Earlier studies using other genetic markers had found the indigenous Bali dog more closely aligned with the Australian dingo than to those European and Asian breeds selected for comparison which indicated that the Bali dog was genetically diverse with a diverse history, however only one percent exhibited the A29 mDNA haplotype.
In 2011, a study looked at 582 mDNA base-pairs of the mtDNA control region of dogs from the Malay Peninsula and found that the two most common dog haplotypes of the Indonesian region, in particular Bali and Kalimantan, was mDNA haplotype A75 (40%) and "the dingo founder haplotype" A29 (8%). Also present were haplotypes A120 and A145. All 4 haplotypes fall within the a2 mDNA sub-haplogroup. The study also looked at archaeological specimens of ancient Polynesian dogs from which only a " short-haplotype" (263 mDNA base pairs - nucleotide positions 15,458-15,720) could be derived. This short haplotype was named Arc2 and corresponds to mDNA haplotypes A75 and A120, and it could be found in 70% of samples found as far away as Hawaii and New Zealand. No dogs from Taiwan nor the Philippines carried the dingo or Polynesian haplotypes, which indicates that dogs did not enter the Pacific from a north-eastern route.
In 2015, a study looked at the mDNA sequences taken from ancient New Zealand dog samples discovered at an archaeological site at Wairau Bar and found they correspond to the a2 mDNA sub-haplogroup. The dog samples all carried the mDNA haplotype A192, which has only been reported in some modern village dogs from Bali, Indonesia. When compared with the two ancient Polynesian haplotypes Arc1 and Arc2, all of the Wairau Bar dogs matched Arc2. Dogs from Wairau Bar likely represent part of the initial population of dogs introduced to New Zealand, having arrived with people around the beginning of the fourteenth century.
All of these dogs carry haplotypes that fall under the mDNA a2 sub-haplogroup and are therefore descendents of a dog/Chinese wolf hybrid ancestor. In 2015 the most comprehensive study of mDNA haplotypes to date found that the a2 sub-haplogroup represents 3% of all dogs in South East Asia, 22% in the Indian subcontinent and 16% in East Asia.
In 2013, a study of the dingo male lineage using Y chromosome DNA (yDNA) as a genetic marker looked at 338 Australian dingoes, New Guinea Singing Dogs, and village dogs from Island Southeast Asia. The Bali dogs support the arrival of their ancestors with the Austronesian expansion and the arrival of other domesticates 3-4,500 YBP. The data confirms that dingoes carry the unique yDNA haplogroup (H60) and it has been derived from yDNA haplogroup H5. Haplogroup H5 was not found in the village dogs from Island Southeast Asia but it is common in Taiwan. One H5 specimen from Taiwan clustered with one H60 from Australia with the indication of a common ancestor 4-5,000 YBP and coincides with the expansion of the Daic people of Southern China. The conclusion is that there were 2 expansions of two types of dogs. Southern China produced the first ancient regional breeds 8,000 years ago. These were then dominated and replaced by a later explosive expansion of genetically diverse dogs that had been bred in South East Asia. If so, the dingo and the New Guinea Singing Dog, that pre-date the dogs of Island Southeast Asia, would reflect the last vestiges of the earlier ancient breeds.
Admixture with wolf
Whole genome sequencing has been used to survey "...the supposedly ancient, semi-domestic dog breeds, the Basenji and dingo." In 2016, a study based on whole-genome sequences indicated that the dog is a genetically divergent subspecies of the gray wolf and was derived from a now-extinct ghost population of Late Pleistocene wolves, the dog and the dingo were not separate species, and in accordance with previous studies that the dingo and the Basenji are considered to be basal members of the domestic dog clade. "The term basal taxon refers to a lineage that diverges early in the history of the group and lies on a branch that originates near the common ancestor of the group." The study found that some dog breeds, including the dingo and basenji, were almost as genetically divergent from other dogs as the dog is from the wolf, and that their ancestral lineages had diverged from other dogs 8,500 years ago (or 23,000 years ago using another method). The study found evidence for gene flow of 0.3% mitochondrial DNA into the dingo lineage from the Qinghai population of the Tibetan wolf. The Australian National Kennel Council recognizes a dingo breed standard within its Hounds group.
- The addition of [domestic dog] against dingo and familiaris is inferred to mean that these two taxons form the "domestic dog clade" within Canis lupus, as opposed to its wild "wolf clade".
- Corbett, L.K. (2008). "Canis lupus ssp. dingo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=JgAMbNSt8ikC&pg=PA576
- Meyer, F.A.A. (1793). Systematisch-summarische Uebersicht der neuesten zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika. Dykischen, Leipzig. pp. 1–178. refer pages 33-35. Based on Dingo or Dog of New South Wales, White, p. 280; Dog of New South Wales, Phillip, p. 274. Port Jackson.
- 1792 Canis antarticus Kerr, Anim. Kingdom, vol. i, p. 136 and pi. opp. Feb. Based on Dog of New South Wales, Gov. Phillip's Voy., p. 274, pi. xlv.
- 1820 Canis familiaris australasiae Desmarest, Tabl. Encyclo. Meth. Mamm., p. 191. Port Jackson, N.S.W. (Peron 6C LeSueur).
- 1826 Canis australiae Gray, Narr. Surv. Coasts Austr. (King) ii, p. 412. "1827" — April 18, 1826. New name for australasiae only.
- 1915 Canis dingoides Matschie, Sitz. ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin, p. 107. p. 107.
- 1915 Canis macdonnellensis Matschie, Sitz. ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin
- 1831 Canis familiaris novaehollandiae Voigt, Das Thierreich (Cuvier), vol. i, p. 154 (after Easter). New Holland Dingo.
- Kohlbruge J.H.F. Die Tenggeresen. Ein Alter Javanischer Volkstamm. Ethnologische Studie. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1901.
- Troughton. E. (1957). 'Furred Animals of Australia.' (Angus and Robertson: Sydney.)
- Animal remains from Harappa Prashad, B. 1936. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, no. 51, 1-76 pp., 7 pis. (refer to pages 22-26)
- Savolainen, P.; Leitner, T.; Wilton, A. N.; Matisoo-Smith, E.; Lundeberg, J. (2004). "A detailed picture of the origin of the Australian dingo, obtained from the study of mitochondrial DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (33): 12387–12390. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401814101. PMC . PMID 15299143.
- Oskarsson, M. C. R.; Klutsch, C. F. C.; Boonyaprakob, U.; Wilton, A.; Tanabe, Y.; Savolainen, P. (2011). "Mitochondrial DNA data indicate an introduction through Mainland Southeast Asia for Australian dingoes and Polynesian domestic dogs". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1730): 967–974. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1395. PMC . PMID 21900326.
- Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N.; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter (2012). "Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry". Genetica. 140 (1–3): 65–73. doi:10.1007/s10709-012-9658-5. PMC . PMID 22618967.
- Harper, Douglas. "canine". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10 ed.). Holmiæ (Stockholm): Laurentius Salvius. pp. 39–40. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- "Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature - Opinion 91". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Smithsonian Institution, City of Washington. 73 (4). 1926.
- Francis Hemming, ed. (1957). "Opinion 451". Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 15. Order of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. pp. 331–333.
- Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology (PDF). International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2014. pp. 126, 225.
- Smith, Bradley (2015). "Chapter 1:The Dingo Debate". In Bradley Smith. The Dingo Debate: Origins, Behaviour and Conservation. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9781486300303.
- Crowther, M. S.; M. Fillios; N. Colman; M. Letnic (2014). "An updated description of the Australian dingo (Canis dingo Meyer, 1793)". Journal of Zoology. 293 (3): 192–203. doi:10.1111/jzo.12134.
- Van Gelder, Richard G. (1978). "A Review of Canid Classification" (PDF). 2646. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West, 79th Street, New York: 2.
- Honaki, J, ed. (1982). Mammal species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference (First Edition). Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections. p. 245.
- "Opinion 2027". Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 60. Order of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. pp. 81–84.
- Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. Blumenbach, J.F. 1799. Sechste Auflage. Johann Christian Dieterich, Göttingen. [ref page 100, under Canis, under familiaris, under Dingo. Translation: "Dingo. The New Holland dog. Is similar, especially in the head and shoulders, as a fox.]
- Gardner, Alfred L. (2017). "ITIS Report - Canis dingo Blumenbach, 1780". www.itis.gov. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
- Jackson, Stephen and Groves, Colin (2015). Taxonomy of Australian Mammals. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. pp. 287–290. ISBN 978-1486300129.
- Clutton-Brock, Juliet (2015). "Chapter 9. Naming the scale of nature". In Alison M Behie and Marc F Oxenham. Taxonomic Tapestries: The Threads of Evolutionary, Behavioural and Conservation Research (PDF). ANU Press, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. pp. 171–182.
- Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Matei, Horea; Cox, Guy C; Romeo, Tony; Mironescu, Eugen; Kuchel, Philip W (2010). "Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and dog (Canis familiaris)". Cell Biology International. 34 (4): 373. doi:10.1042/CBI20090006. PMID 19947930.
- Elledge, Amanda E.; Leung, Luke K.-P.; Allen, LEE R.; Firestone, Karen; Wilton, Alan N. (2006). "Assessing the taxonomic status of dingoes Canis familiaris dingo for conservation". Mammal Review. 36 (2): 142. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2006.00086.x.
- Jones. F. W. (1925). 'The Mammals of South Australia.' Pt. I11 (Government Printer: Adelaide.)
- The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay with an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson & Norfolk Island. Mazell, P. & Phillip, A. (1789). J: 274–275. Phillip, A. (Ed.). London:Stockdale.
- Iredale, Tom; Troughton, E. Le G., "A Check-List of the Mammals Recorded from Australia". The Australia Museum, Sydney, Memoir VI. Published by Order of the Trustees, Australia, 1934. p90
- Mahoney JA, Richardson BJ (1988) Canidae. "Zoological catalogue of Australia. 5. Mammalia". Ed. D W Walton. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra. p218
- Ireland, Tom (1947). "THE SCIENTIFIC NAME OF THE DINGO". Proc. Roy. zool. Soc. N.S.W. (1946/1947): 34.
- Koler-Matznick, J.; Yates, B.C.; Bulmer, S.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. (2007). "The New Guinea singing dog: its status and scientific importance". The Journal of the Australian Mammal Society. 29 (1): 47–56. doi:10.1071/AM07005.
- Koler-Matznick, Janice; Brisbin, Jr., I. Lehr; Feinstein, Mark (March 2005). "An Ethogram for the New Guinea Singing (Wild) Dog (Canis hallstromi)" (PDF). The New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Janice Koler-Matznick (20 January 2004). "The New Guinea Singing Dog" (PDF). KENNEL CLUB BOOK.
- Koler-Matznick, Janice; Brisbin Jr, I. Lehr; Feinstein, Mark; Bulmer, Susan (2003). "An updated description of the New Guinea Singing Dog (Canis hallstromi, Troughton 1957)" (PDF). J. Zool. Lond. 261 (2): 109–118. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004060.
- Page 206 refer section "2o6 MOSTLY MAMMALS"
- Hoogerwerf, A (1970). Udjung Kulon: The Land of the Last Javan Rhinoceros. E.J. Brill, Leiden. p. 365.
- Gonzalez Monge, A, Clark, G, O'Connor, S et al 2013, 'A 3000 year old DOG burial in Timor-Leste', Australian Archaeology, vol. 76, pp. 13-20.
- "Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales". 6. Linnean Society of New South Wales. 1882: 626.
- Ryan, Lyndall (2012). Tasmanian Aborigines. Allen & Unwin, Sydney. pp. 3–6. ISBN 9781742370682.
- Cairns, Kylie M.; Wilton, Alan N. (2016). "New insights on the history of canids in Oceania based on mitochondrial and nuclear data". Genetica. 144 (5): 553. doi:10.1007/s10709-016-9924-z. PMID 27640201.
- Bourke, R. Michael, ed. (2009). Food and Agriculture in New Guinea. Australian National University E. Press. ISBN 9781921536601.
- Greig, K; Walter, R; Matisoo-Smith, L (2016). Marc Oxenham, Hallie Buckley, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Bioarchaeology in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Routledge, Oxford UK. pp. 471–475. ISBN 9781138778184.
- Milham, Paul; Thompson, Peter (2010). "Relative Antiquity of Human Occupation and Extinct Fauna at Madura Cave, Southeastern Western Australia". Mankind. 10 (3): 175–180. doi:10.1111/j.1835-9310.1976.tb01149.x.Original study was published in Mankind v10 p175-180 in 1976.
- Gollan, K (1984) The Australian Dingo:in the shadow of man. In Vertebrate Geozoography and Evolution in Australasia:Animals in Space and Time (Eds M Archer and G Clayton.) p921-927 Hesperian Press, Perth
- Monash University. "SahulTime". Retrieved 2015-07-22.
- Wilton, A. N.; Steward, D. J.; Zafiris, K (1999). "Microsatellite variation in the Australian dingo". Journal of Heredity. 90 (1): 108–11. doi:10.1093/jhered/90.1.108. PMID 9987915.
- Greig, Karen; Boocock, James; Prost, Stefan; Horsburgh, K. Ann; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth (2015). "Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of New Zealand's First Dogs". PLoS ONE. 10 (10): e0138536. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138536. PMC . PMID 26444283.
- Corbett, Laurie (1995). The Dingo in Australia & Asia. p. 5. ISBN 0-8014-8264-X.
- Corbett, L.K. 2008. Canis lupus ssp. dingo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41585A10484199. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41585A10484199.en.
- Henderson, Bruce; Coates, Michael; Brimhall, Bernadine; Thompson, Judith (1979). "THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF αT-13 OF GLOBIN FROM a PURE BRED DINGO (CANIS FAMILIARIS DINGO)". Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science. 57 (3): 261. doi:10.1038/icb.1979.28. PMID 533479.
- Cox, C. B.; Moore, Peter D.; Ladle, Richard (2016). Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-118-96858-1.
- Editorial Board (2012). Concise Dictionary of Science. New Delhi: V&S Publishers. p. 137. ISBN 978-93-81588-64-2.
- Pang, J.-F.; Kluetsch, C.; Zou, X.-J.; Zhang, A.-b.; Luo, L.-Y.; Angleby, H.; Ardalan, A.; Ekstrom, C.; Skollermo, A.; Lundeberg, J.; Matsumura, S.; Leitner, T.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Savolainen, P. (2009). "MtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (12): 2849–64. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp195. PMC . PMID 19723671.
- Thalmann, O.; Shapiro, B.; Cui, P.; Schuenemann, V. J.; Sawyer, S. K.; Greenfield, D. L.; Germonpre, M. B.; Sablin, M. V.; Lopez-Giraldez, F.; Domingo-Roura, X.; Napierala, H.; Uerpmann, H.-P.; Loponte, D. M.; Acosta, A. A.; Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R. W.; Worthington, B.; Buikstra, J. E.; Druzhkova, A.; Graphodatsky, A. S.; Ovodov, N. D.; Wahlberg, N.; Freedman, A. H.; Schweizer, R. M.; Koepfli, K.- P.; Leonard, J. A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.; Paabo, S.; et al. (2013). "Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs". Science. 342 (6160): 871–4. doi:10.1126/science.1243650. PMID 24233726.
- Vila, C. (1997). "Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog". Science. 276 (5319): 1687–9. doi:10.1126/science.276.5319.1687. PMID 9180076.
- Duleba, Anna; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Malyarchuk, Boris; Grzybowski, Tomasz (2015). "Complete mitochondrial genome database and standardized classification system for Canis lupus familiaris". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 19: 123–129. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.06.014.
- Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; et al. (2014). "Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs". PLoS Genetics. 10 (1): e1004016. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016. PMC . PMID 24453982.
- Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2015). "Out of southern East Asia: The natural history of domestic dogs across the world". Cell Research. 26 (1): 21–33. doi:10.1038/cr.2015.147. PMC . PMID 26667385.
- Brown, S K; Darwent, C M; Wictum, E J; Sacks, B N (2015). "Using multiple markers to elucidate the ancient, historical and modern relationships among North American Arctic dog breeds". Heredity. 115 (6): 488–495. doi:10.1038/hdy.2015.49. PMC . PMID 26103948.
- Sacks, B. N.; Brown, S. K.; Stephens, D.; Pedersen, N. C.; Wu, J.-T.; Berry, O. (2013). "Y Chromosome Analysis of Dingoes and Southeast Asian Village Dogs Suggests a Neolithic Continental Expansion from Southeast Asia Followed by Multiple Austronesian Dispersals". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30 (5): 1103–18. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst027. PMID 23408799.
- Van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila (2013). "Genetic evidence for the colonization of Australia". Quaternary International. 285: 44. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.04.014.
- Irion, Dawn N; Schaffer, Alison L; Grant, Sherry; Wilton, Alan N; Pedersen, Niels C (2005). "Genetic variation analysis of the Bali street dog using microsatellites". BMC Genetics. 6: 6. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-6-6. PMC . PMID 15701179.
- Runstadler, J. A.; Angles, J. M.; Pedersen, N. C. (2006). "Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea". Tissue Antigens. 68 (5): 418–26. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00696.x. PMID 17092255.
- Puja, I. K.; Irion, D. N.; Schaffer, A. L.; Pedersen, N. C. (2005). "The Kintamani Dog: Genetic Profile of an Emerging Breed from Bali, Indonesia". Journal of Heredity. 96 (7): 854–9. doi:10.1093/jhered/esi067. PMID 16014810.
- vonHoldt, Bridgette M.; Driscoll, Carlos A. (2016). "3. Origins of the dog:Genetic insights into dog domestication". In James Serpell. The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior and Interactions with People (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press, UK. pp. 22–41. ISBN 978-1-107-02414-4. refer page 31
- Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves". Genome Research. 26 (2): 163–73. doi:10.1101/gr.197517.115. PMID 26680994.
- Koepfli, K.-P.; Pollinger, J.; Godinho, R.; Robinson, J.; Lea, A.; Hendricks, S.; Schweizer, R. M.; Thalmann, O.; Silva, P.; Fan, Z.; Yurchenko, A. A.; Dobrynin, P.; Makunin, A.; Cahill, J. A.; Shapiro, B.; Álvares, F.; Brito, J. C.; Geffen, E.; Leonard, J. A.; Helgen, K. M.; Johnson, W. E.; O’Brien, S. J.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; Wayne, R. K. (2015-08-17). "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species". Current Biology. 25 (16): 2158–65. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.060. PMID 26234211.
- Jane B. Reece, Noel Meyers, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson, Bernard N. Cooke (2015). "26-Phylogeny and the tree of life". Campbell Biology Australian and New Zealand version (10 ed.). Pierson Australia. pp. 561–562. ISBN 9781486007042.
- "Australian Dingo". Australian National Kennel Council. ANKC Pty Ltd. 31 August 2009.