Cannabis flower essential oil

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Cannabis plant

Cannabis flower essential oil, also known as hemp essential oil, is an essential oil obtained by steam distillation from the flowers and upper leaves of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) Hemp essential oil is distinct from hemp oil and hash oil: the former is a vegetable oil that is pressed from the seeds of low-THC varieties of hemp, the latter is a THC-rich extract of dried female hemp flowers (marijuana) or resin (hashish).

A pale yellow liquid, cannabis flower essential oil is a volatile oil that is a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid compounds. The typical scent of hemp results from about 140 different terpenoids. The essential oil is manufactured from both low-THC ("fibre-type") and high-THC ("drug-type") varieties of hemp. Even in "drug-type" hemp, the THC content of the essential oil does not exceed 0.08%.

Hemp essential oil is used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. It is also used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages.

Yield[edit]

The yield depends on the hemp type (drug, fiber) and pollination; sex, age, and part of the plant; cultivation (indoor, outdoor etc.); harvest time and conditions; drying; and storage. For example, fresh buds from an Afghani variety yielded 0.29% essential oil. Drying and storage reduced the content from 0.29% to 0.20% after 1 week, and to 0.13% after 3 months. Monoterpenes showed a significantly greater loss than sesquiterpenes, but none of the major components completely disappeared in the drying process.[1]

About 1.3 L of essential oil per ton resulted from freshly harvested outdoor-grown hemp, corresponding to about 10 L/ha. The yield of nonpollinated ("sinsemilla") hemp at 18 L/ha was more than twofold compared with pollinated hemp (8 L/ha).[1]

Constituents[edit]

Sixty-eight components were detected by GC and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) in fresh bud oil distilled from high-potency, indoor-grown hemp. The 57 identified constituents were 92% monoterpenes, 7% sesquiterpenes, and approx. 1% other compounds (ketones, esters). The dominating monoterpenes were myrcene (67%) and limonene (16%).[1]

In the essential oil from outdoor-grown hemp, the monoterpene concentration varied between 47.9 and 92.1% of the total terpenoid content. The sesquiterpenes ranged from 5.2 to 48.6%. The most abundant monoterpene was β-myrcene, followed by trans-caryophyllene, α-pinene, trans-ocimene, and α-terpinolene.[1]

Even in "drug-type" hemp, the THC content of the essential oil was not more than 0.08%.[1]

In the essential oil of five different European hemp cultivars, the dominating terpenes were myrcene (21.1–35.0 %), α-pinene (7.2–14.6 %), α-terpinolene (7.0–16.6 %), trans-caryophyllene (12.2.–18.9 %), and α-humulene (6.1–8.7 %). The main differences between the cultivars were found in the contents of α-terpinolene and α-pinene.[1]

Other terpenoids present only in traces are sabinene, α-terpinene, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), pulegone, γ-terpinene, terpineol-4-ol, bornyl acetate, α-copaene, alloaromadendrene, viridiflorene, β-bisabolene, γ-cadinene, trans-β-farnesene, trans-nerolidol, and β-bisabolol.[1]

The major alkane present in an essential oil obtained by extraction and steam distillation was the n-C₂₉ alkane nonacosane (55.8 and 10.7%, respectively).[1]

Compound  % of total
Myrcen.svg
Myrcene
29.4–65.8
Alpha-pinen.svg
α-Pinene
2.3–31.0
Beta-pinen.png
β-Pinene
0.9–7.8
3-Caren.svg
delta-3-Carene
trace–3.5
Limonene-2D-skeletal.svg
Limonene
0.2–6.9
Beta-phellandren.png
β-phellandrene
0.2–0.6
Ocimene - cis.png
cis-Ocimene
trace–0.3
Ocimene.png
trans-Ocimene
0.3–10.2
Terpinolene.svg
α-Terpinolene
trace–23.8
α-Bergamotene trace–0.8
Beta-Caryophyllen.svg
trans-Caryophyllene
3.8–37.5
Humulene.png
α-Humulene
0.7–7.4
B-Farnesene.svg
β-Farnesene
trace–1.4
β-Selinene trace–0.5
Selina-3,7(11)-diene trace–0.7
Caryophyllene oxide trace–11.3
Total monoterpenes 47.9–92.1
Total sesquiterpenes 4.0–47.5

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Rudolf Brenneisen (2007), "Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis Constituents", in Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Marijuana and the Cannabinoids, Humana Press, pp. 17–49 

External links[edit]