|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|Bioavailability||13-19% (oral), 11-45% (mean 31%; inhaled)|
|Biological half-life||9 h|
|Melting point||66 °C (151 °F)|
|Boiling point||180 °C (356 °F)
(range: 160–180 °C)
|Part of a series on|
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (May 2016)|
Cannabidiol (CBD) (INN) is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical applications - due to clinical reports showing the lack of side effects, particularly a lack of psychoactivity (as is typically associated with ∆9-THC), and non-interference with several psychomotor learning and psychological functions.
- 1 Research
- 2 Pharmacodynamics
- 3 Pharmacokinetic interactions
- 4 Pharmaceutical preparations
- 5 Chemistry
- 6 Society and culture
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Dravet syndrome is a rare form of epilepsy that is difficult to treat. It is a catastrophic form of intractable epilepsy that begins in infancy. Initial seizures are most often prolonged events and in the second year of life other seizure types begin to emerge. A number of high profile and anecdotal reports have sparked interest in treatment of Dravet syndrome with cannabidiol.
Some cannabis/hemp extract preparations containing CBD are marketed as dietary supplements and claim efficacy against Dravet Syndrome. One such preparation is marketed under the tradename Charlotte's Web Hemp Extract. Blended/suspended in oil, the supplement contains 0.3% THC (see Legal status below, classified as hemp).
GW Pharmaceuticals is seeking FDA approval to market a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived CBD, under the trade name Epidiolex (containing 99% cannabidiol and less than 0.10% Δ9-THC) as a treatment for Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex was granted fast-track status and is in late stage trials following positive early results from the drug.
A 2014 review stated that cannabidiol has been claimed, anecdotally, to be of benefit in helping people with epilepsy. Information in the review stated that there is no established mechanism of action and the lack of high-quality evidence in this area precluded conclusions being drawn.
A newer 2016 review in The New England Journal of Medicine states that since 2013, data has been collected on patients with severe epilepsy (Dravet’s syndrome and the Lennox–Gastaut syndrome). Among 137 patients treated with Epidiolex (qualifies chemically as hemp, see Legal status below), the median reduction in the number of seizures was 54%.
A 2016 Leweke et al. review stated that THC-dominant cannabis carries the highest risk for psychotic disorders and an increased risk of psychosis. In contrast, cannabidiol (CBD) produced the reduction of psychotic symptoms due to a significant increase of anandamide levels. This supports the hypothesis that cannabidiol exerts its antipsychotic properties by a moderate inhibition of the FAAH enzyme (which is known to break down anandamide). Data on the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol in schizophrenia is still limited, but with promising initial results and a lack of side-effects. With current trials limited to 6 weeks of treatment at maximum, information on long-term efficacy and tolerability is not available yet.
CBD safety in humans has been studied in multiple small studies, suggesting that it is well tolerated at doses of up to 1500 mg/day (p.o.) or 30 mg (i.v.).
Cannabidiol has a very low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of their agonists. While one would assume that this would cause cannabidiol to reduce the effects of THC, it may potentiate THC's effects by increasing CB1 receptor density or through another CB1-related mechanism. It may also extend the duration of the effects of THC via inhibition of the cytochrome P-450-3A and 2C enzymes.
Recently, it was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Cannabidiol has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, an action which may be involved in its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator of μ and δ-opioid receptors. Cannabidiol's pharmacological effects have also been attributed to PPAR-γ receptor agonism and intracellular calcium release.
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of FAAH, which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body. It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.
There is some preclinical evidence to suggest that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, modestly increasing THC's plasma concentrations resulting in a greater amount of THC available to receptors, increasing the effect of THC in a dose-dependent manner. Despite this, the available evidence in humans suggests no significant effect of CBD on THC plasma levels.
Multiple studies have shown that the purported negative cognitive side effects caused by THC can be mitigated by regular CBD consumption. These findings bolster the theorized pharmacokinetic interactions that cannabidiol reduces THC clearance.
Nabiximols (USAN, trade name Sativex) is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing a near 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC. The drug was approved by Canadian authorities in 2005 to alleviate pain associated with multiple sclerosis. Epidiolex, a drug with cannabidiol as its active pharmaceutical ingredient, received orphan drug status in the United States for treatment of Dravet syndrome in July 2015.
Epidiolex is an oil formulation of CBD extracted from the cannabis plant undergoing clinical trials for refractory epilepsy syndromes.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid. In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone. Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC. The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.
|7 double bond isomers and their 30 stereoisomers|
|Formal numbering||Terpenoid numbering||Number of stereoisomers||Natural occurrence||Convention on Psychotropic Substances Schedule||Structure|
|Short name||Chiral centers||Full name||Short name||Chiral centers|
|Δ5-cannabidiol||1 and 3||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-5-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ4-cannabidiol||1 and 3||4||No||unscheduled|
|Δ4-cannabidiol||1, 3 and 6||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-4-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ5-cannabidiol||1, 3 and 4||8||No||unscheduled|
|Δ3-cannabidiol||1 and 6||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ6-cannabidiol||3 and 4||4||?||unscheduled|
|Δ3,7-cannabidiol||1 and 6||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methylenecyclohex-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ1,7-cannabidiol||3 and 4||4||No||unscheduled|
|Δ2-cannabidiol||1 and 6||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ1-cannabidiol||3 and 4||4||Yes||unscheduled|
|Δ1-cannabidiol||3 and 6||2-(6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol||Δ2-cannabidiol||1 and 4||4||No||unscheduled|
Society and culture
Selective breeding by growers in the USA dramatically lowered the CBD content of cannabis; their customers preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to a higher THC, lower CBD content. To meet the demands of medical cannabis patients, growers are currently developing more CBD-dominant strains.
Cannabidiol is not scheduled by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. CBD does not cause the "high" associated with the ∆9-THC in marijuana. As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, it will be increasingly important to distinguish “medical marijuana” (with noted varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) - from “medical CBD” (in which the high CBD and low THC content may mitigate psychosis).
Various breeds/strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variety in the ratios of CBD-to-THC and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids. However it is only the amount of ∆9-THC that chemically gives a legal determination as to whether the plant material(s) used for the purposes of extracting CBD are considered hemp, or considered marijuana.
Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the genus cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than three-tenths of one percent (0.3%) on a dry weight basis. Certain standards are required for the legal growth and production of hemp. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the THC concentration does not exceed 0.3% on dry weight basis.
With Charlotte's Web bringing about increased demand for CBD-dominant cannabis, cultivating hemp has captured the attention of U.S. farmers looking to replace dwindling tobacco-growing revenues with renewed hemp "cash crops." In Kentucky, farmers are spurred on by the Industrial Hemp Research Program, established by James Comer, commissioner of agriculture. With backing from Senator Rand Paul, Comer’s legislation created regulations for farmers to legally grow hemp.
Joel Stanley, CEO of Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, said they plan to invest at least $500,000 to grow therapeutic hemp in Kentucky for their Charlotte's Web cannabidiol oil, saying, "We want to make Charlotte's Web a Kentucky Proud product." In addition, Paul and Comer were able to get a provision added to the federal Farm Bill that legalized hemp production in states like Kentucky to grow the crop. The Agricultural Act of 2014 was signed by President Obama.
During recent years, there has been considerable legislative activity throughout the United States with respect to legalizing the agricultural production of industrial hemp. To date, approximately 11 states have legalized industrial hemp production, including: California, Colorado, Indiana, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Vermont, West Virginia, and Tennessee. Many other states have passed legislation authorizing the cultivation of industrial hemp for pilot projects or studies, including: Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, and Utah. Additionally, the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the National Conference of State Legislatures have both adopted resolutions supporting revisions to the federal rules and regulations authorizing commercial production of industrial hemp.
Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in western Europe. A variety such as "Fedora 17" has a cannabinoid profile consistently around 1% cannabidiol (CBD) with THC less than 0.1%.
Prescription Medicine (Schedule 4) for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent (2.0%) or less of other cannabinoids commonly found in cannabis (such as ∆9-THC).
Cannabidiol is a Schedule II drug in Canada. Prescription medication.
Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation combined with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a prescription product available for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (where other anti-spasmodics have not been effective).
Cannabidiol is listed in EU Cosmetics Ingredient Database.
- DEA News Release, DEA Eases Requirements for FDA Approved Clinical Trials on Cannabidiol (Dec. 23, 2015) ("CBD is a Schedule I controlled substance as defined under the CSA."), http://www.dea.gov/divisions/hq/2015/hq122315.shtml; Joseph T. Rannazzisi Deputy Assistant Administrator Drug Enforcement Administration Before the Caucus on International Narcotics Control, United States Senate, at 2 (June 24, 2015) (CBD is a Schedule I drug.); see also Frank Robison, Elvira Strehle-Henson, Cannabis Laws and Research at Colorado Institutions of Higher Education, COLO. LAW., OCTOBER 2015, AT 73, 76 ("[T]the DEA's position on CBD is clear--it is a Schedule I substance.").
- Mechoulam R, Parker LA, Gallily R (November 2002). "Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects". J Clin Pharmacol (Review). 42 (11 Suppl): 11S–19S. doi:10.1177/0091270002238789. PMID 12412831.
- Scuderi C, Filippis DD, Iuvone T, Blasio A, Steardo A, Esposito G (May 2009). "Cannabidiol in medicine: a review of its therapeutic potential in CNS disorders". Phytother Res (Review). 23 (5): 597–602. doi:10.1002/ptr.2625. PMID 18844286.
- [unreliable medical source?] McPartland JM, Russo EB (2001). "Cannabis and cannabis extracts: greater than the sum of their parts?" (PDF). Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. 1 (3/4): 103–132. doi:10.1300/J175v01n03_08.
- Borgelt LM, Franson KL, Nussbaum AM, Wang GS (February 2013). "The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis". Pharmacotherapy (Review). 33 (2): 195–209. doi:10.1002/phar.1187. PMID 23386598.
- Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2016-02-02). "Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth ofCannabis sativaPlants from Different Chemotypes". Journal of Natural Products. 79 (2): 324–331. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00949.
- Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC . PMID 23108553.
- http://www.dravetfoundation.org/dravet-syndrome/what-is-dravet-syndrome#sthash.jAC0bZ89.dpuf What is Dravet Syndrome?
- Melville, Nancy A. (14 Aug 2013), Seizure Disorders Enter Medical Marijuana Debate, Medscape Medical News., retrieved 2014-01-14
- Maa, Edward; Figi, Paige (2014). "The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 783–786. doi:10.1111/epi.12610. ISSN 0013-9580.
- Young, Saundra. "Marijuana stops child's severe seizures" (PDF). CNN. CNN. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Throckmorton, Douglas (24 June 2015). "Cannabidiol: Barriers to Research and Potential Medical Benefits". FDA. FDA. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Gloss D, Vickrey B (13 June 2012). "Cannabinoids for epilepsy". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Review). 6: CD009270. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009270.pub2. PMID 22696383.
- Devinsky, Orrin (2015). "Efficacy and Safety of Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) in Children and Young Adults with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy". Annual Meeting Abstracts. American Epilepsy Society. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
- Angus, Chen (8 December 2015). "Marijuana's Main Ingredient, Cannabidiol, May Be An Effective Way To Treat Epilepsy". Medical Daily. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill C, Katz R, Di Marzo V, Jutras-Aswad D, Notcutt WG, Martinez-Orgado J, Robson PJ, Rohrback BG, Thiele E, Whalley B, Friedman D (2014). "Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia (Review). 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC . PMID 24854329.
- Friedman D, Devinsky O (2016). "Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy" (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (1): 94–5. doi:10.1056/nejmc1512758.
- Leweke FM, Mueller JK, Lange B, Rohleder C (2016). "Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Psychosis". Biol. Psychiatry. 79 (7): 604–12. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.018. PMID 26852073.
- Schubart CD; et al. (2013). "Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 24: 51–64. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.11.002.
- Devinsky O; et al. (Jun 2014). "Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC . PMID 24854329.
- Mechoulam R, Peters M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Hanus LO (August 2007). "Cannabidiol--recent advances". Chem. Biodivers. (Review). 4 (8): 1678–92. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790147. PMID 17712814.
- Pertwee RG (2008). "The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin". British Journal of Pharmacology. 153 (2): 199–215. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442. PMC . PMID 17828291.
- Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Hazekawa M, Sano K, Irie K, Orito K, Egawa T, Kitamura Y, Uchida N, Nishimura R, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (2008). "Cannabidiol potentiates pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol via CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism". Brain Research. 1188: 157–164. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2007.09.090. PMID 18021759.
- Alchimia Blog, Cannabinoids and their medicinal properties
- Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjögren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson NO, Leonova J, Elebring T, Nilsson K, Drmota T, Greasley PJ (2007). "The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor". British Journal of Pharmacology. 152 (7): 1092–101. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707460. PMC . PMID 17876302.
- Russo EB, Burnett A, Hall B, Parker KK (August 2005). "Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors". Neurochemical Research. 30 (8): 1037–43. doi:10.1007/s11064-005-6978-1. PMID 16258853.
- Zanelati TV, Biojone C, Moreira FA, Guimarães FS, Joca SR (January 2010). "Antidepressant-like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5-HT1A receptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 159 (1): 122–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00521.x. PMC . PMID 20002102.
- Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC . PMID 19133999.
- Campos AC, Guimarães FS (August 2008). "Involvement of 5HT1A receptors in the anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray of rats". Psychopharmacology. 199 (2): 223–30. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1168-x. PMID 18446323.
- Mishima K, Hayakawa K, Abe K, Ikeda T, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (May 2005). "Cannabidiol prevents cerebral infarction via a serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-dependent mechanism". Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 36 (5): 1077–82. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000163083.59201.34. PMID 15845890.
- Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Ogata A, Hazekawa M, Liu AX, Fujioka M, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (March 2007). "Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance". Neuropharmacology. 52 (4): 1079–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.11.005. PMID 17320118.
- Kathmann M, Flau K, Redmer A, Tränkle C, Schlicker E (2006). "Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at mu- and delta-opioid receptors". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 372 (5): 354–361. doi:10.1007/s00210-006-0033-x. PMID 16489449.
- Ujváry I, Hanus L (2014). "Human metabolites of cannabidiol: a review on their formation, biological activity, and relevance in therapy". Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 1 (1): 90–101. doi:10.1089/can.2015.0012.
- Bornheim LM, Kim KY, Li J, Perotti BY, Benet LZ (August 1995). "Effect of cannabidiol pretreatment on the kinetics of tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites in mouse brain". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 23 (8): 825–831. PMID 7493549.
- Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, Gunasekaran N, Karl T, Long LE, Huang XF, Liu K, Arnold JC, McGregor IS (November 2011). "Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats". Psychopharmacology. 218 (2): 443–457. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2342-0. PMID 21667074.
- Hunt CA, Jones RT, Herning RI, Bachman J (June 1981). "Evidence that Cannabidiol Does Not Significantly Alter the Pharmacokinetics of Tetrahydrocannabinol in Man". Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics. 9 (3): 245–260. doi:10.1007/BF01059266. PMID 6270295.
- "Does cannabis use affect cognitive capacity?". WoahStork. 2016-02-29. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
- United States Adopted Names Council: Statement on a nonproprietary name
- "Fact Sheet — Sativex". Health Canada. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- GWPharma- Welcome
- "Cannabis-Derived Dravet Syndrome Drug Gets US Orphan Drug Approval". Nov 18, 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "Georgia doctors encouraged in study of medical marijuana". Retrieved 2015-10-08.
- Jones PG, Falvello L, Kennard O, Sheldrick GM, Mechoulam R (1977). "Cannabidiol". Acta Crystallogr. B. 33 (10): 3211–3214. doi:10.1107/S0567740877010577.
- Mechoulam R, Ben-Zvi Z, Gaoni Y (1968). "Hashish—XIII On the nature of the beam test". Tetrahedron. 24 (16): 5615–5624. doi:10.1016/0040-4020(68)88159-1. PMID 5732891.
- Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R (1966). "Hashish—VII The isomerization of cannabidiol to tetrahydrocannabinols". Tetrahedron. 22 (4): 1481–1488. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)99446-3.
- Petrzilka T, Haefliger W, Sikemeier C, Ohloff G, Eschenmoser A (1967). "Synthese und Chiralität des (−)-Cannabidiols". Helv. Chim. Acta. 50 (2): 719–723. doi:10.1002/hlca.19670500235. PMID 5587099.
- Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R (1985). "Boron trifluoride etherate on alumuna — a modified Lewis acid reagent. An improved synthesis of cannabidiol". Tetrahedron Letters. 26 (8): 1083–1086. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)98518-6.
- Kobayashi Y, Takeuchi A, Wang YG (2006). "Synthesis of cannabidiols via alkenylation of cyclohexenyl monoacetate". Org. Lett. 8 (13): 2699–2702. doi:10.1021/ol060692h. PMID 16774235.
- Marks MD, Tian L, Wenger JP, Omburo SN, Soto-Fuentes W, He J, Gang DR, Weiblen GD, Dixon RA (2009). "Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa". Journal of Experimental Botany. 60 (13): 3715–3726. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp210. PMC . PMID 19581347.
- Romney, Lee (13 September 2012). "On the frontier of medical pot to treat boy's epilepsy". Los Angeles Times.
- Good, Alastair (26 October 2010). "Growing marijuana that won't get you high". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Sachs J; et al. (Oct 2015). "Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids". Neurotherapeutics. 12 (4): 735–746. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0380-8. PMC . PMID 26269228.
- Iseger TA, Bossong MG (2015). "A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans". Schizophr. Res. 162 (1-3): 153–61. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2015.01.033. PMID 25667194.
- Sachs J et al Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct; 12(4): 735–746. PMC4604177 
- Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R (2009). "Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 30 (10): 515–27. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2009.07.006. PMID 19729208.
- Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R (2009). "Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb" (PDF). Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 30 (10): 515–27. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2009.07.006. PMID 19729208.
- Fournier, G.; Beherec, O.; Bertucelli, S. (2003). "Intérêt du rapport Δ-9-THC / CBD dans le contrôle des cultures de chanvre industriel". Annales de Toxicologie Analytique. 15 (4): 250–259. doi:10.1051/ata/2003003.
- Controlled Drugs and Substances Act – Schedule II
- Project CBD Non-profit educational service dedicated to promoting and publicizing research into the medical utility of cannabidiol.