Canton of Zug

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Kanton Zug
Canton of Switzerland
Coat of arms of Kanton Zug
Coat of arms
Map of Switzerland, location of Zug highlighted
Location in Switzerland
Coordinates: 47°0′N 8°31′E / 47.000°N 8.517°E / 47.000; 8.517Coordinates: 47°0′N 8°31′E / 47.000°N 8.517°E / 47.000; 8.517
Capital Zug
Subdivisions 11 municipalities
Government
 • Executive Regierungsrat (7)
 • Legislative Kantonsrat (80)
Area[1]
 • Total 238.69 km2 (92.16 sq mi)
Population (12/2014)[2]
 • Total 120,089
 • Density 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code CH-ZG
Highest point 1,580 m (5,184 ft): [[Wildspitz]]
Lowest point 388 m (1,273 ft): Reussspitz at the confluence of the Reuss and the Lorze
Joined 1352
Languages German
Website ZG.ch

The Canton of Zug (German pronunciation: [tsuːɡ]) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. It is located in central Switzerland and its capital is Zug. At 239 km2 the canton is one of the smallest of the cantons in terms of area. It is not subdivided into districts, but eleven municipalities.

History[edit]

The earlier history of the canton is practically identical with that of its capital Zug. From 1728 to 1738 it was distracted by violent disputes about the distribution of the French pensions. In 1798 its inhabitants opposed the French. The canton formed part of the Tellgau and later was one of the districts of the huge canton of the Waldstätten in the Helvetic Republic. The canton of Waldstätten also consisted of what is today the Canton of Schwyz, the Canton of Lucerne, Unterwalden and the Canton of Uri.

Figure 1 wears a traditional costume of the Canton of Zug.

In 1803, in the Act of Mediation, the canton of Zug regained its independence as a separate canton. The constitution of 1814 abolished open assemblies (Landsgemeinde), which had existed in the canton since 1376. In 1845 the canton of Zug became a member of the Sonderbund and shared in the war of 1847 which was lost to the Swiss confederation. In 1848 the remaining functions of the open assemblies (Landsgemeinde) were abolished. Both in 1848 and in 1874 the canton voted against the federal constitutions. The constitution of 1876 was amended in 1881, and replaced by a new one in 1894.[3]

Near the southern shore of the lake of Ägeri is the site of the famous Battle of Morgarten, won by the Swiss in 1315. In this battle the powerful Habsburgs were defeated. The hamlet of Morgarten (Municipality of Oberägeri) borders the Canton of Schwyz and is home to the Morgarten Battle Monument (Morgarten Denkmal). The actual battle ground is just across the border in the hamlet of Schornen (Municipality of Sattel) in the Canton of Schwyz.

Geography[edit]

The canton of Zug is located in central Switzerland and covers an area of 239 square kilometres (92 sq mi). The canton of Lucerne and canton of Aargau lie to its west. To the north, the canton is bound by the canton of Zurich, whereas to the east and south lies the canton of Schwyz.

Most of the land is considered productive. The Lake of Zug (German: Zugersee) and Lake Ägeri (German: Ägerisee) make up a considerable area of the canton's lands. Lake Ägeri is wholly within the canton, whereas the Lake Zug is shared with the cantons of Lucerne and Schwyz.

The canton is located on a hilly plateau. The Höhronen (near Höhboden) is the highest elevation (1,229 m) in the east of the canton. The Zugerberg (1,039 m) in the south is another notable elevation. It connects in the south with the Rossberg massif which rises to the Wildspitz (1,583 m) east of the Lake of Zug. This massif separates Lake Zug from the basin and Lake Ägeri. It also separates the hilly district of Menzingen from Lake Zug.

The Lorze is the principal drainage in the canton. It originates in Lake Ägeri from where it flows northward through moraine deposits in a deep gorge with fine stalactite caverns. The river eventually enters the Lake of Zug very near from where the Reuss originates. The Reuss forms the boundary of the canton in the north west.

Canton Zug’s borders were mainly established by nature itself: the rivers Sihl and Biber, and the Höhronen ridge in the east; the Rossberg mountain in the south, and the Rooterberg mountain, and the Reuss in the west. Only the 87.5 km-long border between the cantons of Zurich and Zug is not naturally defined. With its 1580 m peak, the Wildspitz peak is the highest point in the canton. The lowest point in the north of the canton is at 388 m, at the marchland Rüssspitz (German: Reussspitz), the confluence of the rivers Lorzen and Reuss.

Diverse landscape[edit]

The canton of Zug is multi-faceted, despite its small size. In rough terms, there are two zones, divided by the north-south axis of Lake Zug: the western part with Ennetsee and the plateau of Zug, Steinhausen and Baar; and the eastern part consisting of the hilly and mountainous zone. In the latter, is the Zugerberg with the Rossberg mountain chain, the valley of Oberägeri and Unterägeri, with Lake Ägeri, and the mountain ridge of Höhronen and the countryside of Menzingen and Neuheim.

The power of the glaciers in the ice age are impressively shown in the lateral moraines of the mountains Walchwilerberg and Zugerberg. These are the remaining witnesses of the Reuss Glacier. The moraine and drumlin landscape of Menzingen and Neuheim are the result of the convergence of the Reuss Glacier and the Linth Glacier. The Swiss geologist, Albert Heim (1849–1937), once noted, that "this must be the most impressive moraine landscape in Switzerland".[citation needed] The glaciation of the Zug mountains stopped in around 15,000BCE.

The Lorze is the only large river flowing wholly within the canton. The Sihl and Reuss both follow cantonal borders. The Lorze flows from Lake Ägeri through the deep valley of the Lorzentobel to Baar and Lake Zug. In Cham, the Lorze leaves Lake Zug and joins the Reuss at the afore-mentioned Reussspitz.

Political subdivisions[edit]

Municipalities

The canton forms a single administrative district, which comprises eleven municipalities. The legislature (Kantonsrat) has 80 members.The executive (Regierungsrat) has seven members. Members of both governments are elected directly by popular vote. The term of office in both cases is four years. The two members of the Federal Ständerat, as well as the three members of the Federal Nationalrat, are also elected by a popular vote.

Municipalities[edit]

The eleven municipalities of the canton are: Zug, Oberägeri, Unterägeri, Menzingen, Baar, Cham, Hünenberg, Steinhausen, Risch, Walchwil, Neuheim

Demographics[edit]

Largest groups of foreign residents 2014[4]
Nationality Amount  % total
(foreigners)
 Germany 6497 5.4 (20.5)
 Italy 2957 2.5 (9.3)
 United Kingdom 2041 1.7 (6.5)
 Portugal 2004 1.7 (6.3)
 Serbia 1311 1.1 (4.1)
 Kosovo 1296 1.1 (4.1)
 Turkey 1067 0.9 (3.4)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 993 0.8 (3.1)
 The Netherlands 910 0.8 (2.9)
 Austria 868 0.7 (2.7)
 Croatia 792 0.7 (2.5)
 Sri Lanka 686 0.6 (2.2)
 USA 678 0.6 (2.1)
 Russia 566 0.5 (1.8)

The population of the canton (as of 31 December 2014) is 120,089.[2] As of 2014, the population included 31,643 foreigners, or about 26% of the total population, up from 15.6% in 1990.[4] The largest foreign population is to be found in the municipality of Walchwil with 33.2% foreign nationals, then Zug (31.7%), Baar (28.1%), Risch (26.3%), and Oberägeri (25.3%). The lowest rate is to be found in Menzingen (18.9%) and Hünenberg (16.5%).[5]

The majority of the population (as of 2000) is Roman Catholic (62%) with a Protestant minority (18%).[6] Until 1814, Zug was in the Diocese of Konstanz, but on the reconstruction of the diocese of Basel in 1828 it was assigned to the latter.

While the majority of the population understands German most residents speak the Swiss German dialect of central Switzerland.

Economy[edit]

The capital Zug is home to a large number of companies which only have their headquarters in the city. This is the case because Zug has one of the lowest taxes in Switzerland. Trade in particular is of great significance. There are a large number of small and middle sized businesses in all areas of the economy. There are over 24,300[7] registered companies and over 70,000 jobs[8] in the canton, with 12,900[9] of the registered companies in the city of Zug.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910-1911) described the economy thus:

In the higher regions of the canton the population is mainly engaged in pastoral pursuits and cattle-breeding. There are 61 alps (high pastures) in the canton. At Cham is a well-known factory of condensed milk, now united with that of Nestlé of Vevey. The Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co. was founded in Cham in 1866. At Baar there are factories. Round the town of Zug there are great numbers of fruit trees, and Kirsch (a high grade clear cherry schnapps) and cider are largely manufactured. Apiculture flourishes in the canton. A number of factories have sprung up in the new quarter of the town. The formerly important silk-weaving industry has now disappeared.[3]

Today's[when?] main industries are the manufacture of metal goods, textiles, machinery, electronics and alcoholic beverages (Kirsch).[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Railways connect the canton of Zug both with Lucerne and with Zurich, while lines running along either shore of the lake of Zug join at the Arth-Goldau station of the St. Gotthard railway. It is connected to both Germany and Italy. Motorways link the roads of the canton with other areas. The motorway through the St. Gotthard massif is of particular importance.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Kantonsdaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  2. ^ a b Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 31 August 2015
  3. ^ a b PD-icon.svg Coolidge, William Augustus Beevoort (1911). "Zug". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 1047–1048. 
  4. ^ a b "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität, Kanton Zug und Schweiz, 2010-2014" (XLS) (statistics) (in German). Fachstelle für Statistik, Amt für Raumplanung, Kanton Zug. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  5. ^ "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung in den Zuger Gemeinden, 2010-2014, nach Staatsangehörigkeit" (XLS) (statistics) (in German). Fachstelle für Statistik, Amt für Raumplanung, Kanton Zug. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  6. ^ Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion" (Interactive Map). Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  7. ^ Canton of Zug - Regional Economy (German) accessed 9 March 2011
  8. ^ Canton of Zug - Economy (German) accessed 9 March 2011
  9. ^ Zug City website - Numbers (German) accessed 9 March 2011

External links[edit]