|Motto: "We do that here"|
|• Mayor||Jeffrey Fritz|
|• Total||8.07 sq mi (20.9 km2)|
|• Land||7.90 sq mi (20.5 km2)|
|• Water||0.16 sq mi (0.4 km2)|
|Elevation||650 ft (200 m)|
|• Density||1,800/sq mi (700/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
Canton is the largest city in Fulton County, Illinois, United States. The population was 14,704 at the 2010 census, down from 15,288 as of the 2000 census. The Canton Micropolitan Statistical Area covers all of Fulton County; it is in turn part of the wider Peoria-Canton, IL Combined Statistical Area (CSA).
Canton is located in northeastern Fulton County at  Illinois Routes 9 and 78 pass through the downtown together. IL 9 leads east 8 miles (13 km) to Banner near the Illinois River and west 27 miles (43 km) to Bushnell, while IL 78 leads north 10 miles (16 km) to Farmington and south 11 miles (18 km) to Little America in the Illinois River valley..
According to the 2010 census, Canton has a total area of 8.063 square miles (20.88 km2), of which 7.9 square miles (20.46 km2) (or 97.98%) is land and 0.163 square miles (0.42 km2) (or 2.02%) is water.
Founder Isaac Swan, his infant child, and three other people died in a devastating tornado of June 1835. "Isaac Swan and his child were found in the wreckage of their cabin, the baby dying in its mother's arms," leading some to conclude that the tornado represented divine retribution for the city allowing a circus performance the previous week. The city was hit by another F-3 tornado on July 23, 1975. Two people were killed, and the storm caused major damage to the downtown area. 
Central Illinois Energy, a locally financed cooperative, began planning for a corn-fermentation ethanol plant in 2002. Construction and finance delays resulted in its opening in 2007, approximately 4 miles (6 km) south of the city. Beset by financial problems and construction delays on the plant, the cooperative declared bankruptcy. Central Illinois Energy's assets were bought by a private company, construction was completed, and the plant began production in the summer of 2008, renamed Riverland Biofuels. 
In December 2008, Cook Medical announced that it would open a new medical device factory at the old International Harvester site. Company owner William "Bill" Cook had grown up in Canton and wanted to do something to help revitalize his home town community. Some of the costs related to Cook Medical were planned to be paid for with state funds: a $750,000 Community Development Assistance Program grant from the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity and a $1.1 million grant from the Illinois Department of Transportation for infrastructure improvements near the plant. Scott Eells, the chief operating officer for Cook Group, has said that the factory will eventually be 45,000 square feet (4,200 m2), with more than 300 employees. Bill Cook had previously announced he was buying and renovating several old Canton buildings, including the 1883 Randolph Building on the town square.
November 16, 2016, A gas explosion killed an Ameren worker who was fixing a gas leak, sent 12 to the local hospital, and demolished an adjacent building on 1st Avenue that was attached to the Opera House. The next day the Opera House and two other buildings were declared beyond repair and condemned, an additional building declared uninhabitable until repaired, and 48 other buildings noted as damaged but repairable.
Canton is a part of the Peoria television viewing area.
As of the census of 2000, there were 15,288 people, 5,677 households, and 3,616 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,947.8 people per square mile (751.9/km²). There were 6,098 housing units at an average density of 776.9 per square mile (299.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 89.59% White, 8.85% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, and 0.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.09% of the population.
There were 5,677 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.86.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 115.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,011, and the median income for a family was $39,910. Males had a median income of $30,519 versus $20,891 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,012. About 10.1% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.
- Granville Barrere (1829–1889), U.S. Representative from Illinois
- Ethan Blackaby (1940–), Major League Baseball outfielder for the Milwaukee Braves
- Tony Blazine (1912–1963), NFL football player (1935–1941)
- Burnett M. Chiperfield (1870–1940), U.S. Representative from Illinois
- Silas B. Cobb, industrialist (born in Vermont)
- William "Bill" Cook (1931–2011), medical device entrepreneur and historic preservationist, founder of the Cook Group
- Tim Drummond (1941–2015), bass guitarist
- Ralph Dunn (1900–1968), film, television, and stage actor
- Charles Duryea (1861–1938), automobile manufacturer
- Lee Eyerly (1892–1963), civil aviation pioneer and amusement ride manufacturer
- Jack Fisk (1945–), Academy Award-nominated production designer and art director
- R. Thomas Flynn (1938–), retired president of Monroe Community College
- James "Boomer" Grigsby (1981–), fullback with the Kansas City Chiefs (2005–2007) and Miami Dolphins (2008)
- Mike Grzanich, pitcher for the Houston Astros
- Harry Jacobs (1937–), linebacker at Bradley University and for the Boston Patriots and Buffalo Bills
- Elizabeth A. Kovachevich, United States District Court judge
- Elizabeth Magie (1866–1948), inventor of The Landlord's Game, the precursor to Monopoly
- Steven R. Nagel (1946–2014), astronaut
- Elizabeth Peters (1927–2013), mystery novelist
- Ian Wolfe (1896–1992), television and movie actor, poet
- Displayed prominently on http://www.cantonillinois.org
- Canton Area Chamber of Commerce (January 1996). "The History of Canton, Illinois". Macomb, Illinois: Infobahn Outfitters, Inc. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- "Form of Government". City of Canton. 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001), Canton city, Illinois". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "G001 - Geographic Identifiers - 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
- Chapman, Chas. C. (17 Sep 2012). "History of Fulton County Illinois, Page 526". History of Fulton County Illinois. J.W. Franks & Sons, Peoria, Ill., 1879. Retrieved 17 Sep 2012.
- "Fate of Riverland Biofuels plant still unclear".
- "Cook Medical Brings New Beginning to Canton" (Press release). Bloomington, Indiana: Cook Medical. 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- Froehling, John (2009-12-11). "Welcome Home, Bill Cook". Canton Daily Ledger. Canton, Illinois: GateHouse Media, Inc. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- Kravetz, Andy (November 17, 2016). "Three properties condemned, 48 others damaged in deadly Canton blast". PJStar.com. Peoria, Illinois: GateHouse Media. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- Vlahos, Nick; Eskridge, Larry (November 16, 2016). "Explosion rocks downtown Canton". Canton Daily Ledger (online ed.). Canton, Illinois: GateHouse Media. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Canton (Illinois).|