Canton of Neuchâtel

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République et Canton de Neuchâtel
Coat of arms of République et Canton de Neuchâtel
Coat of arms
Map of Switzerland, location of Neuchâtel highlighted
Location in Switzerland
Map of Neuchâtel

Karte Kanton Neuenburg 2010.png
Coordinates: 46°59′N 6°47′E / 46.983°N 6.783°E / 46.983; 6.783Coordinates: 46°59′N 6°47′E / 46.983°N 6.783°E / 46.983; 6.783
CapitalNeuchâtel
Largest CityLa Chaux-de-Fonds
Subdivisions31 municipalities
Government
 • ExecutiveConseil d'État (5)
 • LegislativeGrand Council (115)
Area
 • Total802.24 km2 (309.75 sq mi)
Population
(12/2017)[2]
 • Total177,964
 • Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeCH-NE
Highest point1,552 m (5,092 ft): Chasseral Ouest
Lowest point429 m (1,407 ft): Lake Biel
Joined1815
LanguagesFrench
WebsiteNE.ch
County (Principality) of Neuchâtel

Grafschaft (Fürstentum) Neuenburg  (German)
Comté (Principauté) de Neuchâtel  (French)
1034–1848
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire (to 1648)
Associate of the Swiss Confederacy (from 1406)
CapitalNeuchâtel
GovernmentCounty
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• City founded
1011
• County founded
1034
from 1406
• Inherited by Orléans-Longueville
1504
• Elected to Prussia
1707
• French occupation
1806–14
• Joined Swiss Confed. as canton (and monarchy)
1815 1848
• Neuchâteloise revolution
1 March 1848
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Burgundy
Switzerland

The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (French: la République et Canton de Neuchâtel, IPA: [kɑ̃tɔ̃ də nøʃɑtɛl]) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland. In 2007, its population was 169,782, of whom 39,654 (or 23.4%) were foreigners.[3] The capital is Neuchâtel.

History[edit]

Rulers of Neuchâtel 1034–1848
Ulrich I de Fenis 1034–1070
Mangold I 1070–1097
Mangold II ?–1144
Rudolph I ?–1148
Ulrich II 1148–1191
Rudolph II 1191-1196
Berthold I 1196–1259
Ulrich III 1191-1225
Berthold I 1159–1263
Rudolph III 1259-1263
Ulrich IV 1263-?
Henri ?-1283
Amadeus 1283–1288
Rudolph IV 1288–1343
Louis I 1343–1373
Elisabeth 1373–1395
Conrad IV de Fribourg 1395–1424
Jean de Fribourg 1424–1458
Rudolph IV of Hachberg-Sausenberg 1458–1487
Rudolph IV of Hachberg-Sausenberg 1458–1487
Philippe de Hochberg 1487–1503
Jeanne de Rothelin 1504–1512
Swiss Confederacy 1512–1529
Jeanne de Rothelin 1529–1543
François d'Orléans-Longueville 1543–1548
Léonor d'Orléans-Longueville 1548–1573
Henri I 1573–1595
Henri II 1595–1663
Jean Louis Charles 1663–1694
Marie de Nemours 1694–1707
Frederick William I of Prussia 1708–1740
Frederick II 1740–1786
Frederick William II 1786–1797
Frederick William III 1797–1798
Louis Alexandre Berthier 1798–1814
Frederick William III 1815–1848/57

The only part of present-day Switzerland to enter the Confederation as a principality (in 1814), Neuchâtel has a unique history. Its first recorded ruler, Rudolph III of Burgundy, mentioned Neuchâtel in his will in 1032. The dynasty of Ulrich count of Fenis (Hasenburg) took over the town and its territories in 1034. The dynasty prospered and, by 1373, all the lands now part of the canton belonged to the count. In 1405, the cities of Bern and Neuchâtel entered a union. The lands of Neuchâtel had passed to the lords of Freiburg in the late 14th century as inheritance from the childless Elisabeth, Countess of Neuchâtel, to her nephews, and then in 1458 to margraves of Sausenburg who belonged to the House of Baden.

Their heiress, Jeanne de Rothelin (Johanna von Hachberg-Sausenberg), and her husband, Louis I d'Orléans, duc de Longueville, inherited it in 1504, after which the French house of Orléans-Longueville (Valois-Dunois). Neuchâtel's Swiss allies then occupied it from 1512-1529 before returning it to its widowed countess.

The French preacher Guillaume Farel brought the teachings of the Protestant Reformation to the area in 1530. Therefore, when the house of Orléans-Longueville became extinct with Marie d'Orléans-Longueville's death in 1707, Neuchâtel was Protestant, and looked to avoid passing to a Catholic ruler. The rightful heiress in primogeniture from Jeanne de Rothelin was Paule de Gondi, Duchess of Retz, who was Catholic. The people of Neuchâtel chose Princess Marie's successor from among fifteen claimants.[n 1] They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, and also to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV actively promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people in the final decision in 1708 passed them over in favour of the Protestant King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the House of Orange and Nassau, who were not even descended from Jeanne de Rothelin.

Frederick I and his successors ruled the Principality of Neuchâtel (German: Fürstentum Neuenburg) in personal union with Prussia from 1708 until 1798. Napoleon Bonaparte deposed King Frederick William III of Prussia as prince of Neuchâtel and appointed instead his chief of staff Louis Alexandre Berthier. Starting in 1807, the principality provided Napoleon's Grande Armée with a battalion of rangers. The rangers were nicknamed Canaris (i.e. canaries) because of their yellow uniforms.

After the Liberation Wars the principality was restored to Frederick William III in 1814.[5] The Conseil d'État (state council, i.e. government of Neuchâtel) addressed him in May 1814 requesting the permission to establish a special battalion, a Bataillon de Chasseurs, for the service of his majesty.[5] Frederick William III then established by his "most-supreme cabinet order" (Allerhöchste Cabinets-Ordre, A.C.O), issued in Paris on 19 May 1814, the Bataillon des Tirailleurs de la Garde following the same principles as with the Neuchâtel battalion within the Grande Armée.[5] The Conseil d'Etat of Neuchâtel had the right of nomination for the battalion's officers. The commander was the battalion's only officer chosen by the monarch.

Le Locle, 1907

A year later he agreed to allow the principality to join the Swiss Confederation, then not yet an integrated federation, but a confederacy, as a full member. Thus Neuchâtel became the first and only monarchy to join the otherwise entirely republican Swiss cantons. This situation changed in 1848 when a peaceful revolution took place and established a republic, in the same year that the modern Swiss Confederation was transformed into a federation. King Frederick William IV of Prussia did cede immediately, and several attempts at counter-revolution took place, culminating in the Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856–57. In 1857, Frederick William finally renounced his claims on the area.


Geography[edit]

View of Lake Neuchâtel from the northern shore, port of Vaumarcus

The canton of Neuchâtel is located in Romandy, the western part of Switzerland, it is also located in the Jura mountainous region. To its northeast it borders the canton of Bern, to the northwest France (Bourgogne-Franche-Comté). Lake Neuchâtel lies southeast of the canton, while the canton of Vaud is southwest of the canton of Neuchâtel. The canton lies in the central area of the Jura Mountains. Lake Neuchâtel drains the lands in the south, whilst the River Doubs drains the northern areas.

The canton is commonly divided into three regions. The viticultural region is located along the lake. Its name derives from the many vineyards found there. The region called Les Vallées lies further north. The two largest valleys of the canton of Neuchâtel lie in this region: the Ruz Valley and the Val de Travers. Both valleys lie at about 700 m (2,297 ft). The highest region of the canton, however, is the Neuchâtelois Mountains at 900 m (2,953 ft) to 1,065 m (3,494 ft). This region is made up of a long valley home to La Chaux-de-Fonds, Le Locle and La Brévine.

Government[edit]

Neuchâtel Castle, now seat of the cantonal government

Neuchâtel was one of the first cantons in Switzerland to grant women the right to vote (1959) and also to grant the vote to foreigners holding a residence permit and who have been domiciled in the canton for at least five years (2002), as well as to lower the voting age to 18.

The legislature, the Grand Council of Neuchâtel, has 115 seats distributed in proportion to the population of the six districts that make up the electoral constituencies: Neuchâtel (35 seats), Boudry, (25) Val-de-Travers (8), Val-de-Ruz (10), Le Locle (10), La Chaux-de-Fonds (27). The State Council (cantonal government), five "ministers" who assume the annual presidency in turn and manage the departments of justice, health and safety; finance and social welfare; public economy; regional management; education and culture. The cantonal authorities, which have their seat in the castle (the Château de Neuchâtel), are elected every four years by universal suffrage.

The people also elect their representatives to the federal parliament every four years: five of the 200 members of the National Council (lower chamber) and two of the 46 members of the Council of States (upper chamber).

Politics[edit]

Federal election results[edit]

Percentage of the total vote per party in the canton in the National Council Elections 1971-2015[6]
Party Ideology 1971 1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015
FDP.The Liberalsa Classical liberalism 24.3 22.4 20.6 19.4 20.4 22.5 25.7 20.5 14.8 12.7 26.9 24.4
CVP/PDC/PPD/PCD Christian democracy * b * * * * * * * * 3.3 3.5 3.6
SP/PS Social democracy 30.6 38.9 37.4 33.1 30.8 29.8 28.2 28.0 29.2 25.9 24.7 23.7
SVP/UDC Swiss nationalism * * * * * * * * 22.5 23.2 21.4 20.4
LPS/PLS Swiss Liberal 16.0 22.1 26.4 30.9 30.0 27.1 25.2 24.0 14.4 13.2 c c
EVP/PEV Christian democracy * * * * * * * * * 1.2 * *
Ring of Independents Social liberalism * * 4.8 3.5 * * * * * * * *
GLP/PVL Green liberalism * * * * * * * * * * * 3.4
BDP/PBD Conservatism * * * * * * * * * * 1.5 1.0
PdA/PST-POP/PC/PSL Socialism 13.7 9.8 7.7 4.2 3.8 5.2 7.1 6.9 3.0 9.2 10.4 12.2
GPS/PES Green politics * * * 7.4 7.1 8.0 5.9 14.7 13.8 9.4 11.7 9.3
Solidarity Anti-capitalism * * * * * * * 2.7 2.2 * * *
SD/DS National conservatism * * * * 3.4 6.4 2.5 2.3 * * * *
Rep. Right-wing populism 10.1 * * * * * * * * * * *
EDU/UDF Christian right * * * * * * 2.3 * * * * *
Other 5.4 6.8 3.1 1.4 4.5 1.1 3.2 1.0 * 1.8 * 2.1
Voter participation % 48.3 47.2 43.3 43.7 37.4 38.1 31.9 34.0 50.4 50.2 42.4 41.8
^a FDP before 2009, FDP.The Liberals after 2009
^b "*" indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
^c Part of the FDP for this election

Political subdivisions[edit]

Districts[edit]

Districts of Canton Neuchâtel

Until 2018 the Canton was divided into 6 districts. On 1 January 2018 the districts were dissolved and all municipalities were placed directly under the canton.[7]

Municipalities[edit]

There are 31 municipalities in the canton (As of 2018).[7]

Demographics[edit]

La Chaux-de-Fonds, most populous city in the canton

The population is almost entirely French-speaking. The canton has historically been strongly Protestant, but in recent decades it has received an influx of Roman Catholic arrivals, notably from Portugal and Italy. In 2000, its population was closely split between Protestants (38%) and Roman Catholics (31%).[8]

The 177,964 inhabitants (as of 2017)[2] are fairly evenly distributed with many small towns and villages lining the shore of the Lake of Neuchâtel. The average population density is 209 people per km2 (542 sq mi). Neuchâtel (2017 population: 33,578) is the canton's capital while La Chaux-de-Fonds (2017 population: 38,625) is the canton's largest settlement. Some 38,000 of the inhabitants, or a little less than a quarter of the population, are of foreign origin.

Economy[edit]

The canton is well known for its wines, which are grown along the Lake Neuchâtel shore, and for its absinthe. The Val-de-Travers is famous as the birthplace of absinthe, which has now been re-legalized both in Switzerland and globally. There are dairy farming and cattle breeding in the valleys, but it is for the breeding of horses that Neuchâtel has a fine reputation. Watchmaking is well-established in the canton, with fine mechanics and microchip production being established more recently. Higher educational institutions include Haute école de gestion de Neuchâtel and the University of Neuchâtel.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The claimants were: 1. the King in Prussia; 2. the Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard; 3. Jeanne de Mouchy, marquise de Mailly et de Nesle; 4. the marquis Yves d'Alègre; 5. Julianne Catherine d'Amont, dame de Sergis; 6. the Prince of Nassau-Siegen; 7. the Prince of Carignan; 8. Jacques de Matignon, comte de Torigny; 9. Paule-Françoise-Marguerite de Gondi, duchesse de Retz et de Lesdiguières; 10. Béat-Albert-Ignace, baron de Montjoie; 11. comte Trébonius-Ferdinand de Fürstemberg; 12. the Prince of Conti; 13. Angelique-Cunégonde de Montmorency-Luxembourg; 14. the Margrave of Baden-Durlach and 15. the Canton of Uri.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistical Office - STAT-TAB, online database – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (in German) accessed 17 September 2018
  3. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen". Archived from the original (Microsoft Excel) on December 15, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  4. ^ David Guillaume Huguenin, Les chateaux neuchâtelois: anciens et modernes (1843) pp. 253-256.
  5. ^ a b c Ilse Nicolas, "Militaria: Die Neffschandeller am Schlesischen Busch", in Kreuzberger Impressionen (11969), Berlin: Haude & Spener, 21979 (=Berlinische Reminiszenzen; vol. 26), pp. 111–114, here p. 111. ISBN 3-7759-0205-8.
  6. ^ Nationalratswahlen: Stärke der Parteien nach Kantonen (Schweiz = 100%) (Report). Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  7. ^ a b Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz (in German) accessed 15 February 2018
  8. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion". Archived from the original (Interactive Map) on 2016-09-24. Retrieved 2009-01-15.

External links[edit]