A canton in a flag is a rectangular area, usually at the top hoist corner of a flag, occupying up to a quarter of the flag's area. The canton of a flag may be a flag in its own right. For instance, British ensigns have the Union Jack as their canton, as do their derivatives such as the national flags of Australia and New Zealand.
Following the practice of British ensigns, a canton sometimes contains a symbol of national unity, such as the blue field and white stars of the American flag. In these cases, the canton may be called simply the union.
The American flag's canton derives from Britain's use of the Union Jack in the flags of its possessions (including, historically, the Thirteen American Colonies). Subsequently, many New World nations (along with other later countries and regions, such as Liberia or Malaysia) that were inspired by the United States adopted flag elements that were inspired by the American flag. As a result, many extant uses of a prominent canton derive either from British territorial history, or American influence and inspiration.
Current flags using cantons
The flag of Australia features the Union Flag as a canton.
The flag of Chile incorporates a blue canton bearing a white five-pointed star.
The flag of Fiji has a canton of the Union Flag.
The flag of Greece has a blue canton with a white Greek cross.
The flag of Liberia has a blue canton with a white five-pointed star.
The flag of Malaysia has a canton with a crescent and 14-pointed star in yellow on a blue field.
The flag of New Zealand has a Union Flag canton.
The flag of Togo has a red canton bearing a white five-pointed star.
The flag of Tonga has a white canton bearing a red Greek cross couped.
The flag of Tuvalu features the Union Flag in its canton.
Territories, regions, and provinces
The secessionist flag of Abkhazia features a red canton with a white right hand and seven white mullets on it.
The flag of the autonomous province of Adjara contains the Georgian flag in the canton.
Amazonas in Brazil
Bahia in Brazil
Bomi County in Liberia; every county flag of Liberia contains the Liberian national flag in its canton.
Bong County in Liberia
Flag of Brittany in France, inspired by the US and Greek flags
Gbarpolu County in Liberia
The flag of Georgia has the state coat of arms in the canton, surrounded by 13 mullets which, like the strips on the US flag, represent the original 13 colonies, of which Georgia was one. The design of the US flag, including its prominent use of the canton (aka union), has inspired similar designs, including cantons, in flags of some US subdivisions.
Goiás in Brazil
Grand Bassa County in Liberia
Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia
Grand Gedeh County in Liberia
Grand Kru County in Liberia
The flag of Hawaii has the UK's flag in its canton.
Lofa County in Liberia
Maranhão in Brazil
Manitoba's provincial flag, one of two Canadian provinces to use the UK's national flag in their cantons.
Margibi County in Liberia
Maryland County in Liberia
Montserrado County in Liberia
New South Wales in Australia; all of the Australian states (though not territories) adopt the use of the UK's national flag in their cantons.
Nimba County in Liberia
Ontario's provincial flag, one of two Canadian provinces to use the UK's national flag in their cantons.
Piauí in Brazil
Rivercess County in Liberia
River Gee County in Liberia
Flag of San Salvador Department in El Salvador
Flag of Santa Ana Department in El Salvador
São Paulo in Brazil
Sergipe in Brazil
Sinoe County in Liberia
Flag of the Korean National Association, with a yellow canton defaced with a blue-and-red taeguk.
Flag of the New York City Police Department has a blue canton defaced with mullets.
Flag of the South African Army, which has a canton with the RSA's national flag in it.
Flag of the South African National Defence Force, which has a canton with the RSA's national flag in it.
Former flags that used cantons
Old Flag of Georgia, used 1918-1921 and 1991-2003.
A Soviet-era flag for Georgia, It was the only Soviet Union Republic flag with the canton and in which the hammer and sickle were not gold in color.
The November 1889 flag of Brazil had a blue canton defaced with 21 white mullets.
The first version of the flag of the Confederate States featured a canton defaced with mullets, with the mullets representing its claimed constituent states
The flag of the Orange Free State had a canton with a horizontal triband of red, white, and blue (e.g. the Dutch flag) in it.
The national flag of Texas from 1835 to 1839 had a blue canton, defaced with a single mullet.
Territories, organizations, and subdivisions
Flag of the Canadian Army from 1939 to 1944, which had a canton consisting of the UK's national flag.
Serbia and Montenegro
The flag of Mississippi (2001–2020), which had a canton with the Confederate battle flag in it.
An early flag design for New Mexico, which shows a rare instance of the US flag as a canton
Flag of the short lived Republic of Vermont, which adapted the US flag's union of 13 mullets
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