Cannabidiol

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Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol.svg
CBD-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Trade names Epidiolex
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 13–19% (oral),[2] 11–45% (mean 31%; inhaled)[3]
Biological half-life 9 h[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEBI
ECHA InfoCard 100.215.986
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H30O2
Molar mass 314.4636
3D model (Jmol)
Melting point 66 °C (151 °F)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Cannabidiol (INN:[4] CBD) is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis.[5][6] It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract.[7]

CBD does not appear to have any intoxicating effects such as those caused by THC in marijuana, but may have effects on anxiety and anti-psychotic effect.[8]

Research[edit]

The bud of a Cannabis sativa flower coated with trichomes bearing cannabidiol and other cannabinoids

Anticonvulsant[edit]

Dravet syndrome (aka myoclonic epilepsy of infancy or SMEI) is a rare form of epilepsy that is difficult to treat. It is a catastrophic form of intractable epilepsy that begins in infancy. Initial seizures are most often prolonged events and in the second year of life other seizure types begin to emerge.[9] A number of high profile and anecdotal reports have sparked interest in treatment of Dravet syndrome with cannabidiol.[10] CBD has received orphan drug status in the United States, for treatment of Dravet syndrome which will allow it to be studied.[11]

Some cannabis/hemp extract preparations containing CBD are marketed as dietary supplements and claim efficacy against Dravet syndrome. One such preparation is marketed under the tradename Charlotte's Web Hemp Extract.[12][13]

GW Pharmaceuticals is seeking FDA approval to market a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived CBD, under the trade name Epidiolex (containing 99% cannabidiol and less than 0.10% Δ9-THC) as a treatment for Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex was granted fast-track status and is in late stage trials following positive early results from the drug.[10][14][15][needs update][16][17]

A 2014 review stated that cannabidiol has been claimed, anecdotally, to be of benefit in helping people with epilepsy. Information in the review stated that there is no established mechanism of action and the lack of high-quality evidence in this area precluded conclusions being drawn.[18][19]

A 2016 review states that because of the poor quality of available data, "no conclusions can be drawn" about the effectiveness of cannabidiol as an epilepsy treatment.[20]

Antipsychotic[edit]

There is tentative evidence that CBD had an anti-psychotic effect, but research in this area is limited.[21][22]

Safety[edit]

CBD safety in humans has been studied in multiple small studies, suggesting that it is well tolerated at doses of up to 1500 mg/day (p.o.) or 30 mg (i.v.).[23]

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Cannabidiol has very low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of these receptors.[24][25] It may potentiate THC's effects by increasing CB1 receptor density or through another CB1 receptor-related mechanism.[26] Cannabidiol may also extend the duration of the effects of THC via inhibition of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A and CYP2C enzymes.[27][unreliable source?]

Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[28] It has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[29] and this action may be involved in the antidepressant,[30][31] anxiolytic,[31][32] and neuroprotective[33][34] effects of cannabidiol. It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[35] Cannabidiol's pharmacological effects have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]

Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body.[7] It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.[36]

Pharmacokinetic interactions[edit]

There is preclinical evidence to suggest that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, modestly increasing THC's plasma concentrations resulting in a greater amount of THC available to receptors, increasing the effect of THC in a dose-dependent manner.[37][38] Despite this, the available evidence in humans suggests no significant effect of CBD on THC plasma levels.[39]

Pharmaceutical preparations[edit]

Nabiximols (USAN, trade name Sativex) is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing a near 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC. The drug was approved by Canadian authorities in 2005 to alleviate pain associated with multiple sclerosis.[40][41] Epidiolex, a drug with cannabidiol as its active pharmaceutical ingredient, received orphan drug status in the United States for treatment of Dravet syndrome in July 2015.[42]

Epidiolex is an oil formulation of CBD extracted from the cannabis plant undergoing clinical trials for refractory epilepsy syndromes.[43]

Chemistry[edit]

Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[44] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[45] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC.[46] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[47][48][49]

Biosynthesis[edit]

Cannabis produces CBD-carboxylic acid through the same metabolic pathway as THC, until the last step, where CBDA synthase performs catalysis instead of THCA synthase.[50]

Cannabidiol and THC biosynthesis[51]

Isomerism[edit]

Cannabidiol numbering
7 double bond isomers and their 30 stereoisomers
Formal numbering Terpenoid numbering Number of stereoisomers Natural occurrence Convention on Psychotropic Substances Schedule Structure
Short name Chiral centers Full name Short name Chiral centers
Δ5-cannabidiol 1 and 3 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-5-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ4-cannabidiol 1 and 3 4 No unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-5-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ4-cannabidiol 1, 3 and 6 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-4-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ5-cannabidiol 1, 3 and 4 8 No unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-4-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ3-cannabidiol 1 and 6 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ6-cannabidiol 3 and 4 4  ? unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ3,7-cannabidiol 1 and 6 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methylenecyclohex-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ1,7-cannabidiol 3 and 4 4 No unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methylenecyclohex-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ2-cannabidiol 1 and 6 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ1-cannabidiol 3 and 4 4 Yes unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ1-cannabidiol 3 and 6 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ2-cannabidiol 1 and 4 4 No unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png
Δ6-cannabidiol 3 2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-6-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol Δ3-cannabidiol 1 2 No unscheduled 2-(6-Isopropenyl-3-methyl-6-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol.png

Based on: Nagaraja, Kodihalli Nanjappa, Synthesis of delta-3-cannabidiol and the derived rigid analogs, Arizona University 1987.

See also: Tetrahydrocannabinol#Isomerism, Abnormal cannabidiol.

Society and culture[edit]

Natural sources[edit]

Selective breeding by growers in the USA dramatically lowered the CBD content of cannabis; their customers preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to a higher THC, lower CBD content.[52] To meet the demands of medical cannabis patients, growers are currently developing more CBD-dominant strains.[53]

Counterfeits[edit]

Hemp Industries Association said in 2014 that hemp seed oil is less than 25 parts per million CBD, thus hemp oil is not a source of CBD which could be used in epilepsy treatments.[54]

Legal status[edit]

CBD does not appear to be have any psychotropic ("high"} effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have effects on anxiety and anti-psychotic effect.[8] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, it will be increasingly important to distinguish “medical marijuana” (with noted varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from “medical CBD”.[8][55]

Various breeds/strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variety in the ratios of CBD-to-THC and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids.[56] However it is only the amount of ∆9-THC that chemically gives a legal determination as to whether the plant material(s) used for the purposes of extracting CBD are considered hemp, or considered marijuana.[citation needed]

Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the genus cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than three-tenths of one percent (0.3%) on a dry weight basis. Certain standards are required for the legal growth and production of hemp. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the THC concentration does not exceed 0.3% on dry weight basis.[57]

United Nations[edit]

Cannabidiol is not scheduled by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

U.S.[edit]

A CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis in 2013 brought increased demand for CBD-dominant cannabis across the US. Legislation was passed in Kentucky in 2013 to promote Hemp farming in that state as an economic development program to help tobacco farmers who were losing markets for their crops; the state lobbied for and was able to win a provision in the Agricultural Act of 2014 that legalized hemp production in states like Kentucky.[58][59][60]

As of 2017, at least 31 states had legalized industrial hemp production, including for example: California, Colorado, Indiana, Maine, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia. Many other states have passed legislation authorizing the cultivation of industrial hemp for pilot projects or studies, including: Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, and Utah. Additionally, the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the National Conference of State Legislatures have both adopted resolutions supporting revisions to the federal rules and regulations authorizing commercial production of industrial hemp.[61][62][63]

In the state of Utah, people possessing CBD-dominant hemp extract are exempt from penalties for possession or use of hemp extract under the Controlled Substances Act if they have a neurologist sign an application for a Hemp Extract Registration Card.[64] The neurologist indicates if the patient exhibits signs of intractable epilepsy or if the patient may receive benefit from the use of hemp extract. The law requires the neurologist to keep and transmit data for the Utah Department of Health database of neurologist evaluations.[65] The individual possessing the hemp extract must also obtain the hemp extract's certificate of analysis from the seller.[66]

Australia[edit]

Prescription Medicine (Schedule 4) for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent (2.0%) or less of other cannabinoids commonly found in cannabis (such as ∆9-THC).[67]

Canada[edit]

Cannabidiol is a Schedule II drug in Canada. As such, it is only available with a prescription.[68]

Europe[edit]

Cannabidiol is listed in the EU Cosmetics Ingredient Database.[69]

Cannabidiol is listed in the EU Novel Food Catalogue.[70] This listing only applies to isolated or synthetic CBD, not to crude hemp extracts or tinctures naturally containing CBD.

The European Industrial Hemp Association has issued a position paper suggesting regulatory framework in EU.[71]

Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in western Europe. A variety such as "Fedora 17" has a cannabinoid profile consistently around 1% cannabidiol (CBD) with THC less than 0.1%.[72]

Although the World Health Organization listed Cannabidiolum in a list of International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN) on 30 June 2016. French and Spanish versions wrongly mention agonist action of CBD on cannabinoid receptors while the English version says CBD is a cannabinoid receptor antagonist.[citation needed]

Sweden[edit]

CBD is not classified in Sweden.

Sativex (CBD and THC) is a prescription product available for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.[73][74]

UK[edit]

Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation combined with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a prescription product available for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (where other anti-spasmodics have not been effective).[75]

As of the 31st December 2016, products containing cannabidiol that are marketed for medical purposes are classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and cannot be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.[76]

Switzerland[edit]

While THC remains illegal, CBD is not subjected by the swiss Narcotic Acts because his substance does not produce a comparable psychoactive effect. [77] Therefore, CBD containing cannabis can be legally sold as long as it contains less than 1% of THC. [78]

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External links[edit]

  • Project CBD Non-profit educational service dedicated to promoting and publicizing research into the medical utility of cannabidiol.