|Talukas||Kannur, previously known as Chirakkal Taluk|
|• Municipality Chairperson||Roshini Khalid|
|• Muncipal Corporation||63,795|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Kannur (IPA: [kaɳɳuːr] ( listen)), formerly known as Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the Kannur district, state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur District and 518 km north of state capital Thiruvananthapuram. During British rule in India, Kannur was known as Cannanore (Land of lord Krishna), which is used now only by the Indian Railways. It is the largest city of the North Malabar region.
Kannur is known as the land of Looms and Lore, because of the loom industries functioning in the district and ritualistic folk arts held in temples. Kannur is famous for its pristine beaches, Theyyam, its native performing art, and its handloom industry.
Kannur is of great strategic military importance. One of the 62 military cantonments in the country is in the Kannur Cantonment and is the headquarters of the Defence Security Corps and Territorial Army’s 122 Infantry Battalion (under Madras Regiment). Ezhimala Naval Academy (INS) is 35 km north of Kannur City. It is Asia's largest and the world's third largest naval academy. An Indian Coast Guard Academy is approved to be built at Kannur. This academy will be built on the banks of Valapattanam River at Irinave, east of Azhikkal. Kannur Cantonment is one of the important cantonments in India.
The name Kannur may have been derived from Kanathur, an ancient village. Another opinion holds that Kannur was originally a portmanteau derived from two Malayalam words: Kannan (Krishna), a Hindu deity, and Ur (place)—making it "the place of Lord Krishna." One support for this theory is that the deity of the Kadalayi Sriracha Temple was originally installed in a shrine at Kadalayi Kotta in the southeastern part of the present Kannur town. During the British Raj, the city was known as Cannanore, the anglicised form of the Malayalam word Kannur.
Kannur is sometimes identified with Naura in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. In the Middle Ages, Kannur was the important port town, on the Laccadive Sea, called Kolathunadu, which was ruled by the Kolathiris. In the 12th and 13th centuries there was trade with Persia and Arabia.
It served as the British military headquarters on India's west coast until 1887. In conjunction with her sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi.
St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. It is situated by the Laccadive Sea about 3 km from Kannur town. In 1507, the fort was besieged by the local ruler; the Portuguese rule over Cananor (as they spelt it) would last 158 years and then replaced by the Dutch. The ownership of the fort has changed hands several times. In 1663, the Dutch captured it. They subsequently gave the fort its present appearance. The Dutch sold the fort to the Arakkal royal family in 1772. During this time, the Arakkal sultanate began issuing coins.
The British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. It is fairly well preserved as a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India. A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry as a background is on display at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Kunjali Marakkar's head was removed from his body and exhibited in the fort after his assassination.
During the 17th century, Kannur was the capital city of the only Muslim sultanate in India, known as Arakkal. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District.
The guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the initial decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party.
New strains of thought developed as capitalist transformation laid the foundation for the commencement of social reform movements in sections of society. At the all India level, Vivekananda and others put forward such thoughts. Against this background social reform movements started by Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyankali and others in southern parts of Kerala and by Vagbhatananda and others in northern parts got developed into movements against superstition and bad customs. These evoked a big stirring among the people. An attitude against untouchability and casteism and interest in acquiring modern education were evident among all sections. Pressures for the same started developing in the society.
Extension of English education initiated by Christian missionaries in 1906 and later carried forward by government, rebellion for wearing a cloth to cover upper parts of body, installing an idol at Aruvippuram in 1888, Malayali Memorial in 1891, establishment of SNDP Yogam in 1903, activities, struggles etc. became factors helpful to accelerate changes in Kerala society during a short time. Movements for liberation from the colonial rule of British imperialism and struggles launched by these movements grew with them.
During this period, social renaissance movements and independence movement were growing. Ideas about socialism and Soviet Revolution reached Kerala. Such ideas got propagated in Kerala through the works of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, Sahodaran Ayyappan, P. Kesavadev and others.
During this period against the background of sufferings inflicted by landlordism and imperialism struggles and organizations of peasants and workers against them started emerging slowly. The practice of collective bargaining by working people also started. The peasant rebellion known as Malabar Rebellion of 1921 and consequent political changes highly influenced the independence movement of Kerala.
A number of Kerala youth were jailed during this period for participating in ‘violation of law’ movement as part of independence movement. At this time Kiran Chandra Das (brother of Jithendra Das), Kamal Nath Thivari, Sen Gupta, T.N. Chandravarthi and Sarath Chandra Acharya were in a Kannur jail and Jayadev Kapur in a Vellore jail. Malayalee youngsters got an opportunity to get acquainted with them, be suggested books to read, and discuss issues. They came to know of many new aspects of political work. This gave them a new sense of direction. E.M.S writes about this:
"It will not be a big exaggeration to say that seeds of left, Congress and Congress Socialist movements were sown at Kannur jail and that too by Thivari."
It was youth dissatisfied by the Congress policy which was afraid of people’s advance who were attracted to the socialist idea. At that time there was an atmosphere in Kerala which gave strength to such thoughts.
People were suffering a lot due to persecution by landlords. Against this resistance and organizations were cropping up here and there. In 1935 July a meeting of peasants were held in the Bharatheeya building in Naniyoor in Kolachery Amsom of old Chirakkal Taluk. Kolachery Karshaka Sangham was formed with Vishnu Bharatheeyan as president and K.A. Keraleeyan as secretary. By September 1935, Karivelloor Karshaka Sangham was formed which represented round Karivelloor, Velloor, Peralam and Kotakkad. With the formation of All India Kisan Sabha in 1936 a new front of struggle was opened in agrarian sector. The Hunger March led by AKG in 1936 July raising the demands of peasants imparted a new vigour to this sector. Following this a number of Karshaka Sangham were formed in Malabar. In 1936 November the first Karshaka Conference of Chirakkal Taluk was held at Parassinikkadavu. In 1937 All Malabar conference of Karshaka Sangham was held in Kozhikode. This awakening among peasants prepared the ground for the advent of a new political movement.
Trade unions started to be formed and strengthened. Global economic crisis of 1929 started creating serious consequences in Indian economy as well. First Travancore Labour Association came into being. Such organizations later became militant TUs. Strikes were organized in Kozhikkode, Kannur, Pappinisseri, Thalassery and other centres which further strengthed TUs. In 1935 May the first Kerala Workers’ conference was held at Kozhikode. This initiative to bring up working class as an independent class force prepared the ground for propagating Communist ideas. During this period coir workers in Travancore got organized and achieved strength. In Kochi organizations like Cochin Sterling Workers’ Union were being formed. Labour brotherhood and TUs of Alagappa Textiles and Sitaram Mills were formed. In 1937 second All Kerala Workers’ Conference was held at Thrissur. This organizational consciousness developed among workers prepared the ground for a new politics.
By the beginning of the 1930s some other useful developments were taking place. Important among them was Nivarthana Agitation in Travancore. That was the demand of people suppressed so far as untouchables and weaker sections for participation in government. This brought to the forefront struggles like proportional representation in government and reservation of jobs. This imparted a new enthusiasm among oppressed masses.
- District: Kannur
- Taluk/Tehsil: Kannur
- Block: Kannur
- Assembly Constituency: Kannur
- Parliament Constituency: Kannur
- Police Station: Kannur
- Post Office: 670001
- Telephone Exchange: Kannur 0497
- Nearest Railway Station: Kannur
Kannur has been referred to as a stranglehold of the left parties and has a strong presence of trade unions as well as left-leaning organizations. However, other parties have some influence in certain small pockets.
Geography and climate
Kannur experiences a rare humid tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification (Am). In April and May, the average daily maximum temperature is about 35 °C (95 °F). Temperatures are low in December and January: about 20 °C (68 °F). Like other areas on the Malabar Coast, this town receives heavy rainfall during the Southwest monsoon. The annual average rainfall is 3438 mm, around 68% of which is received in July.
|Climate data for Kannur (1978–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.8
|Average high °C (°F)||32.7
|Average low °C (°F)||21.5
|Record low °C (°F)||16.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.9
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.0||0.5||2.5||7.9||24.2||25.0||21.6||11.2||10.5||5.2||1.3||110.0|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
According to the 2011 census of India, Kannur city has a population of 56,823. Males constitute 46.2% of the population and females 53.8%. Kannur has an average literacy rate of 96.23%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male literacy is 98% and female literacy is 94%. In Kannur, 12% of the population is under six years of age.
Muslims form the majority of the population with 32026 members forming 56.3% of the population. There are 21557 Hindus forming 37.9% of the population. Christians form 5% of the population with 2892 members. Malayalam is the most widely spoken languages.
Places of interest
- Gandhi Circle/Caltex Junction is the new central junction of Kannur. This junction is presently the heart of the rapidly developing city of kannur.
- Sadhoo Merry Kingdom is a popular water theme park/tourist attraction in Kannur.
- St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by the first Portuguese Viceroy of India, Dom Francisco de Almeida. In 1663, the Dutch captured it and then in 1772, they sold the fort to the Arakkal King. In 1790, the British captured it, and it was under the British until 1947.
- Payyambalam Beach is a famous Kannur beach with an unbroken coastline of a few kilometres. From the beach, one can see ships in transit along the Malabar Coast, from beyond Kozhikode moving towards Mangalore, Goa and Bombay (Mumbai). It contains a well laid out garden and the massive landscaped sculpture of mother and child erected by noted sculptor Kanayi Kunhiraman. But it now lies vandalized by miscreants.
- Muzhappilangad Drive-in Beach (4 km length) is in the state of Kerala in southwestern India. It is parallel to National Highway 66 (formerly National Highway 17) between Kannur and Thalassery.
- Arakkal Museum, in Ayikkara, is a museum dedicated to the Arakkal family, the only Muslim royal family in Kerala, South India. The museum is a section of the Arakkalkettu (Arakkal Palace). The Durbar Hall section of the palace has been converted into a museum by the Government of Kerala. It was opened in July 2005 after a massive renovation and is managed by the Arakkal Family Trust.
- Sree Peralassery Temple is 14 km from Kannur on the way to Koothuparamba.
- MGS Kalari Sangam is a martial arts and massage training academy founded in 1934.
- Kannur lighthouse near the Sea View Park is another place of interest. The first lighthouse at Kannur was built in 1843 by the British at St. Angelo Fort. Over the years, the lighthouse was renovated. In 1948, it was moved to its current location. The lighthouse is still in use.
- The Kannur Cantonment is one of the 62 cantonments in the country and the only one in Kerala. It was established by the British in the 19th century and is still an important location for Indian armed forces.
- Mele Chovva, which is situated 3 km south of Kannur in Kannur-Tellichery road, is an entry junction to Kannur town. Kannur Airport road starts from here.
- Puthiyatheru, which is between Kannur-Taliparamba road, is one of the busiest streets in Kannur; it consist of three roads to Kattampalli and Panakavu and Chirakkal.
- The Defence Security Corps (DSC) Centre and DSC Records are located in Kannur town, on the road to Payyambalam Beach. The area is a part of the Kannur Cantonment and is maintained by the Cantonment Board. The DSC centre at Kannur is the mother depot to all platoons in the country.
- Baby Beach is so called because it is smaller than its larger neighbour, Payyambalam Beach. St. Angelo Fort is adjacent to it. The baby beach is part of the Kannur Cantonment and access may be restricted at times.
- Meenkunnu Beach is at Azhikode, just a few kilometres from the town.
- Mapila Bay in Ayikkara, near St. Angelo fort, is a major fishing harbor overlooking the Laccadive Sea.
- The Azhikkal Ferry operates near Azhikode, about 10 km from Kannur town, where the Valapattanam river joins the Laccadive Sea. The Azhikkal ferry gives a magnificent view of the sunset. There is a granite pathway here which stretches 2 km into the sea. Frequent passenger boats are available to Mattool, Parassinikkadavu and Valapattanam from here.
- The Fort road is the one of the busiest roads in Kannur. There are many malls and shopping streets there. The Kannur City Center is a prominent shopping center on Fort Road.
- Sea View Park, near Payyambalam Beach, is overlooked by the Government Guest House. The park is elevated above sea level and gives a magnificent view of the sunset.
- Kannur Central Bus Terminal is Kerala's biggest bus terminal. At Thavakkara, it is India's first bus terminal to be developed on a build-operate-transfer (BOT) basis.
- Capitol Mall is a mall near Caltex junction.
- Kannur indoor stadium at Mundayad, 6 km from Kannur town is the largest indoor stadium in south India.
- Thottada Beach is a beautiful beach in Kannur district. It is about 2.5 km from the NH 17 connecting Kannur town and Thalassery.
- Muzhappilanghad driving beach is in Kannur and it is the largest driving beach in Asia.
- Parassinikkadavu snake park-famous unique snake farm dedicated for the preservation and conservation of snakes is in Kannur.
- Aralam wildlife sanctuary is famous for elephant, sloth bear, mouse deer etc.
- Elapeedika is a village in the southwestern state of Kerala, India. Elapeedika is around 1000 m above sea level, in the Western Ghats range and is a hill station. The name Elapeedika is derived from the words Elam (i.e., cardamom) and peedika (i.e., shop). There were a lot of cardamom plantations in the olden times. Pazhassiraja's force and East India Company had fought a battle in the 18th century at the Periya pass in Elapeedika. Elapeedika is on the Iritty Taluk in Kannur District and is the highest place in the district. The nearest major railway stations are at Tellicherry and Kannur (approximately 50 km by road). The nearest airport is Kannur International Airport, which is 20 kilometres away.
- Paithalmala, a famous hillstation bordering Kodagu (Karnataka) in Alakode panchayat, is in Kannur.
- Thabore is a beautiful hill station. Tourists come to see scenic beauty of the hill station and enjoy hill driving.
- The Mangrove Trail of Malabar is a day trippers visiting place about 45 km from Kannur. It is a coastal jungle trail offering hiking, birding & boating. visit www.malabarecotourism.com for more details.
- Kannur International Airport is an upcoming international facility in Mattanur in Kannur District, Kerala, India. It is the fourth and largest international airport in Kerala.
See Main Article: List of educational institutions in Kannur District
In the 14th and 15th centuries, during the regime of the Kolathiri Rajas, Taliparamba was renowned in Kerala as a seat of learning, enlightenment and culture. The beginning of western education in the district may be traced back to the middle of the 16th century. The first English school, known as the Basel German Mission English School, was started on 1 March 1856 at Thalassery. The Brennen School at Thalassery, the nucleus of the present Government Brennen College, was started in 1862 with a generous donation made by Mr. Brennen, master attendant at Thalassery. Visit www.brennencollege.org for more details and activities of Brennen College.
- Kannur University was established by Act 22 of 1996 of the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The university by the name "Malabar University" had come into existence earlier by the promulgation of an ordinance by the governor of Kerala, on 9 November 1995. The university was inaugurated on 2 March 1996 by the Chief Minister of Kerala. The objective of the Kannur University Act 1996 was to establish in the state of Kerala a teaching, residential and affiliating university so as to provide for the development of higher education in Kasargod and Kannur revenue districts and the Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad district. Kannur University is a multi-campus university.
- Government College of Engineering, Kannur was established in 1986 near Dharmasala,Kannur as a center for imparting engineering education in northern Kerala. The college is among the top ten engineering colleges of the state, providing higher studies in the field of technical education.
- Pariyaram Medical College was established in 1999 near Taliparamba. The medical college is at a distance of 10 km from Taliparamba and 32 km north of Kannur. Kannur Medical College was established in 2006 at Anjarakkandy with a 500-bed hospital.
- The thirteenth National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Campus in Kannur is located near Taliparamba in Dharmasala,Kannur 15 km north of Kannur town.
- AKG Memorial Co-Operative College of Nursing is located at Poduvachery road Mavilayi, Kannur.
- Kaoser Senior Secondery School at Pullupi Kadavu near Kakkad is a major school in Kannur.
Kannur is on National Highway 66 or NH 66 (formerly National Highway 17) between Kozhikode and Mangalore. This highway is scheduled to be expanded to four lanes. A bypass for Kannur city is proposed under the NH widening project. Kannur is connected to Kodagu, Mysore and Bangalore in Karnataka through the Thalassery–Coorg–Mysore interstate highway.
Kannur has several private and KSRTC buses plying places inside and outside Kannur district. Kannur is well-connected to its suburbs through several city buses. Kannur city has four bus terminals — Kannur Central Bus Terminal at Thavakkara which is Kerala's biggest bus terminal, Old Bus Stand near to Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, City Bus Stand near to the District HQ Hospital and the KSRTC bus stand at Caltex Junction (on NH-66). Being the busiest junctions in Kannur, the authorities have installed three traffic signal light systems at Caltex, Thana, Melechovva junctions. The busiest section of the national highway is between the towns of Puthiyatheru and Thazhe chovva (about 10.5 km )on the outskirts of Kannur.
Kannur Railway Station is one of the major stations of the Southern Railway, under the jurisdiction of the Palakkad Division. All trains including the Thiruvananthapuram Rajdhani Express and Kochuveli Garib Rath stop at Kannur. Six daily trains and around 15 weekly or bi-weekly trains connect Kannur to the capital Thiruvananthapuram.
Trains starting from Kannur are:
- Kannur - Thiruvananthapuram Jan Shatabdi Express
- Kannur - Yeshwantpur Express (via Palghat and Salem)
- Kannur - Bengaluru City Express (via Mangalore, Mysore)
- Kannur - Ernakulam (Executive Express Thursday, Saturday only)
- Kannur - Alappuzha (Executive Express except Thursday, Saturday)
- Kannur - Ernakulam (Intercity Express)
- Kannur - Coimbatore
- Kannur - Mangalore
- Kannur - Calicut
- Kannur - Shoranur
- Trichur - Kannur
- Kannur - Cheruvathur
- Kannur - Byndoor via Mangalore junction
Kannur South, Chirakkal, Valapattanam and Pappinisseri are minor railway stations near Kannur where only passenger trains stop. A survey for a railway line from Kannur South to Kannur International Airport in Mattannur was announced in the 2011–2012 Union Railway Budget.
Kannur is an ancient seaport. The nearest all-weather seaport is Mangaluru in Karnataka state. Azhikkal port in Kannur has been included for developing coastal shipping by the Government of India under the National Maritime Development Programme (NMDP). A detailed project report (DPR) has been prepared by ICICI-KINFRA for the development of Azhikkal port.
Malayalam movie actors Sreenivasan, Vineeth Sreenivasan, Dhyan Sreenivasan, Vineeth, Vineeth Kumar, Samvrutha Sunil, TV Chandran, Manju Warrier, Sreekala Sasidharan, Anju Aravind, Archana Kavi, Kavya Madhavan, Sanusha and Sanoop(Sanusha's Brother) are from Kannur District. So are music composers Kaithapram Damodaran Namboothiri, K. Raghavan, Kannur Rajan, Ramesh Narayanan, Sathyan Edakkad, dancer Shamna Kasim, baby serial actor Niranjana G - Manjurukum kalam fame and singers Ramachandran Cherukunnu Erancholi Moosa,Kannur Shareef and Sayanora.
Many local cable television channels are available in Kannur. The most popular cable channels are City Channel, City Gold, City Juke, Network Channel(s), Zeal Network, Kannur Vision, World Vision, Worldvision Music, Chakkarakkal, and Gramika channel Koothuparamba.
All India Radio is broadcast in Kannur at 101.5 megahertz. Private FM radio stations in Kannur include:
- Radio Mango 91.9 (Malayala Manorama Co Ltd)
- Club FM 94.3 (Mathrubhumi Printing And Publishing Co Ltd)
- Red FM 93.5 (Sun Network)
- Best FM 95.0 (Asianet Communications Ltd)
A number of newspapers are published from Kannur, including the Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Chandrika, Kerala Kaumudi, News First, Janmabhumi, Veekshanam, Thejas, and Siraj.
The place got the name as the Land of Krishna (Kannande uuru) because of the Kadalai Shri Krishnaswami Temple, Shri Rajarajeshwaram, Parassinikadavu Sree Muthappan Temple and Annapurneshwari Temple and Madayikavu, the famed temples of the region.
- Kottiyoor Vadakkeshwaram Temple
- Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathy Temple
- Tiruvarkadu Bhagavathy Temple (aka Madayi Kavu)
- Payyanur Subrahmanyaswamy Temple
- Kanhirangad Vaidyanatha Temple
- Peralassery Subrahmanya swamy Temple
- Ramanthali Sankaranarayana Temple
- Thayyil Sree Venkataramana Temple
- Thalap Sundareswara Temple
- Trichambaram Sree Krishnaswamy Temple
- Kandamthalli Sreekrishna Temple
- Mazhoor Sree Balabhadra swamy temple
- Koyyam Sree Maha Vishnu Temple
- Kadalayi Sreekrishna Temple
- Mattanur Mahadeva Temple
- Thiruvangad Sriramaswamy Temple
- Kannadiparamba Dharmasastha Temple
- Velam Ganapathi Kshetram Temple
- Ezhome Sree Trikkool Shiva Temple
- Karippal Nagam Perumbadave
- Melechovva shiva temple
- Vadeswaram Sree Mahashiva Temple, Aroli
Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam is a huge religious pilgrimage attracting thousands of pilgrims. It is a festival commemorating the Daksha yaga. It is in June–July period of Malayalam calendar for 27 days.
Kannur International Airport
Thavakkara Bus Terminal Kannur
Indian Naval Academy
Defense Security Corps
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