Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
The Tomb of the General
|Location||Liaoning and Jilin in China|
|Inscription||2004 (28th Session)|
|Area||4,164.8599 ha (10,291.593 acres)|
|Buffer zone||14,142.4404 ha (34,946.731 acres)|
Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which includes a number of archaeological sites in Ji'an, Jilin Province and Huanren, Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Koguryo (Goguryeo, 37 BCE – 668 CE) was an ancient kingdom located in what is now Northeast China and the northern Korean Peninsula.
The archaeological sites were collectively designated a cultural World Heritage Site in 2004, qualifying as such under the first five of the six criteria for cultural heritage sites. The designation includes the archaeological remains of three fortress-cities: Wunü Mountain City, Guonei and Wandu, and forty identified tombs of Goguryeo imperial and noble families.
In 2010, the Chinese government established the Ji'an Gaogouli National Archaeological Park (Chinese: 集安高句丽考古遗址公园), which includes all of the Koguryo (Gaogouli) World Heritage Sites in Ji'an, Jilin, but not the ones in Liaoning (such as Wunü Mountain City).
Wunü Mountain City (Onyeosanseong) was the first capital of Goguryeo. Guonei (Gungnae) and Wandu (Hwando) were also capitals of the Goguryeo.
Wunü Mountain City is only partly excavated. Guonei City, within the modern city of Ji'an, played the role of a supporting capital after the main Goguryeo capital moved to Pyongyang. Wandu contains many vestiges including a large palace and many tombs.
The capital cities of the Goguryeo are an early example of mountain cities later imitated by neighbouring cultures. The system of capital cities represented by Gungnae City and Wandu Mountain City also influenced the construction of later capitals built by the Goguryeo regime.
The capital cities of the Goguryeo represent a perfect blending of human creation and nature whether with the rocks or with forests and rivers.
Some of the tombs have elaborate ceilings designed to roof wide spaces without columns and carry the heavy load of a stone or earth tumulus (mound) was placed above them. The paintings in the tombs, while showing artistic skills and specific style, are also an example of strong influence from various cultures.
The tombs represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius in their wall paintings and structures.
- Complex of Goguryeo Tombs, UNESCO world heritage site in Pyongyang, North Korea.
- Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain with Mausoleum of Princess Jeonghyo of Balhae.
- "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom". UNESCO.
- "集安高句丽考古遗址公园（第一批国家考古遗址公园）" (in Chinese). Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 28 February 2014.