Cantharellus cibarius

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Cantharellus cibarius
Chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Cantharellales
Family: Cantharellaceae
Genus: Cantharellus
Species:
C. cibarius
Binomial name
Cantharellus cibarius
Fr. (1821)
Synonyms
Cantharellus cibarius
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
ridges on hymenium
cap is infundibuliform
hymenium is decurrent
stipe is bare
spore print is yellow to cream
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: choice

Cantharellus cibarius (Latin: cantharellus, "chanterelle"; cibarius, "culinary")[2] is a species of golden chanterelle mushroom in the genus Cantharellus. It is also known as girolle (or girole).[3][4] It grows in Europe from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Basin, mainly in deciduous and coniferous forests.[3][5][6][7] Due to its characteristic color and shape, it is easy to distinguish from mushrooms with potential toxicity that discourage human consumption. A commonly eaten and favored mushroom, the chanterelle is typically harvested from late summer to late fall in its European distribution.[3]

Chanterelles are used in many culinary dishes,[3][5] and can be preserved by either drying or freezing. An oven should not be used when drying it because can result in the mushroom becoming bitter.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

At one time, all yellow or golden chanterelles in North America had been classified as Cantharellus cibarius. Using DNA analysis, they have since been shown to be a group of related species known as the Cantharellus cibarius group or species complex, with C. cibarius sensu stricto restricted to Europe.[6][7][8] In 1997, the Pacific golden chanterelle (C. formosus) and C. cibarius var. roseocanus were identified,[9] followed by C. cascadensis in 2003[10] and C. californicus in 2008.[11]

Description[edit]

The mushroom is easy to detect and recognize in nature.[3] The body is 3–10 centimetres (1–4 inches) wide and 5–10 cm (2–4 in) tall. The color varies from yellow to dark yellow.[3][5] Red spots will appear on the cap of the mushroom if it is damaged.[12] Chanterelle mushrooms have a faint aroma and flavour of apricots.[3][5]

Care should be taken not to confuse this species with the deadly Omphalotus illudens.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cantharellus cibarius Fr. 1821". MycoBank. International Mycological Association.
  2. ^ "cibarius - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Cantharellus cibarius Fr. - Chanterelle". First Nature. 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Golden chanterelle (girolle)". Missouri Department of Conservation. 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Dyson Forbes (13 April 2017). "Learn about chanterelle mushrooms". Forbes Wild Foods. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b Kuo, Michael. "Cantharellus "cibarius"". mushroomexpert.com. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  7. ^ a b Buyck, Bart; Hofstetter, Valérie; Olariaga, Ibai (September 2016). "Setting the Record Straight on North American Cantharellus". Cryptogamie, Mycologie. 37 (3): 405–417. doi:10.7872/crym/v37.iss3.2016.405.
  8. ^ Thorn, R. Greg; Kim, Jee In; Lebeuf, Renée; Voitk, Andrus (June 2017). "The golden chanterelles of Newfoundland and Labrador: a new species, a new record for North America, and a lost species rediscovered" (PDF). Botany. 95 (6): 547–560. doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0213. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  9. ^ Redhead, S.A.; Norvell, L.L.; Danell, E. (1997). "Cantharellus formosus and the Pacific Golden Chanterelle harvest in Western North America". Mycotaxon. 65: 285–322.
  10. ^ Dunham, S.M.; O'Dell, T.E.; Molina, R. (2003). "Analysis of nrDNA sequences and microsatellite allele frequencies reveals a cryptic chanterelle species Cantharellus cascadensis sp. nov. from the American Pacific Northwest". Mycological Research. 107 (10): 1163–77. doi:10.1017/s0953756203008475. PMID 14635765.
  11. ^ Arora, D.; Dunham, S.M. (2008). "A new, commercially valuable chanterelle species, Cantharellus californicus sp. nov., associated with live oak in California, USA" (PDF). Economic Botany. 62 (3): 376–91. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9042-7.
  12. ^ "Cantharellus "cibarius" (MushroomExpert.Com)". www.mushroomexpert.com. Retrieved 2019-10-22.
  13. ^ Phillips, Roger (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-55407-651-2.