List of historical capitals of Egypt

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The current capital of Egypt is Cairo. Over the course of history, however, Egypt's capital has repeatedly changed.

List of Ancient Egyptian capitals[edit]

This is a list of Egyptian capitals in a chronological order.

  • Thinis (Actual Location Unknown) (before 2950 BC) the first capital of Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Memphis: (2950 BC - 2180 BC) - I - VIII dynasties
  • Herakleopolis Magna: (2180 BC - 2060 BC) - IX and X dynasties
  • Thebes: (2135 BC - 1985 BC) - XI dynasty
  • Itjtawy: (1985 BC - c.1700 BC) - XII dynasty to XIII dynasty before Merneferre Ay
  • Avaris: (1715 BC - 1580 BC) - XIV dynasty to XV dynasty (Hyksos)
  • Thebes: (c.1700 BC - c. 1353 BC) - XIII dynasty possibly starting from Merneferre Ay, then XVI dynasty to XVIII dynasty before Akhenaten
  • Akhetaten: (c. 1353 BC - c. 1332 BC) - Akhenaten of XVIII dynasty
  • Thebes: (c. 1332 BC - 1279 BC) - XVIII dynasty and XIX dynasty before Ramesses II
  • Memphis: XIX dynasty during rule of Seti I only
  • Pi-Ramesses: (1279 BC - 1078 BC) - XIX dynasty starting from Ramesses II and XX dynasty
  • Tanis: (1078 BC - 945 BC) - XXI dynasty
  • Bubastis/Tanis: (945 BC - 715 BC) - XXII dynasty
  • Tanis or most likely Thebes: (818 BC - 715 BC) - XXIII dynasty
  • Sais: (725 BC - 715 BC) - XXIV dynasty
  • Napata/Memphis (715 BC - 664 BC): The Kushite XXV dynasty rulers were based in Napata, Sudan but ruled Egypt from Memphis
  • Sais: (664 BC - 525 BC) - XXVI dynasty

XXVII dynasty was Persian.

  • Sais: (404 BC - 399 BC) - XXVIII dynasty
  • Mendes: (399 BC - 380 BC) - XXIX dynasty
  • Sebennytos: (380 BC - 343 BC) - XXX dynasty

XXXI dynasty was Persian.

  • Alexandria: (332 BC - 641 AD) - Greco-Roman period

Muslim period:

  • Fustat: (641 AD - 750 AD)
  • Al-Askar: (750 - 868 AD)
  • Al-Qata'i: (868 - 905 AD)
  • Fustat: (905 - 969 AD)
  • Cairo: the current capital since 969 AD

See also[edit]