Capital of Indonesia
Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia according to the Indonesian law Number 10 of 1964. Located on the island of Java, the city was formerly Batavia, the capital during the Dutch East Indies period. In the early 20th century there was an effort by the Dutch East Indies government to relocate the capital from Batavia to Bandung. During Indonesia's struggle for independence, the government of Indonesia moved the capital to Yogyakarta and Bukittinggi where it remained for a short time until the restoration to Jakarta.
Indonesian President Joko Widodo announced a plan to relocate the capital to Kalimantan on the island of Borneo during his annual state of union address August 16, 2019, at the parliament. A planned city will be built between Kutai Kartanegara Regency and North Penajam Paser Regency in East Kalimantan. Relocation of the capital will move the capital to a more central location within Indonesia and is part of a strategy of reducing developmental inequality between the island of Java and other islands in the Indonesian archipelago; it will also reduce Jakarta's burden as Indonesia's hub. In August 2019, the government announced that while the capital will be moved, $40 billion will be spent on saving Jakarta from sinking in the next decade. 
|17 August 1945||Jakarta||Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta proclaimed the Indonesian independence in Jakarta, which became the de facto capital of the Republic of Indonesia.|
|4 January 1946||Yogyakarta||Jakarta was occupied by the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) and the capital was moved to Yogyakarta. The Indonesian government relocated to the city using a train in the middle of the night.|
|19 December 1948||Bukittinggi||Yogyakarta was occupied by the Dutch military during Operation Kraai, while both the president and vice president, Sukarno and Hatta, were captured and exiled on Bangka Island. The Pemerintahan Darurat Republik Indonesia (PDRI), an emergency government led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, was established in Bukittinggi.|
|6 July 1949||Yogyakarta||Sukarno and Hatta returned from exile to Yogyakarta. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara officially dissolved the emergency government on 13 July 1949. Yogyakarta continued as the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, which was a state within the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (formed on 27 December 1949). Jakarta served as the federal capital.|
|17 August 1949||Jakarta||The United States of Indonesia was dissolved by Sukarno and Jakarta once again became the de facto capital of the Republic of Indonesia.|
|28 August 1961||Jakarta became the de jure capital of Indonesia with the Presidential Decree Number 2 of 1961. It was later strengthened by the Indonesian law Number 10 of 1964.|
|26 August 2019||President Joko Widodo officially announced to relocate the capital to East Kalimantan. A new planned city will be built between Kutai Kartanegara Regency and North Penajam Paser Regency and is expected to be inaugurated in 2024.|
Colonial period and early republic era
The Dutch colonial settlement of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) was established in 1621. Initially, it was a European-styled walled city crisscrossed by Dutch-style canals located in a low-lying coastal swamp area. The poor sanitation and poor water drainage system made the city unhealthy, infested with malaria, cholera, and dysentry. In 1808, Daendels decided to quit the by-then dilapidated and unhealthy Old Town. A new town center was subsequently built further to the south, near the estate of Weltevreden. Batavia thereby became a city with two centers: Kota as the hub of business, where the offices and warehouses of shipping and trading companies were located; while Weltevreden became the new home for the government, military, and shops. These two centers were connected by the Molenvliet Canal and a road (now Gajah Mada Road) that ran alongside the waterway.
In the early 20th century there was a decision by the Dutch East Indies government to relocate the capital from Batavia to Bandung. The idea was to separate the busy trading port or the commercial center (Batavia) from the new administrative and political center (Bandung). By the 1920s the plan to transfer the capital to Bandung was underway. As the city began the master plan of a well-planned new city, numbers of government buildings, telecommunication (now Telkom Indonesia), railway networks (now Kereta Api Indonesia), Postal system (now Pos Indonesia), defense-military headquarters and many others were constructed and headquartered in Bandung until present times, such as Gedung Sate which was planned as the government administrative center of the Dutch East Indies. The plan, however, failed due to the Great Depression and the outbreak of the Second World War.
On March 5, 1942, Batavia fell to the Japanese. The Dutch formally surrendered to the Japanese occupation forces on March 9, 1942, and the rule of the colony was transferred to Japan. The city was renamed Jakarta (officially ジャカルタ特別市 Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi, Special Municipality of Jakarta, in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the collapse of Japan in 1945, the area went through a period of transition and upheaval during the Indonesian national struggle for independence. During the Japanese occupation and from the perspective of the Indonesian nationalists who declared independence on August 17, 1945, the city was renamed Jakarta.
Following the surrender of the Japanese, Indonesia declared its independence on August 17, 1945. The proclamation was enacted at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56 (now Jalan Proklamasi), Central Jakarta, with Suwiryo acting as the committee chairman. Suwiryo was recognized as the first mayor of Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi. The position was soon altered to Pemerintah Nasional Kota Jakarta ("Jakarta City National Administration"). On 19 September 1945, Sukarno held his Indonesian independence and anti-colonialism/imperialism speech, during Rapat Akbar or grand meeting at Lapangan Ikada, now the Merdeka Square. The grand meeting would start a period of national revolution in Indonesia.
National revolution period
During the Indonesian struggle for independence (1945-1949), the capital of the republic was moved several times — prompted by political and military emergency — as the seat of the republic in exile during the war. The capital moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta (1946-1948) and then to Bukittinggi (1948-1949) as the seat of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia. By 1949, the national capital of the republic was returned to Jakarta.
Jakarta as the de jure capital of Indonesia
During Sukarno's presidency, Jakarta was established and developed as the capital of the new republic. In 1957, Sukarno laid the foundation and street grid layout of Palangkaraya as a new planned capital of Central Kalimantan province. Sukarno however, foresaw the new city as the possible new national capital in the future. The vast available area and its geographic location in the center of the archipelago was the main advantage of the city. Nevertheless, Sukarno seemed to favour Jakarta instead. In the late 1950s to the first half of the 1960s, he filled Jakarta with monuments and statues. Numbers of monumental projects were conceived, planned, and initiated during his administration, including Monumen Nasional, Istiqlal mosque, DPR/MPR Building, and Gelora Bung Karno stadium. Sukarno also filled Jakarta with nationalistic monuments and statues, including Selamat Datang Monument, Pemuda Monument at Senayan, Dirgantara Monument at Pancoran, and the Irian Jaya Liberation Monument at Lapangan Banteng. Although many of the projects were completed later, Sukarno is credited for shaping Jakarta's monuments and landmarks. He desired Jakarta to be the beacon of a powerful new nation.
In 1966, Jakarta was granted its official status as DKI (Daerah Khusus Ibukota) Djakarta, or the Special Capital Region. It promoted the rate of development of government office buildings and foreign embassies. Rapid development created the need for a master plan in order to regulate Jakarta's growth. Since 1966, Jakarta has steadily grown into a modern metropolis.
During the highly centralized New Order regime of Sukarno's successor Suharto, Jakarta was further established as the political and economic core of the nation. Prompted with rapid development and urbanisation, Jakarta attracted large numbers of new settlers from all over the archipelago, with the majority coming from rural Javanese towns. High-rise buildings sprung up, especially in Jakarta's commercial and financial centers along Thamrin, Sudirman and Kuningan avenues. As a result, since the 1970s the population of Jakarta spiked tremendously, and spilled into areas surrounding the capital. The Jabodetabek or Greater Jakarta region has become the largest and the most densely populated urban agglomeration in Southeast Asia.
New capital proposals throughout the decades
Proposals to move the Indonesian capital from Jakarta to other locations have been discussed since the Sukarno presidency. Massive overpopulation, coupled with a lack of urban infrastructures such as public transportation facilities; gridlock traffic; encroachment of urban areas replacing open green spaces; spread of slums within the city; over-extraction of ground water, and poor water drainage systems: all of these factors have led to ecological degradation of the city. As ground water was depleted, the city slowly sunk lower; parts of Northern Jakarta are below sea level and regularly suffer from flooding. Jakarta experienced massive floods in 2007, and again in 2013. In 2010, the debate continued about the creation of a new capital that would be separated from the urban, economic, and commercial center of the country. Former president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono supported the idea to create a new political and administrative center of Indonesia, due to Jakarta's environmental and overpopulation problems.
Two major alternative approaches have been mooted over the years: One was to move the national capital altogether by creating a completely new planned city, similar to the relocation of the Brazilian capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia, a planned city, in 1960. The other was to keep Jakarta as the official capital but create a separate administrative center, as when Malaysia moved its federal administrative center to Putrajaya. Suggested locations for the first proposal have included:
- Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan. Since it was established as the capital of Central Kalimantan province in 1957, the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, outlined a plan to develop Palangkaraya as the future capital of Indonesia. Palangkaraya is far larger in area than Jakarta and safe from the danger of earthquakes and volcanoes, common on the island of Java.
- Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan. Compared to Palangkaraya, Banjarmasin is located closer to the center of the country, has better access to the Java Sea and has better infrastructure.
- Kota Merdeka is a proposed planned city located north of Pangkalan Bun town, West Kotawaringin Regency, Central Kalimantan. Compared to far inland Palangkaraya, Kota Merdeka is located nearer to coastal areas and has better access to Java Sea.
- Pontianak, West Kalimantan. Located perfectly on the equator and strategically located by the Karimata Strait and the South China Sea, in the same region with other ASEAN capitals such as Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, and Bandar Seri Begawan.
- Palembang, South Sumatra. The city has historical significance, as the former capital of the Srivijaya maritime empire; which symbolize the return of the archipelago's former glory. It is also strategically located near the main maritime route of the Malacca Strait, near the other ASEAN capitals of Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.
If Jakarta were kept as the official capital, administrative centers would have been moved to other nearby locations. Suggested locations include:
- Jonggol, West Java. Located about 40 kilometres southeast from Jakarta, and a proposed future capital of Indonesia since the era of the Suharto presidency.
- Karawang, West Java, located about 60 kilometres east of Jakarta.
- Kertajati, Majalengka Regency, West Java. Located about 200 kilometres east of Jakarta and 40 kilometres west of Cirebon. The proposed planned capital will be connected to the planned West Java new airport, Java railways and the Trans-Java toll road. The underused airport has been derided as a 'white elephant' during the 2019 presidential elections and policymakers are under pressure to demonstrate utility for the huge bills related to the project.
- Maja, Lebak Regency, Banten. Located about 60 kilometres west of Jakarta. Most of Maja lands are already acquired by the government-owned Badan Penyehatan Perbankan Nasional (BPPN).
- Jakarta Bay, North Jakarta. In 2013, Joko Widodo, then Governor of Jakarta, proposed to move the administrative center of Indonesia to the planned future reclaimed islands in Jakarta Bay. This plan is in line with the planned National Capital Integrated Coastal Development; the new administrative district will be located on a Garuda bird-shaped island planned to be built on Jakarta Bay.
Move to East Kalimantan
In April 2017, the Joko Widodo (Jokowi) administration contemplated the idea of moving the capital from Jakarta. The government plans to conclude assessing potential alternative sites that would be suitable to become Indonesia's new capital by the end of 2017. According to an official from the Ministry of National Development Planning of Indonesia (Bappenas), the government had been determined to move the Indonesian capital out of Java. In April 2019, it was announced that Jakarta would no longer be the capital of Indonesia in the future, with a 10-year plan to transfer all government offices to a new capital city. The National Development Planning Ministry recommended the three provinces of South, Central, and East Kalimantan as all fitting the requirements for a new capital, including being relatively free from earthquakes and volcanoes. Shortly after the plan was announced in April 2017, Jokowi visited two alternative locations in Kalimantan, Bukit Soeharto in East Kalimantan and the Triangle Area near Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan.
On 26 August 2019, Jokowi announced that the new capital will be in both the North Penajam Paser Regency and Kutai Kartanegara Regency, both in East Kalimantan. However, the move still awaits parliamentary approval to become official. The National Development Planning Ministry announced that the move will cost an estimated 466 trillion rupiah ($32.7 billion) and the government intends to cover 19% of the cost. The remainder would come mainly from public-private partnerships and direct investment by both state-owned enterprises and the private sector.
- Dino Fanara (2006). Angel of the East Indies: Biography of the Van Dooremolen Family. iUniverse. p. 55. ISBN 9780595860449.
- "Jokowi formally proposes relocating Indonesian capital to Kalimantan". New Straits Time. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- Kate Lyons. "Why is Indonesia moving its capital city? Everything you need to know". The Guardian.
- "Jokowi Proposes to Relocate Capital to Kalimantan Island". Tempo. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "Indonesia picks Borneo island as site of new capital". BBC.
- "Indonesia pledges $40 billion to modernize Jakarta ahead of new..." Reuters. 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
- "Jakarta sinks as Indonesian capital and Borneo takes on mantle". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Batavia". De VOCsite (in Dutch). de VOCsite. 2002–2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Gunawan Tjahjono, ed. (1998). Architecture. Indonesian Heritage. 6. Singapore: Archipelago Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-981-3018-30-3.
- Waworoentoe 2013.
- Lapangan Merdeka / Monas[permanent dead link]. Merdeka Square page on official website of Jakarta. (in Indonesian)
- Kahin, Audrey (1999). Rebellion to Integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian Polity. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-5356-395-3.
- Silver, Christopher (2007). Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century - Planning, History and Environment Series. Routledge. p. 101. ISBN 9781135991227.
- "History of Jakarta". Jakarta.go.id. Archived from the original on 2016-06-27. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- "Tiru Malaysia, SBY Dukung Pemindahan Ibukota". www.inilah.com.
- "SBY: Mari Lanjutkan Ide Membangun Ibukota Baru". news.okezone.com.
- "VIVAnews - Pendapat Tujuh Pakar Soal Pemindahan Ibukota". Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- Jewel Topsfield; Karuni Rompies (13 April 2017). "Indonesia's capital Jakarta is so congested, government might move it to Borneo". Sydney Morning Herald.
- Kota-kota yang Diusulkan Jadi Ibukota | koran terbaru – berita seputar indonesia
- "Pangkalan Bun Dan Sampit Cocok Jadi Ibu Kota Negara". Borneo News (in Indonesian). 31 March 2015.
- Elin Yunita Kristanti (28 July 2010). "Aria Bima Pilih Pontianak Gantikan Jakarta, Kata dia, Pontianak berada di tengah wilayah RI, paku buminya Indonesia". Viva (in Indonesian).
- Palembang Ikut Diusulkan Jadi Pengganti Jakarta, Detik.com
- "Tempointeraktif.Com - Pemindahan Ibu Kota ke Jonggol Lebih Realistis". Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- "VIVAnews - Pemindahan Ibukota: Pakar ITB: Jonggol & Karawang Bukan Jawaban". Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2010-12-19.
- "Kertajati, Usulan Terkini Ibu Kota Baru". Republika (in Indonesian). 20 January 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Widodo slammed for infrastructure policy in second TV debate". Nikkei Asian Review.
- "Lebak Diusulkan Calon Ibu Kota RI". Warta Kota (in Indonesian). 30 January 2013.
- Hery H Winarno (20 April 2016). "Cerita Jokowi ingin pindahkan Ibu Kota di pulau reklamasi". Merdeka (in Indonesian).
- "Indonesia studies new sites for capital city". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. 10 April 2017.
- "Indonesia to move capital city". BBC. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Gorbiano, Marchio Irfan (26 August 2019). "BREAKING: Jokowi announces East Kalimantan as site of new capital". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Kusuma, Hendra (26 August 2019). "Resmi! Jokowi Putuskan Ibu Kota RI Pindah ke Kaltim". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Picheta, Rob (26 August 2019). "Indonesia will build its new capital city in Borneo as Jakarta sinks into the Java Sea". CNN. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Maulia, Erwida (26 August 2019). "Jokowi announces Indonesia's new capital in East Kalimantan". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 26 August 2019.