Location of Guangzhou in Guangdong
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Type||Sub-provincial city|
|• CPC Ctte Secretary||Ren Xuefeng|
|• Mayor||Wen Guohui|
|• Sub-provincial city||7,434.4 km2 (2,870 sq mi)|
|• Urban||3,843.43 km2 (1,483.95 sq mi)|
|Elevation||21 m (68 ft)|
|• Sub-provincial city||13,080,500|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|• Metro (2013)||23,900,000|
|Time zone||China standard time (UTC+8)|
|Area code(s)||+ 86 (0)20|
|- Total||CN¥1,81 trillion
|- Per capita||CN¥138,329
|Licence plate prefixes||粤A|
"Guangzhou" in Traditional (top) and Simplified Chinese (bottom)
Bombax ceiba, the official flower of Guangzhou
Guangzhou (also known as Canton, and less commonly as Kwangchow), nicknamed the City of Flowers, is the capital and largest city of Guangdong province in South China. Guangzhou is one of the birthplaces of China's ancient "maritime Silk Road". Located on the Pearl River, about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou serves as an important national transportation hub and trading port. One of the five National Central Cities, it holds sub-provincial administrative status.
Guangzhou is the third largest Chinese city and the largest city in South Central China. In 2014 the city's administrative area was estimated to have a population of 13,080,500. Some estimates place the population of the entire Pearl River Delta Mega City built-up area as high as 44 million including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, and Shenzhen (10.36 million), Dongguan (8.22 million), Zhongshan (3.12 million), most parts of Foshan (7.20 million), Jiangmen (1.82 million), Zhuhai (0.89 million) and Huyang County of Huizhou (0.76 million) adjoining Dongguan and Shenzhen, with an area of about 17,573 square kilometres (6,785 sq mi). Guangzhou is part of one of the most populous metropolitan agglomerations on Earth. The total population of this agglomeration is over 54 million, including the population of adjacent city Hong Kong. Guangzhou is identified as a Beta+ Global city.Due to rapidly increasing amount of foreigners from Middle East and Africa, it is called Capital of the Third World.
As an important commercial city of China, Guangzhou is best known for the Canton Fair, which is a comprehensive one with the longest history, the highest level, the largest scale, the most complete exhibit variety, the broadest distribution of overseas buyers and the greatest business turnover in China. From 2013 to 2015, Forbes has ranked Guangzhou first among the top 100 best commercial cities on the Chinese mainland for three consecutive years. Guangzhou hosted the Asian Games in 2010.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Merger with Foshan
- 5 Significant buildings
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Local products
- 10 Culture
- 11 Destinations
- 12 Media
- 13 Education
- 14 Sports
- 15 Household registration policy
- 16 International relations
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Guangzhou's earliest recorded name is Panyu (Chinese: 蕃禺; Jyutping: Pun1 Jyu4), derived from two nearby mountains known as Pan and Yu in ancient times. Its recorded history begins with China's conquest of the area during the Qin dynasty. Panyu expanded when it became capital of the Nanyue Kingdom in 206 BC; the territory of Nanyue included what is now northern Vietnam.
The Han dynasty annexed the Nanyue Kingdom in 111 BC during the empire's expansion southward, and Panyu became a provincial capital and remains so today. In AD 226, Panyu became the seat of Guang Prefecture (廣州; Guangzhou / 廣府; Guangfu).
Although Guangzhou replaced Panyu as the name of the walled city, Panyu was still the name of the surrounding area until the end of Qing dynasty. Today, Panyu is a district of Guangzhou south of Haizhu District separated from the rest of the city by the Pearl River.
The Old Book of Tang described Guangzhou as important port in the south of China. In that period, direct routes connected the Middle East and China. A Chinese prisoner, who was captured in the Battle of Talas and stayed in what is now Iraq for twelve years, returned to China by ship on a direct route from Iraq to Guangzhou. Guangzhou was mentioned by various Muslim geographers in the ninth and tenth centuries, such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh. Guangzhou was known as Khanfu خانفو by the Arabs. According to a local Guangzhou government report, the city was sacked by Muslims on October 30, 758. The Arab historian Abu Zayd as-Sirafi mentioned Guangzhou several times in his book The Journey of as-Sirafi (Arabic: رحلة السيرافي), providing a description of daily life, food, business dealings, and the justice system of the city. As-Sirafi also reports that in 878 followers of the Chinese rebel leader Huang Chao besieged Guangzhou and massacred a large number of foreign merchants residing there. The foreign merchants were Arab Muslims, Persians, Jews and Christians.
During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Guangzhou was the capital of the Southern Han state which existed from 917 to 971, and was one of the most stable of the southern states. The region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic success in this period.
From the tenth to twelfth century, Persian women were to be found in Guangzhou. Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhou's foreign quarter. Some scholars did not differentiate between Persian and Arab, calling them both "Dashi" (Chinese: 大食; pinyin: Dàshí), and some say that the Chinese called all women coming from the Persian Gulf "Persian Women".
During the Northern Song dynasty, the celebrated poet Su Shi (Shisu) visited Guangzhou's Baozhuangyan Temple and wrote the inscription "Liu Rong" (Six Banyan Trees) because of the six banyan trees he saw there. It has since been called the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in Guangzhou by sea, when explorer Jorge Álvares landed in May 1513, establishing a monopoly on the external trade out of its harbour by 1517. They were later expelled from their settlements in Guangzhou (Cantão in Portuguese), but instead were granted use of Macau as a trade base with the city in 1557. They would keep a near monopoly on foreign trade in the region until the arrival of the Dutch in the early 17th century.
17th through 19th centuries
It is believed that the romanisation "Canton" originated from the Portuguese: Cantão, which was transcribed from Guangdong (also pronounced Kanton in Japanese). Nevertheless, because at the time of the Portuguese arrival, the capital city had no specific appellation other than the provincial capital (Chinese: 省城; pinyin: shěng chéng; Jyutping: Shaang2 Sheng4) by its people, the province name was adopted for the walled city by the Europeans. The etymology of Canton, as well as the similar pronunciation with the province name Guangdong, might have partly contributed to the recent confusion of Canton and Guangdong by some English speakers.
After China gained control of Taiwan in 1683, the Qing government became more open to foreign trade. Guangzhou quickly emerged as one of the most suitable ports for international trade and before long ships arrived from all over the world.
The Portuguese in Macau, the Spanish in Manila, Arabs from the Middle East and Muslims from India were already actively trading in the port by the 1690s, when the French and English began frequenting the port through the Canton System.
Other companies were soon to follow: the Ostend General India company in 1717; Dutch East India Company in 1729; the first Danish ship in 1731, which was followed by a Danish Asiatic Company ship in 1734; the Swedish East India Company in 1732; followed by an occasional Prussian and Trieste Company ship; the Americans in 1784; and the first ships from Australia in 1788.
By the middle of the 18th century, Guangzhou had emerged as one of the world's great trading ports under the Thirteen Factories. As a meeting place of merchants from all over the world, the trade in Canton was one of the major contributors to the rise of the modern global economy.
The Canton system of trade was maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839 and the opening of other ports in China in 1842. The privilege during this period made Guangzhou one of the top three cities in the world. During the war, the British captured Canton on March 18, 1841. The Second Battle of Canton was fought in May 1841.
The plague epidemic—part of the Third Pandemic—reached Guangzhou in 1894, causing the death of 60,000 people in a few weeks. In 1918, the city's urban council was established by carving out eastern part of Nanhai County and northern part of Panyu County and Guangzhou became the official name of the city in Chinese in February 15, 1921. Panyu became a county name to the southern side of Guangzhou and same with Nanhai on the western side.
Japanese troops occupied Guangzhou from October 21, 1938, to September 16, 1945, after bombing the city. The Imperial Japanese Army conducted bacteriological research in Guangzhou under Unit 8604, a section of Unit 731.
After the fall of the capital Nanjing in April 1949, the Nationalist government under the acting president Li Zongren relocated to Guangzhou.
Communist forces entered the city on October 14, 1949. The Nationalists blew up the Haizhu Bridge, an important passage across the Pearl River, in order to slow the Communist advance and allow the government to flee to Chongqing. The communist government soon renamed the city's English name to "Guangzhou". A massive exodus followed as many fled to nearby Hong Kong and Macau, and the provincial capital's international status dwindled. The urban renewal projects of the new communist government improved the lives of some residents. New housing on the shores of the Pearl River provided homes for the poor boat people. Reforms by Deng Xiaoping, who came to power in the late 1970s, led to rapid economic growth due to the city's close proximity to Hong Kong and access to the Pearl River.
As labour costs increased in Hong Kong and China liberalized its economy, manufacturers opened new plants in Guangdong, including Guangzhou. As the largest city in one of China's wealthiest provinces, Guangzhou attracts farmers from the countryside looking for factory work. Cantonese links to overseas Chinese and beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s contributed to the city's rapid growth.
Located in the south-central portion of Guangdong, Guangzhou spans from 112° 57' to 114° 03' E longitude and 22° 26' to 23° 56' N latitude. The Pearl River (Zhujiang), the third largest river of China, runs through Guangzhou and is navigable to the South China Sea. The city is part of the Pearl River Delta and the city centre is situated next to the Baiyun Mountain, which is locally referred to as "the lung of the city" (市肺). The total area under the city's administration is 7,434.4 square kilometres (2,870.4 sq mi).
The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city, and the ocean comprising the front. Tiantang Peak (天堂顶, meaning Peak of Paradise in Chinese), which stands 1,210 m (3,970 ft) above sea level, is the highest mountain in Guangzhou.
Located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from 13.6 °C (56.5 °F) in January to 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 22.6 °C (72.7 °F), the relative humidity is approximately 68 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over 1,700 mm (67 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0 °C (32 °F) to 39.1 °C (102 °F). The last recorded snowfall in the city was on January 24, 2016.
|Climate data for Guangzhou (normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.2
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||13.9
|Average low °C (°F)||10.3
|Record low °C (°F)||0.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||40.9
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.5||11.2||15.0||16.3||18.3||18.2||15.9||16.8||12.5||7.1||5.5||4.9||149.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72||78||82||84||84||84||82||82||78||72||66||66||77.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||118.5||71.6||62.4||65.1||104.0||140.2||202.0||173.5||170.2||181.8||172.7||166.0||1,628|
|Percent possible sunshine||35||22||17||17||26||35||49||43||46||51||52||50||36.9|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration, all-time extreme temperature|
|Administrative divisions of Guangzhou|
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|440100||Guangzhou City||广州市||Guǎngzhōu Shì||7434.40||12,701,948||Yuexiu District||510000||136||34||1533||1142|
|440103||Liwan District||荔湾区||Lìwān Qū||59.10||898,200||Jinhua Subdistrict||510000||22||195|
|440104||Yuexiu District||越秀区||Yuèxiù Qū||33.80||1,157,666||Beijing Subdistrict||510000||18||267|
|440105||Haizhu District||海珠区||Hǎizhū Qū||90.40||1,558,663||Jianghai Subdistrict||510000||18||257|
|440106||Tianhe District||天河区||Tiānhé Qū||96.33||1,432,426||Tianyuan Subdistrict||510000||21||205|
|440111||Baiyun District||白云区||Báiyún Qū||795.79||2,223,150||Jingtai Subdistrict||510000||18||4||253||118|
|440112||Huangpu District||黄埔区||Huángpǔ Qū||484.17||831,586||Luogang Subdistrict||510500||14||1||90||28|
|440113||Panyu District||番禺区||Pānyú Qū||529.94||1,764,828||Shiqiao Subdistrict||511400||11||5||87||177|
|440114||Huadu District||花都区||Huādū Qū||970.04||945,005||Huacheng Subdistrict||510800||4||6||50||188|
|440115||Nansha District||南沙区||Nánshā Qū||783.86||259,900||Huangge Town||511400||3||6||28||128|
|440117||Conghua District||从化区||Cónghuà Qū||1974.50||593,415||Jiekou Subdistrict||510900||3||5||46||221|
|440118||Zengcheng District||增城区||Zēngchéng Qū||1616.47||1,037,109||Licheng Subdistrict||511300||4||7||55||282|
Recent administrative changes
In 2005 the districts of Dongshan and Fangcun were abolished and merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively; at the same time the district of Nansha was established out of parts of Panyu, and the district of Luogang was established out of parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, and Zengcheng, plus a part of Huangpu, making an exclave next to Huangpu.
In 2014, Luogang merged into Huangpu and both Conghua and Zengcheng county-level cities were upgraded into districts. After this adjustment, Guangzhou surpassed Shenzhen as the most populated consolidated district-governed city in China, until Beijing overtook Guangzhou in 2015.
Merger with Foshan
In January 2009 the National People's Congress approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta Region. On March 19, 2009 the Guangzhou Municipal Government and Foshan Municipal Government agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.
Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2013, the GDP reached ¥1542 billion (US$248 billion), per capita was ¥120,515 (US $19,459).
The China Import and Export Fair, also called the "Canton Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trading. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Pazhou complex, from the older Liuhua complex. The Pazhou complex is served by two stations on Metro Line 8. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases.
Guangzhou is one the hubs of the illegal drug trade in China.
- Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Guangzhou Nansha Export Processing Zone
The Export Processing Zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is 1.36 km2 (0.53 sq mi). It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include automobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated 54 km (70 minutes drive) south of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and close to Nansha Port. It also has the advantage of Guangzhou Metro line 4 which is being extended to Nansha Ferry Terminal.
- Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and near to Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is also very close to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport. The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing and computer software. Guangzhou is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. But due to rapid industrialization, it is also considered one of the most polluted cities.
Malls and pedestrian streets
- 101 Dynamics
- Beijing Lu
- China Plaza
- Liwan Plaza
- Teem Plaza
- Victory Plaza
- Wanguo Plaza
- Zhengjia Square (Grandview Mall)
- Wanda square
- Happy Valley (Guangzhou)
- TaiKoo Hui
- Parc Central
- Rock Square
- Aeon Mall
- GT Land Plaza
|Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.|
Guangzhou's population in 2013 has now reached 14 million, up from 12.78 million at the 2010 census. The urban population of Guangzhou is 11,070,654, with the remainder living in the rural areas of the city. The density of Guangzhou is now 1,708 people per square kilometer. While Guangzhou's population is 14 million, The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan and parts of Zhaoqing and Huizhou, has an estimated population of 40 million.
The region around Guangzhou is known for its huge influx of migrants, with up to 30 million additional migrants living in the area for at least 6 months out of every year. This huge influx of people from other areas, called the floating population, is due to the city's fast-growing economy and high labor demands.
Interestingly, many of the railroad laborers who worked in Panama, the United States and Canada during the 19th century came from Guangzhou and its surrounding areas. Many from this region also left to California during the 1849 gold rush, and to Australia a decade later. While emigration has slowed recently due to Guangzhou's economic prosperity, it's still a major source of immigrants to the rest of the world, especially North America.
Guangzhou announced plans in 2012 to limit its population growth by 2020 as it faces a huge demand on overloaded services in the city, along with calls from residents to end or relax China's famous one-child policy by 2015.
Guangzhou's natural birth rate has remained around 6.2% per year for many years, and the growth in the area has been primarily due to migrants from nearby provinces and cities. The number of migrants in Guangzhou increases by around 300,000 each year.
Guangzhou is facing a very serious population problem including land shortage as well as shortages of public resources. The city is almost at its maximum capacity of just 15 million, which means the city is facing a great strain, mostly due to a high population of unregistered people.This means that Guangzhou is growing too fast for its infrastructure and public services, so its population should begin to stabilize somewhat if the government enacts the population controls its attempting. It will still remain one of the largest cities in China, and one of 8 cities in the country with a population of 10 million.
When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of nine lines, covering a total length of 266 km (165 mi). A long term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over 500 km (310 mi) by 2020 with 15 lines in operation.
As of January 2016 the lines of Guangzhou Metro include:
- Line 1: Guangzhou East Railway Station–Xilang Station
- Line 2: Jiahewanggang Station–Guangzhou South Railway Station
- Line 3
- Line 4: Huangcun Station–Jinzhou Station
- Line 5: Jiaokou Station–Wenchong Station
- Line 6: Xunfenggang Station–Changban Station
- Line 8: Fenghuang Xincun Station–Wanshengwei Station
- Guangfo Line: Yangang Station–Kuiqi Lu Station
- APM: Linhexi Station–Canton Tower Station
The first section of the Haizhu Tram line opened on 31 December 2014.
Buses, taxis and motorcycles
The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (or GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010, is the world's second largest Bus Rapid Transit system with 1,000,000  passenger trips daily and 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour (second only to the TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota). The system averages 1 bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around 260 m (850 ft) including bridges.
In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games which were held in the city. At present[when?], Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.
Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government has banned motorcycles in urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban will be confiscated. The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.
Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Huadu District; it opened on August 5, 2004. This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city centre and failed to meet the city's fast-growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years.
Guangzhou is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou–Maoming and Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway started service, with multiple unit trains covering 980 km (608.94 mi) at a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph). In January 2011, the Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway started service at an average speed of 200 km/h (124 mph). In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Nanning-Guangzhou Railway began service with trains running at top speeds of 250 km/h (155 mph) and 200 km/h (124 mph), respectively.
Intercity transport to Hong Kong
Guangzhou is well connected to Hong Kong by train, coach and ferry. The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom KCR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately 182 km (113 mi) in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city.
There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.
- Cantonese Food (Chinese: 粤菜）is one of the most famous cuisine in China, with a complementing saying "east and west, Cantonese food is the best (Chinese: 食在广州).
- Canton Province Sculpture is legendary and includes Guangzhou Ivory Carvings, Jade Sculpture, Wood Sculpture and Olive Sculpture.
- Cantonese Enamel includes Guangzhou Colorful Pottery. It has a history of over 300 years.
- Cantonese Embroidery (Chinese: 粤绣; pinyin: yuè xiù) is one of the Four Famous Chinese Embroideries together with Su Embroidery, Xiang Embroidery and Shu Embroidery.
- Canton Province Bacon is the general designation of cured meat in the Guangzhou and surrounding areas.
- Zhujiang Beer (Pearl River Beer)
According to the official People's Daily newspaper, Cantonese is the first language for half of the 14 million residents of the provincial capital Guangzhou, while the other half speak mainly Mandarin. Other languages such as Hakka are spoken in significant numbers as well. The migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40 percent of the city's total population in 2008. Most of them are rural migrants and they speak Mandarin and other local dialects from their hometowns. They have taken on many jobs that the locals are unwilling to do.
Guangzhou is also known to have a sizeable African population.
Significant components of the culture of Guangzhou include:
- Cantonese cuisine
- Cantonese opera
- Cantonese people
- Guangdong music (genre)
- Guangzhou Opera House
- Guangzhou Symphony Orchestra
The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Library is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013. Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China.
Besides Buddhism, Taoism is another prominent religion.
Buddhism is the most prominent religion.
Christianity is well-spread after the first opium war. Since then, a lot of churches were built and a lot of missionaries were sent to Guangzhou.
A female medical missionary Dr. Mary H. Fulton (1854–1927) was sent by the Foreign Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United States with the idea of proselytizing founded the first medical college for women in China. Known as the Hackett Medical College for Women (夏葛女子醫學院), this college was located in Guangzhou, China, enabled by a large donation from Mr. Edward A.K. Hackett (1851–1916) of Indiana, United States. The college was dedicated in 1902 and offered a four-year curriculum. By 1915, there were more than 60 students, mostly in residence. Most students became Christians, due to the proselytizing influence of Dr. Fulton. The college was officially recognized, with its diplomas marked with the official stamp of the Guangdong provincial government. The college was aimed originally at spreading Christianity; later, its focus shifted toward modern medical education and the elevation of Chinese women's social status. The David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children, also known as Yuji Hospital (柔濟醫院) was affiliated with this college. The graduates of this college included Chau Lee-sun (周理信, 1890-1979) and Wong Yuen-hing (黃婉卿), both of whom graduated in the late 1910s  and then practiced medicine in the hospitals in Guangdong province. At the end of 1932, the medical center including the Hackett Medical College for Women and the David Gregg Hospital for Women and Children came under the control of the Chinese government. It later affiliated with Guangzhou Hospital and Lingnan University to form the Sun Yat-Sen Medical College in 1936.
There are many sites significant to Islamic culture in Guangzhou including the Great Mosque of Guangzhou, Huaisheng Mosque, one of the oldest mosques in the world. There are two versions of its origins. The first is that prior to 500, before the establishment of Islam, Arab seafarers had established trade relations with China, setting off from Basra at the tip of the Persian Gulf and from the town of Qays (Siraf) in the Persian Gulf. They sailed the Indian Ocean passing Sarandip (Sri Lanka) and navigated their way through the Straits of Malacca between the Sumatran and Malaysian peninsulas en route to the South China Sea. They established trading posts on the southeastern coastal ports of Quanzhou and Guangzhou. Some Arabs had already settled in China and probably embraced Islam when the first Muslim deputation arrived, as their families and friends back in Arabia had already embraced Islam during Muhammad's revelation (610–32). The other version is that the mosque was built by the uncle of Muhammad in 627. There are many restaurants influenced by Islamic culture such as Hezhou Halal Restaurant, Wuyang Humin Restaurant, and Maedah Restaurant. accordingly there's also a Muslim Hero Tomb In Guangzhou.
Eight Sights of Guangzhou
The Eight Sights of Guangzhou are the eight most famous tourist attractions listed by rulers in different ages. The following are those chosen through public appraisal and brought out in 2011.
- Tayao Xincheng: Canton Tower, Chigang Pagoda, Haixinsha, Flower City Square, Twin Towers, CITIC Plaza, etc.
- Zhushui Liuguang: Pearl River (segment from Bai'etan to Pazhou), Wharves, Bai'etan, Shamian Island, Yanjiang Lu, Ersha Island, Haixinsha, Guangzhou Convention and Exhibition Center, etc.
- Yunshan Diecui: Baiyun Mountain, Yuntai Garden, etc.
- Yuexiu Fenghua: Yuexiu Mountain, Zhenhai Tower, Five Rams Statue, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Monument, etc.
- Guci Liufang: Chen Clan Academy and Guangdong Folk Craftwork Museum
- Liwan Shengjing: Litchi Bay, Liwan Lake, Arcades on Enning Lu, Xiguan Residences, etc.
- Kecheng Jinxiu: Guangzhou Science City
- Shidi Changwan: Nansha Wetland Park
Parks and gardens
- Baiyun Mountain, literally "White Cloud Mountain"
- Yuexiu Park (越秀公园)
- People's Park
- Luhu Park (麓湖公园)
- Dongshanhu Park (东山湖公园)
- Liuhuahu Park (流花湖公园)
- Liwanhu Park (荔湾湖公园)
- Yuntai Garden (云台花园)
- Martyrs' Park (广州起义烈士陵园)
- The Pearl River Park (珠江公园)
- South China Botanical Garden
Guangzhou has a humid, hot sub-tropical climate. The annual average temperature is 21.8 °C (71 °F). Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time. Guangzhou attracts more than 100 million visitors each year. There are many tourist attractions around the city which include:
- Chen Clan Academy or Chan Clan Ancestral Hall
- Shamian Island or Shameen Island
- Guangdong Provincial Museum
- Guangzhou Zoo
- Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King
- Temple of the Six Banyan Trees
- Sacred Heart Cathedral or Stone House
- Huaisheng Mosque
- Temple of Bright Filial Piety
- Chime-Long Paradise
- Chime-Long WaterPark (长隆水上乐园)
- Guangzhou Peasant Movement Institute
- Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall
- Canton Tower
Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin (Putonghua). However, in recent years there has been an increase of Mandarin programmes in most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. On the other hand, the Beijing-based China National Radio broadcasts Mandarin programmes in the city. Radio Guangdong also produces a 30-minute weekly English programme, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the WRN Broadcast. Daily English news programmes are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong.
Guangzhou has some of the best Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city. The Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation and Yangcheng Evening News Group dominate the newspaper market of the province. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily. The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers, most notably that's PRD (formerly that's Guangzhou) which was started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into one of China's leading expat magazines with issues in Beijing, Shanghai and formerly Suzhou, but also including the more recent 'In The Red' magazine, which has been in circulation for a couple of years as of 2013.
Higher educational institutes
Universities and colleges
- Guangdong Institute of Science and Technology
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
- Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University (广东技术师范学院)
- Guangdong University of Business Studies
- Guangdong University of Finance (广东金融学院)
- Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
- Guangdong University of Technology
- Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts
- Guangzhou Medical College (广州医学院)
- Guangzhou Sports University
- Guangzhou University
- Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
- Jinan University (founded in 1906)
- South China Agricultural University (founded in 1909)
- South China Normal University
- South China University of Technology
- Southern Medical University (founded in 1951)
- Sun Yat-sen University (founded in 1924)
- Xinghai Conservatory of Music
- Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering
Note: Institutes without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre
Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, also known as Guangzhou University Town, is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. This huge higher education centre occupies the entire Xiaoguwei island in Panyu District, covering an area of about 18 square kilometres (7 sq mi). It houses new campuses from ten higher education institutions. The whole Higher Education Mega Centre can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers and 50,000 staff.
Higher education institutions with campuses in the Mega Centre:
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
- Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
- Guangdong University of Technology
- Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts
- Guangzhou University
- Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
- South China Normal University
- South China University of Technology
- Sun Yat-sen University
- Xinghai Conservatory of Music
Guangzhou also hosted the following major sporting events:
- 1987 The 6th National Games of China
- 1991 The 1st FIFA Women's World Cup
- 2001 The 2001 National Games of China
- 2007 The 8th National Traditional Games of Ethnic Minorities of the People's Republic of China
- 2008 The 49th World Table Tennis Championships
- 2009 The 11th Sudirman Cup: the world badminton mixed team championships
Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou include:
Guangzhou Evergrande F.C.
Guangzhou Evergrande F.C. has risen in recent years to be a powerhouse in association football in the People's Republic of China, having won five consecutive national titles in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The team also won the AFC Champions League in 2013 and 2015. The club competed in the 2013 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semi-final stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League winners FC Bayern Munich.
Household registration policy
China's system of household registration, also known as a "hukou," restricts the ability of Chinese citizens to freely choose their place of residence and determines eligibility for education and other public benefits. In May 2014, the municipal agencies in Guangzhou responsible for population control, human resources, social security, and civil affairs issued a notice to local state-run employment agencies and family planning centers. The notice stated that those legally employed in Guangzhou should be issued an individual "hukou card" that allows them to marry and obtain permission to have children instead of requiring them to return to their official place of residence. These rules apply to workers in all occupations. Reports in the Chinese media said about 100,000 were affected by these changes.
Twin towns — sister cities
- 2013 Southern Weekly incident
- Africans in Guangzhou
- Canton, for namesakes
- Fernão Pires de Andrade
- Guangzhou Television Cantonese controversy
- List of twin towns and sister cities in China
- Rafael Perestrello
- Seamen's strike of 1922
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guangzhou.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Guangzhou.|
|Wikisource has several original texts related to: Guangzhou|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Canton (China).|
- Guangzhou International: Official website of government of Guangzhou municipality
- Guangzhou, China Network
|Capital of Nanyue
|Capital of China
Republic of China
July 1, 1925 – February 21, 1927
|Capital of China
Republic of China
May 28, 1931 – December 22, 1931
|Capital of China
Republic of China
April 23, 1949 – October 14, 1949