Capital punishment by country
The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country.
- 1 Global overview
- 2 Capital punishment by continents
- 3 Abolition chronology
- 4 Capital punishment for non-violent offenses
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Historically, capital punishment has been used in almost every part of the world. Currently, the large majority of countries have either abolished or discontinued the practice. The U.S. is the only Western country[when defined as?] to use the death penalty. The use of capital punishment is usually divided into the four categories set out below. As of 11 April 2017, of the 195 independent states that are UN members or have UN observer status:[not in citation given]
- 58 retain it in both law and practice.
- 29 have abolished it de facto, namely, according to Amnesty International standards, that they have not executed anyone during the last 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions.
- 7 have abolished it, but retain it for exceptional or special circumstances (such as crimes committed in wartime).
- 104 have abolished it for all crimes.
Recent complete abolition of capital punishment
- Madagascar (2015), Fiji (2015), Republic of the Congo (2015), Suriname (2015), Nauru (2016), and Benin (2016).
- Execution of minors
- Since 2009, Iran and Saudi Arabia have executed offenders who were under the age of 18 (or 21) at the time the crime was committed.
- Public execution
- In 2013, public executions were carried out by the governments of Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia.
- Extrajudicial execution
- In some countries the practice of extrajudicial execution outside their own formal legal frameworks occurs sporadically or systematically. Information on this is not covered in this article.
The European Union holds a strong position against the death penalty; its abolition is a key objective for the Union’s human rights policy. Abolition is also a pre-condition for entry into the Union. In Europe, only Belarus continues to actively use capital punishment.
Russia and former Soviet republics
Russia retains the death penalty in law, but there is a moratorium. The last execution on Russian territory was in Chechnya in 1999. Of the other former Soviet republics, only Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan have not formally abolished capital punishment, and only Belarus uses it in practice. In Kazakhstan, it may only be used in exceptional/special circumstances such as for crimes committed in wartime.
Most executions worldwide take place in Asia. China is the world's most active death penalty country. North Korea often uses capital punishment. In Islamic countries such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, the numbers of executions are also very high. Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan belong to the few industrialized countries that have the death penalty (South Korea has a moratorium). In 2016 Nauru repealed the death penalty, but some countries are seeing a return to the practice; in the Philippines, President Rodrigo Duterte wants to restore executions, and Turkish President Recep Erdogan has promised to do so after the 2017 constitutional referendum. India executes criminals only in extreme cases. Only 26 executions have taken place in India since 1991.
In Africa, there are several countries that use the death penalty. Chad abolished the death penalty in 2014, but reintroduced it for acts of terrorism in 2015. Botswana and Nigeria are examples of countries that still execute people. Most recently, Benin repealed the death penalty in 2016.
Caribbean, Central and South America
In the Caribbean countries, the death penalty exists at least de jure (except in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which abolished it in 1966 and 1987, respectively; in 2008, St. Kitts & Nevis hanged a murderer and became the only American country other than the United States to use the death penalty in the past ten years). In Central and South America, the death penalty exists in Belize, Guatemala, and Guyana, though it has not been used for years. In Brazil, Chile, El Salvador and Peru, the death penalty is used only in exceptional/special circumstances such as for crimes committed in wartime and was abolished for other crimes.
Numbers executed in 2016
According to Amnesty International, 23 countries performed a combined total of about 1,032 executions in 2016:
- Africa (6 countries): Botswana (1), Egypt (44+), Nigeria (3), Somalia (14 [Puntland 1, Somaliland 6, Federal Government of Somalia 7]), South Sudan (unknown number), Sudan (3)
- Americas (1 country): USA (20)
- Asia-Pacific (15 countries): Afghanistan (6), Bangladesh (10), China (unknown number), Indonesia (4), Iran (567+), Iraq (88+), Japan (3), Malaysia (9), North Korea (unknown number), Pakistan (87+), State of Palestine (3 [Hamas authorities, Gaza]), Saudi Arabia (154+), Singapore (4), Taiwan (1), Vietnam (unknown number)
- Europe (1 country): Belarus (4+)
For China, North Korea, South Sudan, and Vietnam, there are no precise numbers available. Syria allegedly conducts large numbers of executions in secret, but the number is unknown.
For the first time since 2006, the USA (20 executions) was not among the biggest five executioners (In 2016: China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Pakistan–in that order. Excluding China, 87% of the executions took place in just four countries).
Belarus, the only European country to maintain the death penalty in practice, resumed executions after there had been no executions there the year before. 2015 and 2009 were the only two years in recorded history when Europe was completely free of executions.
Capital punishment by continents
Of the 54 independent states in Africa that are UN members:
- 16 (30%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
- 1 (2%) retains it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
- 18 (33%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.
- 29 (35%) have abolished it.
Many African countries have carried out no executions for over 10 years, but are not believed to have an abolitionist policy or established practice.
The information above is accurate as of 2016, when Benin abolished capital punishment. Chad abolished the death penalty in 2014, but restored it for terrorism in 2015.
- In 2014, Sudan was Africa's leading executioner. This century the following African countries have abolished capital punishment; Ivory Coast (2000), Senegal (2004), Rwanda (2007), Burundi (2009), Togo (2009), Gabon (2010), Congo (2015), Madagascar (2015) and Benin (2016).
Executions in Africa in 2014: Egypt (16+), Equatorial Guinea (9), Somalia (14+), Sudan (23+)
Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon.
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2014||Year abolished||Notes|
|Algeria||1993||n/a||Death penalty for treason; espionage; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory; sabotage to public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; terrorism; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft. Currently under a moratorium. On 20 December 2012, Algeria co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.|
|Angola||*None since independence in 1975||1992||Abolished in 1992 by Constitution|
|Benin||1987||2016||On 6 July 2012, Benin acceded to the Second Additional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which makes Benin abolitionist. The decision was upheld by the Constitutional Court in January 2016 although the death penalty is still present in statutes.|
|Botswana||2016||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; treason; attempt on the life of the head of state; mutiny; desertion in the face of the enemy|
|Burkina Faso||1988||n/a||Death penalty for treason. In 2015, Burkina Faso was considering abolishing the death penalty.|
|Burundi||2000||2009||Death penalty abolished in revised 2009 criminal code. Extrajudicial executions are still commonplace.|
|Cameroon||1997||n/a||Death penalty for secession; espionage; incitement to war. In February 2014, the President of the Republic, Paul Biya, commuted all persons condemned to the death penalty to life in prison. The decree commuted their sentences to 25 years incarceration. However, death sentences have continued to be handed down as of 2016.|
|Cape Verde||*None since independence in 1975||1981||Last execution when a colony of Portugal was 1835. Abolished in 1981 by Constitution.|
|Central African Republic||1981||n/a||Death penalty for treason; espionage; charlatanism; witchcraft; assassination; murder|
|Chad||2015||n/a||Firing Squad, shooting. Death penalty only for acts of terrorism. Capital punishment was abolished in 2014, but then reintroduced the following year.|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||2003||n/a|
|Congo||1982||2015||Death penalty abolished November 2015 by constitution.|
|Ivory Coast||*None since independence in 1960||2000|
|Djibouti||*None since independence in 1977||1995|
|Egypt||2016||16+||n/a||Hanging or firing squad. Death penalty for rape (if the victim is also kidnapped); murder; treason; organized drug trafficking|
|Eritrea||*None since independence in 1993||n/a||Last execution when part of Ethiopia was 1989. At least one execution may have been carried out between 1999 and 2008, but this remains unconfirmed.|
|Ethiopia||2007||n/a||Death penalty for murder, treason, armed conspiracy, genocide, outrages against the constitution|
|Gabon||1981||2010||Abolished in February 2010|
|Gambia||2012||n/a||Death penalty for treason. Abolished 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995|
|Ghana||1993||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason; armed robbery In 2014, it was agreed that a referendum would be held on several constitutional amendments including the abolition of capital punishment.|
|Guinea-Bissau||1986||1993||Abolished 1993 by Constitution.|
|Guinea||2001||2016 (Civilian) N/A (Military)||Abolished 2016 for ordinary crimes, still retained "for exceptional crimes including treason; desertion in presence of the enemy; capitulation; destruction of ships/planes and revolt at times of war or state of emergency."|
|Kenya||1987||n/a||Death penalty for terrorism; terrorism acts; high treason; murder, armed robbery, treason. On 3 August 2009, the death sentences of all 4,000 death row inmates were commuted to life imprisonment, and government studies were ordered to determine if the death penalty has any impact on crime.|
|Liberia||2000||n/a||Death penalty for armed robbery, terrorism, hijacking. On 16 September 2005, Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, abolishing the death penalty, but re-introduced elements of it in July 2008.|
|Libya||2016||n/a||Libya executed more people (18) in 2010, than any other African state. Current laws allow capital punishment for high treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder|
|Madagascar||1958||2015||Abolished 10 December 2014 Earlier, on 24 September 2012, Madagascar had signed the Second Additional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.|
|Mauritania||1987||n/a||Death penalty for homosexuality, sodomy, apostasy (no recorded executions).|
|Morocco||1993||n/a||Death penalty for terrorism In December 2013 a parliamentary opposition group filed a bill to abolish the death penalty in Morocco. The MP who introduced the bill said he was "optimistic" about the bill passing "in view of the current reform movement in Morocco".|
|Mozambique||1986||1990||Abolished November 1990 by Constitution|
|Namibia||*None since independence in 1990||1990||Last execution when occupied by South Africa was in 1988. Abolished March 1990 by Constitution.|
|Nigeria||2016||n/a||Death penalty for murder; blasphemy; homosexuality; terrorism; terrorism acts; sodomy, kidnapping. Each of the 36 states has its own laws. In the north of the country, Sharia (Islamic law) is used. In Imo State, a bill that provided capital punishment for kidnapping was signed into law. Southern states of Nigeria have imposed a moratorium on the death penalty since 2004.|
|Rwanda||1998||2007||Since some of the perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide fled to countries that refuse to extradite suspects to countries that use capital punishment, the Rwandan parliament voted to abolish capital punishment in 2007.|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||*None since independence in 1975||1990||Abolished September 1990 by Constitution|
|Seychelles||*None since independence in 1976||1993||Abolished June 1993 by Constitution|
|Sierra Leone||1998||n/a||Death penalty for treason; murder; aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leone the death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes|
|Somalia||2017||14+||n/a||Hanging, firing squad or stoning. Somalia is the only African state that carries out public executions. The Transitional Federal Government laws allowed for execution (in the limited area of the country it used to control) for murder, drug trafficking, blasphemy, apostasy, kidnapping, prostitution, robbery, corruption and adultery.|
|South Africa||1989||1995||The last execution by the South African government was on 14 November 1989. An execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised "homeland" of Venda in 1991. Capital punishment was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court on 6 June 1995 in the case of S v Makwanyane and Another. In 1997 the Criminal Law Amendment Act formally removed the invalidated provisions from the statute-book, and made provision for the resentencing of prisoners previously sentenced to death. On 25 May 2005 the Constitutional Court ordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced as soon as possible.|
|South Sudan||2016||n/a||Death penalty for treason; insurgency, banditry, sabotage or terrorism resulting in death; perjury in a capital case leading to wrongful execution; murder; attempted murder causing injury by a person sentenced to life for a previous murder; brigandage with murder; and drug dealing under aggravated circumstances.|
|Sudan||2016||23+||n/a||Death penalty for sodomy, waging war against the state, apostasy, prostitution, homosexuality, drug trafficking, treason, acts that may endanger the independence or unity of the state, murder, armed robbery, weapon possession and smuggling|
|Swaziland||1983||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason|
|Tanzania||1994||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason|
|Tunisia||1991||n/a||Death penalty for murder; terrorism; terrorism acts; violence and aggression; attacks against the external security of the state. On 6 January 2014 the National Constituent Assembly (NCA) voted for maintaining capital punishment in the upcoming constitution in Tunisia. The votes were by 135 yes out of a total of 174. Since 2015, it has been possible to give the death penalty for terrorism.|
|Uganda||2005||n/a||Death penalty for murder. In 2009, the Supreme Court upheld a 2005 Constitutional Court ruling that although the death penalty was constitutional, its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not.|
|Zambia||1997||n/a||Death penalty for murder; aggravated robbery; high treason. President Levy Mwanawasa stated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant."|
|Zimbabwe||2005||n/a||Death penalty for murder; high treason; terrorism; drug trafficking; aggravated robbery.|
Of the 35 independent states in the Americas that are UN members:
- 14 (40%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
- 4 (11%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
- 1 (3%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.
- 16 (46%) have abolished capital punishment.
Many Caribbean countries have carried out no executions for over 10 years, but are not believed to have an abolitionist policy or established practice.
The United States was the only country in the Americas to carry out executions in 2015. The only other country in the Americas to have performed an execution in the last 10 years is Saint Kitts and Nevis, in 2008. The countries in the Americas that most recently abolished the death penalty are Suriname (2015), Argentina (2009), and Bolivia (2009).
Executions in the Americas in 2015: United States (28).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2014||Year abolished||Notes|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1991||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder. Currently, no individual is under the sentence of death, as the last death sentence in the country was commuted in 2016.|
|Constitution of 1853 states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished."  And was complety abolished by the Penal Code of 30 April 1922.
Despite this it was reinstated in 6 September 1930 by martial law until 20 February 1932. Was reinstated again in 9 June 1956 by martial law until 1 May 1958. Was reinstated again on 2 June 1970 and abolished on 29 December 1972. Was reinstated for the last time on 25 June 1976 and finally abolished on 22 August 1984.
The Military Code of Justice (including the death penalty) was abolished on 6 August 2008 taking effect the following year.
|Bahamas||2000||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for treason; piracy; murder. Currently no individual is under the sentence of death, as the last death sentence in the country was commuted in 2016.|
|Barbados||1984||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason. Presently under review before the IACHR despite strong national support.|
|Belize||1985||n/a||Death penalty for murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved|
|Bolivia||1974||2013||Abolished for ordinary crimes 1997. "The death penalty does not exist" (Article 15).|
|Brazil||1876||1978 (Civilian) N/a (Military)||
Hanging, firing squad. Brazil has always maintained the death penalty as part of its military code but capital punishment for civil offenses was abolished after Brazil became a republic in 1889, then reinstated and abolished again twice (1938–53 and 1969–78). Only one person was ever sentenced to death during the Republican period, in 1969, and the execution was not carried out. The current Constitution of Brazil (1988) expressly forbids the use of capital punishment by the civil penal justice system. For more information see Capital punishment in Brazil.
|Canada||1962 (military c.1945)||1998||Abolished in 1976 for ordinary crimes; abolished 1998 for military offences (last used in 1945). For more information see Capital punishment in Canada|
|Chile||1985||2001 (Civilian) N/A (Military)||Shooting. Death penalty for war crimes and crimes against humanity during times of war. Abolished from civil justice in 2001.|
|Colombia||1909||1910||Abolished in 1910 by Constitutional reform. Prohibited by the Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."|
|Costa Rica||1859||1877||Abolished 1877 by Constitution|
|Cuba||2003||n/a||Firing squad. Death penalty for murder, attempted murder, hijacking, acts of terrorism, treason, political offenses[clarification needed], child rape, molestation of a child under 12 years of age with aggravating factors, rape of an adult with aggravating factors, rape of an adult that results in death, illness or grievous bodily harm, robbery with aggravating factors, drug offenses, production of child pornography, child trafficking, child prostitution, child corruption, piracy. De facto abolitionist as the last execution took place on 11 April 2003. The last death sentences were commuted in 2010. See also Capital punishment in Cuba|
|Dominican Republic||1966||1966||Abolished in 1966 by Constitution.|
|Ecuador||1884||1906||Abolished 1906 by Constitution. See Capital punishment in Ecuador.|
|El Salvador||1973||1983 (Civilian) N/A (Military)||May be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war. Abolished for other crimes 1983.|
|Guatemala||2000||n/a||Lethal injection. Death penalty for murder, treason, drug trafficking, kidnapping, torture, and terrorism. Moratorium in 2000.|
|Haiti||1972||1987||Abolished 1987 by Constitution.|
|Guyana||1997||n/a||Death penalty for terrorist acts; murder; mass murder; rape; willful murder; treason; torture. The constitution states that it must not be a mandatory punishment.|
|Honduras||1940||1956||Abolished 1956 by Constitution.|
|Jamaica||1988||n/a||Death penalty for murder. Currently, there is no one under the sentence of death in Jamaica.|
|Mexico||1961 – Military
1937 – Civilian
|1976||Abolished for all crimes in 2005. See also Capital punishment in Mexico.|
|Nicaragua||1930||1979||Abolished 1979 by Constitution|
|Panama||*None since independence in 1903||1903||Abolished 1903 by Constitution.|
|Paraguay||1928||1992||Abolished 1992 by Constitution|
|Peru||1979||1979 (Civilian) N/A (Military)||Firing squad. Death penalty for treason; terrorism; espionage; genocide; mutiny; desertion in times of war. Abolished for other crimes 1979.|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||2008||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder|
|Saint Lucia||1995||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; treason|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1995||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1999||n/a||Death penalty for murder; treason|
|United States||2017||35||n/a||Methods vary by state, federal, and military policy, but include lethal injection, hanging, firing squad, the electric chair, and the gas chamber. Federal law provides the death penalty for many homicide-related crimes, espionage, treason, terrorism, murder, robbery, and drug trafficking. 31 of the 50 states currently have the death penalty. Of the non-state territories, American Samoa still has capital punishment as a local statute, and the others have abolished it. The Supreme Court has severely limited the crimes that the death penalty can be a punishment for, the only two being murder and treason. It has also abolished the death penalty for crimes committed by a person under the age of 18. Sentences of death may be handed down by a jury or a judge (upon a bench trial or a guilty plea). See Capital punishment in the United States.|
|Uruguay||1905||1907||Abolished by the "Law No. 3238" on 23 September 1907 and by the Constitution of 1918.|
|Venezuela||*None since independence in 1830||1863||Abolished 1863 by Constitution|
Of the 57 independent countries in the Asia-Pacific region that are UN member or observer states:
- 25 (44%) maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
- 10 (17%) permit its use for ordinary crimes, but have not used it for at least 10 years and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions, or it is under a moratorium.
- 2 (4%) retain it for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as in time of war).
- 20 (35%) have abolished it.
The information above is accurate as of 2016[update], when Nauru abolished the death penalty, and does not include Taiwan, which is not currently a UN member; Taiwan practises the death penalty by shooting, and conducted one execution in 2016. Hong Kong and Macau are also listed below but not included in the figures above as they do not have UN membership separate from China.
- In 2014, Asia had the world's four leading practitioners of capital punishment – China, Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. The most recent countries to abolish capital punishment in the Asia-Pacific region are; Timor-Leste (2002), Bhutan (2004), Samoa (2004), Philippines (2006), Kyrgyzstan (2007), Uzbekistan (2008), Fiji (2015) and Nauru (2016).
Executions in 2014: China (1000+), North Korea (+), Iran (743+), Iraq (61+), Saudi Arabia (90+), Yemen (23+), Jordan (11), Afghanistan (6), Vietnam (3+), Japan (3), Palestine (26+), Malaysia (2+), Singapore (2), UAE (1).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2014||Year abolished||Notes|
|Afghanistan||2016||6||n/a||Hanging; shooting. Current laws allow capital punishment for kidnapping, terrorism, robbery, theft, blasphemy, apostasy, homosexuality, and murder.|
|Australia||1967||1985||Capital punishment was abolished in Queensland in 1922, Tasmania in 1968, The Northern Territory; Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth in 1973, Victoria in 1975, South Australia in 1976, Western Australia in 1984 and New South Wales in 1985. See also capital punishment in Australia.|
|Bahrain||2017||n/a||Death penalty for premeditated murder; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law|
|Bangladesh||2017||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; drug offences; sodomy, trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; trafficking in women for purposes of prostitution, terrorism, rape, armed robbery, perjury causing wrongful execution, treason and war crimes.|
|Brunei||*None since independence in 1984||n/a||Last execution when a protectorate of Britain was in 1957. Death penalty for murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, cocaine of more than 30 grams, cannabis of more than 500 grams, syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or opium of more than 1.2 kg A new penal code was introduced in April 2014 and introduced the death penalty for male same-sex acts if one of the parties is Muslim (by stoning); rape; adultery; apostasy; sodomy; extramarital sexual relations for Muslims; insulting any verse of the Quran and Hadith; blasphemy; declaring oneself a prophet or non-Muslim; and murder.|
|Cambodia||1989||1989||Abolished in 1989 by Constitution.|
|China||2017||1000+||n/a||Shooting (firing squad); lethal injection. China carries out far more executions than all of the rest of the world combined, and is the only country in the world that routinely executes thousands of people every year. On 25 February 2011 China's newly revised Criminal Law reduced the number of crimes punishable by death by 13, from 68 to 55. Among these are embezzlement, rape (particularly of children), fraud, bombing, people trafficking, piracy, drug trafficking, corruption, arson, murder, poaching, endangerment of national security and terrorism. Even the higher sections of Chinese society are not exempt from the death penalty, as billionaire Liu Han was executed 9 February 2015. See also capital punishment in the People's Republic of China.|
|Fiji||*None since independence in 1970||2015||Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1964. The death penalty for crimes under the Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act was abolished in Feb 2015. Abolished for other crimes 1979.|
Main article: Capital punishment in Hong KongIt was last used in 1966 and abolished in 1993 by the then British colonial government.
Main article: Capital punishment in IndiaDeath penalty for murder; instigating a minor's or an idiot's suicide; treason; acts of terrorism; a second conviction for drug trafficking, aircraft hijacking, aggravated robbery, treason, aggravated rape and drug smuggling under aggravated circumstances; abetting sati, mutiny and its abetting; causing explosions which can endanger life or property and a few military offences like desertion. Military offences may be punished with a firing squad. See also capital punishment in India
|Indonesia||2016||n/a||Firing squad. Death penalty for murder; high treason; kidnapping; rape; terrorism acts; drug trafficking; terrorism. 8 people including overseas nationals executed on 29 April 2015|
|Iran||2017||743+||n/a||Hanging, shooting. Iran performs public executions. Iran is second only to China in the number of executions it carries out—executing hundreds every year. Death penalty for murder; armed robbery; drug trafficking; kidnapping; rape; child molestation; sodomy; homosexuality; espionage; terrorism; apostasy; adultery; blasphemy; "enmity against God" and "corruption on earth." See also capital punishment in Iran.|
|Iraq||2017||61+||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; apostasy; attacks on transport convoys; financing and execution of terrorism. Suspended in June 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated August 2004. A total of 447 people were executed between then and the end of March 2013, with 129 in 2012 alone.|
|Hanging; firing squad. Death penalty for crimes against humanity, high treason, genocide, and crimes against the Jewish people during wartime. Only two executions since independence in 1948: accused traitor Meir Tobiansky (posthumously acquitted) and Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann. Abolished for other crimes 1954.|
|Japan||2016||3||n/a||Hanging. Murder; crimes against the state. Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides; death sentence for a single murder is extraordinary. Between 1946 and 2003 766 people were sentenced to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to an informal moratorium. See also capital punishment in Japan.|
|Jordan||2017||11||n/a||Death penalty for some cases of terrorism, murder, rape, drug trafficking and human trafficking. Jordan has a de facto moratorium on capital punishment since 2006, however, some executions were carried out in 2014, 2015, and 2017.|
|Kazakhstan||2003||n/a||Currently capital punishment for terrorism and crimes in wartime. Moratorium since 17 December 2003. Abolished on 30 July 2009 for other crimes. On 28 March 2011 the Presidential Commission for Human Rights in Astana asked the government to abolish capital punishment. Currently only one person, mass murderer Ruslan Kulikbayev, is on death row in Kazakhstan.|
|North Korea||2017||+||n/a||Firing squad, hanging or decapitation. North Korea performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for "drug transactions"; plots against national sovereignty; terrorism; treason against the Motherland by citizens; act of terrorism, treason against the people; murder, subversion, corruption, attempted murder, murder of a North Korean Police Guard, watching South Korean and foreign Drama & Soap Operas, arson, kidnapping, rape, insubordination, burglary, illegal entry, assault, hostile acts, drug trafficking, inappropriate words, armed robbery, violation of Juche customs, human trafficking, dating, illegal border crossing, weapon possession, committing massacres, membership in the Muslim Brotherhood, bank robbery, hacking, conducting scam phone calls, grand theft, visiting foreign websites, promoting commercialism, making illegal international calls without a phone card, producing and/or watching pornography, showing disrespect and disobedience to the Kim family, taking unauthorized photographs, unauthorized religious activity, producing anti-propaganda materials against the state, join Islamic State in Syria or Iraq.|
|South Korea||1997||n/a||Death penalty for murder, rebellion, drug trafficking, conspiracy with foreign countries, robbery-homicide and other crimes. There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since President Kim Dae-jung took office in February 1998.|
|Kiribati||*None since independence in 1979||1979|
|Kuwait||2017||n/a||Death penalty for apostasy; drug trafficking; rape; murder; national security crimes|
|Kyrgyzstan||*None since independence in 1991||2007||Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998. Abolished by constitution in 2007|
|Laos||1989||n/a||Death penalty for murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, treason|
|Lebanon||2004||n/a||Hanging; firing squad. Death penalty for murder|
Main article: Capital punishment in MacauIt was last used in the 19th century and abolished in 1976 when Portugal abolished the death penalty on all its territories
|Malaysia||2017||2+||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty mandatory for trafficking in dangerous drugs; discharging a firearm in the commission of a scheduled offense; accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; offenses against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's person; murder. Discretionary for kidnapping; consorting with a person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri|
|Maldives||*None since independence in 1965||n/a||Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1952. Death penalty for murder, terrorism, treason, adultery and apostasy. 60-year moratorium lifted in 2014.|
|Marshall Islands||*None since independence in 1986||1986||Abolished in 1986 by Constitution|
|F.S. Micronesia||*None since independence in 1986||1986||Abolished in 1986 by Constitution|
|Mongolia||2008||n/a||After two years under an official moratorium, the State Great Khural had in 2012 formally acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The abolition of death penalty is contained in a law passed in December 2015 which will establish a new Penal Code, however its entry into force will occur in July 2017.|
|Myanmar||2016 (Wa state) ||n/a||Death penalty for murder, terrorism, high treason and drug trafficking.|
|Nauru||*None since independence in 1968||2016||Death penalty abolished May 2016|
|Nepal||1979||1997||Abolished 1997 by Constitution.|
|New Zealand||1957||2007 (Cook Is.)
|Abolished in New Zealand in 1989. In 2007 the Cook Islands became the last of New Zealand`s overseas territories to abolish capital punishment. See also capital punishment in New Zealand|
|Oman||2015||n/a||Death penalty for murder; drug trafficking, terrorism, kidnapping|
Main article: Capital punishment in PakistanHanging. Death penalty for murder, drug smuggling, terrorism, rape, unlawful assembly, homosexuality and blasphemy. Six-year moratorium lifted in 2014 after the Peshawar school massacre.
|Palau||*None since independence in 1994||1994|
|Palestine||2017||26+||n/a||Suspected political dissidents, such as accused Israel collaborators, are frequently executed, often in the street, without trial.|
|Papua New Guinea||*None since independence in 1975||n/a||Last execution when under Australian administration in November 1954. Treason; piracy; attempted piracy; willful murder. Papua New Guinea voted in 2013 to introduce the death penalty for crimes such as rape, robbery and sorcery-related murder. See also capital punishment in Papua New Guinea.|
|Philippines||2000||2006||Abolished in 1987 under the present Constitution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on 24 June 2006 under Republic Act No. 9346. The House of Representatives voted to reinstate the death penalty for drug crimes in March 2017 however the law is still pending Senate & Presidential approval.|
|Qatar||2003||n/a||Death penalty for espionage; threat to national security; apostasy (no recorded executions); homosexuality and drug trafficking.|
|Samoa||*None since independence in 1962||2004|
|Saudi Arabia||2017||100||n/a||Decapitation. Saudi Arabia performs public executions. Current Islamic laws allow the use of capital punishment for many violent and nonviolent offenses which includes robbery, treason, kidnapping, as well as homosexuality, pedophilia, adultery; murder; apostasy; drug trafficking; rape and armed robbery; drug offenses; witchcraft; sexual misconduct, and terrorism. Method most often used is beheading with a scimitar, although the firing squad is sometimes used. Bodies may be put on public display.|
|Singapore||2016||2||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for terrorism; murder; kidnapping; certain firearm offenses; drug trafficking in more than 15 grams of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis See also capital punishment in Singapore|
|Solomon Islands||*None since independence in 1978||1978|
|Sri Lanka||1976||n/a||Death penalty for murder; perjury causing an innocent person to be executed; rape; drug trafficking. Moratorium since 1976.|
|Syria||2015||n/a||Hanging is used. Syria performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for treason; murder; theft; political acts such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, espionage, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robbery; rape; membership in the Muslim Brotherhood; drug trafficking. Extrajudicial killings are commonplace in Syria.|
|Taiwan||2016||5||n/a||Shooting. Prior to the execution, the prisoner is injected with strong anaesthetic to leave them completely senseless. See also Capital punishment in Taiwan.|
|Tajikistan||2004||n/a||Death penalty for murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; biocide; genocide. Moratorium introduced 30 April 2004 by President Emomalii Rahmon|
|Thailand||2009||n/a||Death penalty for 35 crimes including regicide; sedition or rebellion; offenses committed against the external security of Thailand; murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state; bribery; high treason; terrorism acts; terrorism; arson; rape; murder; drug trafficking; kidnapping; robbery resulting in death. For a full list see here (PDF)|
|Timor-Leste||*None since independence in 2002||2002||Death penalty suspended following UN administration in 1999 when still a province of Indonesia. Abolished by constitution 2002.|
|Tonga||1982||n/a||Hanging. Death penalty for treason, murder. See capital punishment in Tonga|
|Turkmenistan||1997||1999||Abolished 1999 by Constitution.|
|Tuvalu||*None since independence in 1978||1978|
|United Arab Emirates||2015||1||n/a||Death penalty by firing squad for murder; drug offenses; rape; treason; apostasy; aggravated robbery; terrorism; homosexuality; joining the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Syria or Iraq; blasphemy;|
|Uzbekistan||2005||2008||President Islam Karimov signed a decree on 1 August 2005 that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January 2008|
|Vanuatu||*None since independence in 1980||1980|
|Vietnam||2016||3+||n/a||Lethal injection. Death penalty for treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud|
|Yemen||2015||23+||n/a||Shooting. Yemen performs public executions. Current laws allow the death penalty for murder; adultery; homosexuality; apostasy (no recorded executions) and drug trafficking.|
Of the 49 independent states in Europe that are UN members or have UN Observer status:
- 1 (2%), Belarus, maintains the death penalty.
- 1 (2%), Russia, is abolitionist in practice.
- 47 (96%) have abolished it.
Since 1997, Belarus has been the only country in Europe to carry out executions. 2009 and 2015 were the first two years in recorded history when Europe was completely free of executions. This century the following European countries have abolished capital punishment: Ukraine (2000), Malta (2000), Cyprus (2002), Turkey (2004), Greece (2004), Moldova (2005), Albania (2007), and Latvia (2012).
|Key||Country||Year of last execution||Executions 2014||Year abolished||Notes|
|Albania||1995||2007||Ratification of Protocol No. 13 of ECHR took place on 6 February 2007, in effect by 1 June 2007.|
|Andorra||1943||1990||Garrote, Firing Squad abolished 1990 by Constitution|
|Armenia||*None since independence in 1991||1998||Abolished in 1998 by Constitution. The last execution when Armenia was a part of the USSR was on 30 August 1991.|
|Austria||1950||1968||Abolished in peacetime 1950. Completely abolished in 1968 by Constitution.|
|Belarus||2016||3+||n/a||Shooting. Belarus is the only country in Europe to practice the death penalty. Laws allow capital punishment for acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; murder of a border patrol; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war. See Capital punishment in Belarus.|
|Belgium||1950||1996||Last execution for common law crimes was in 1863. Last execution for war crimes was in 1950. Abolished 1996 by Penal Code; since 2005 in Constitution.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||*None since independence in 1992||1998||Last execution when part of Yugoslavia was in 1975. Abolished 1998 by Constitution, although the death penalty is still present in statutes, specifically in Republika Srpska, Article 11, which states "Human life shall be inviolable. Death penalty may be pronounced exclusively for capital crimes."|
|Bulgaria||1989||1998||Last execution in Bulgaria was the 4th November 1989 and it took place 4 days before the fall of the socialist party. In the same year it was the 14th consecutive shooting of a convicted prisoner.|
|Cyprus||1962||2002||Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983.|
|Croatia||*None since independence in 1991||1991||Last capital punishment was performed on January 29, 1987 by the state firing squad while Croatia was still part of SFR Yugoslavia. Last executed convict was Dušan Kosić who killed Čedomir Matijević, his wife Slavica and their two daughters, Dragana and Snježana. Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 according to the provision of the new Croatian constitution enected for the SR Croatia. Upon declaring independence in June 1991 newly formed Republic of Croatia declared Constitution from 1990 official and left the jurisdiction of the Yugoslav Federation consequently completely abolishing capital punishment. Death penalty is prohibited by the article 21 of the Croatian Constitution.|
|Czech Republic||*None since independence in 1993||1990||Last execution when part of Czechoslovakia was in June 1989. Abolished after the Velvet Revolution 1990 by the amendment to Constitution of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 the Czech Republic became a new abolitionist state. For more info see Capital punishment in the Czech Republic.|
|Denmark||1950||1978||Last execution for common law crimes 1892. Last execution for war crimes 1950. Capital punishment was retroactively carried out 1945–50 for crimes related to the German occupation in World War II, repealed in 1951 and confirmed in 1993. A similar rule was active 1952–1978 in the civil penalty law for war crimes committed under extreme circumstances. See Capital punishment in Denmark.|
|Estonia||1991||1998||In Estonia the last execution took place on 11 September 1991 when Rein Oruste was shot with a bullet to the back of the head for the crime of murder.|
|Finland||1944||1972||Last peacetime execution 1825. Last wartime execution 1944. Capital punishment was abolished for civilian crimes in 1949 (all existing sentences commuted to life imprisonment) and for all crimes 1972. In 1984 the death penalty was explicitly outlawed in the Finnish Constitution. See Capital punishment in Finland.|
|France||1977||1981||The death penalty was initially abolished by the Directory in 1795 but re-introduced by Napoleon in 1810. It was re-abolished in law in 1981 and by Constitution in 2007. See Capital punishment in France.|
|Georgia||1995||2006||The death penalty was abolished for most offenses in 1997, but the constitution stated that the Supreme Court had the power to impose the death penalty in exceptionally serious cases of "crimes against life". On 27 December 2006, President Mikheil Saakashvili signed into a law a new constitutional amendment totally abolishing the death penalty in all circumstances|
|Germany||1949 (West Germany)
1981 (East Germany)
|1949 (West Germany)
1987 (East Germany)
|Prohibited in West Germany by the Basic Law since 1949. US military authorities carried out an execution on West German territory in 1956. The now defunct GDR abolished the death penalty in 1987, the last execution was held in 1981.|
|Greece||1972||2004||Abolished in 1994 (Law 2207/1994) except for high treason in time of war; abolished completely with the Constitutional amendment of 2001 and then with the approval by Greek Parliament of the ratification of Protocol No. 13 on the abolition of death penalty in all circumstances in November 2004.|
|Hungary||1988||1990||Capital punishment was abolished in 1990 and the last execution was of Vadász Ernő on 14 July 1988 for murder.|
|Iceland||*None since independence in 1944||1928||Last execution in 1830 when a colony of Denmark. Abolished in 1928; reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of Parliament.|
|Ireland||1954||1990||See Capital punishment in Ireland. Abolished for most murders in 1964, and for remaining offences in 1990. Last death sentences passed in 1985; all since 1954 commuted to imprisonment. 2001 constitutional referendum prohibits reintroduction, even during state of emergency.|
|Italy||1947||1948||On 30 November 1786 the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (then independent, now a part of Italy) became the first state in the modern era to completely abolish the death penalty. The short lived Roman Republic of Feb–July 1849 abolished the death penalty before being overthrown by French troops. When the Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861 all the constituent states except Tuscany allowed capital punishment until it was abolished from the penal code in 1889 – although it was maintained under military and colonial law. In 1926 Mussolini reintroduced the death penalty into Italian law. It was re-abolished from the penal code in 1944. Art. 27 of the Constitution of the Italian Republic (1948) completely abolished it for all common military and civil crimes during peacetime. The death penalty was still, formally, in force in Italy in the military penal code, only for high treachery against the Republic or only in war theatre perpetrated crimes (though no execution ever took place) until it was abolished completely from there as well, in 1994. Article 27 of Italian Constitution was changed, in 2007, to impede the reintroduction of death penalty in time of war too. See Capital punishment in Italy.|
|Latvia||1996||2012||Death penalty abolished for peacetime offenses 1999. Abolished for all crimes 2012.|
|Luxembourg||1949||1979||Abolished by Constitution 1979|
|Macedonia||*None since independence in 1991||1991||Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1988. Abolished by Constitution 1991.|
|Malta||*None since independence in 1964||2000||Last execution when a colony of Britain was in 1943. Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; part of the military code until 2000.|
|Moldova||*None since independence in 1991||2005||Last execution when a part of the USSR was in 1985. On 23 September 2005 the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that abolished the death penalty.|
|Monaco||1847||1962||Abolished by Constitution 1962|
|Montenegro||*None since independence in 2006||1995||Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by Yugoslavia Federal Republic in 1995. When Montenegro declared independence in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.|
2010 (Neth Antilles)
|Last execution for peacetime offences 1860. Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870. Abolished in Netherlands by Constitution 1982. Last Netherlands overseas territory to abolish was Netherlands Antilles in 2010.|
|Norway||1948||1979||Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876. Last executions of wartime offenders conducted on 37 men convicted of treason or war crimes in WWII in 1945–48.|
|Poland||1988||1997||A criminal law reform including reintroduction of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost its first reading vote in the Sejm by 198 to 194 with 14 abstentions. It is said that this was only populism, as Poland was in the European Union and so this initiative hardly had a chance.|
|Portugal||1846||1976||Capital Punishment was abolished for political crimes in 1852, civil crimes in 1867 and war crimes in 1911. In 1916, capital punishment was reinstated only for military offenses that occurred in a war against a foreign country and in the theater of war. Capital punishment was completely abolished again in 1976. See Capital punishment in Portugal.|
|Romania||1989||1990||The last people to be convicted and executed in Romania were the former dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena Ceaușescu, following the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Their accusations ranged from crimes against humanity to high-treason. Abolished in 1990 and banned by Constitution in 1991.|
|Russia||1999 (Chechnya)||2009 (moratorium)||Russia retains the death penalty, but the regulations of the Council of Europe prohibit it from carrying out executions. There have been 4 brief periods when Russia has completely abolished the death penalty, in the 18th century Russian empress Yelizaveta Petrovna abolished it, but it was restored by the next emperor, Peter III of Russia; then, on 12 March 1917 to 12 July 1917 following the overthrow of the Tsar, 27 October 1917 to 16 June 1918 following the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks, and 1947–1950 after the end of the Second World War (Joseph Stalin abolished it in 1947, but he had restored it back in 1950, and for this short period, the strictest punishment in USSR was penal servitude in GULAG for 25 years). Currently the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation envisages the death penalty for five crimes: murder with aggravating circumstances, assassination attempt against a state or public figure, attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations, attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer, and genocide. On 16 April 1997 Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions in the Russian Federation since August 1996 (except one in 1999 in the Chechen Republic, a former limited recognition state). In November 2009, the Constitutional Court extended the moratorium indefinitely pending ratification of the Sixth Protocol. The death penalty is still present in statutes. See Capital punishment in Russia.|
|San Marino||1468||1865||Capital Punishment was abolished for civil crimes in 1848. The Death penalty was completely abolished for all crimes in 1865.|
|Serbia||*None since independence in 2006||1995||Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1992. Capital punishment abolished by Yugoslavia Federal Republic in 1995. When Serbia became independent in 2006 it became an abolitionist state.|
|Slovakia||*None since independence in 1993||1990||Last execution when a part of Czechoslovakia was in 1989. Abolished 1990 by Constitution when still a constituent part of Czechoslovakia. Upon independence on 1 January 1993 Slovakia became a new abolitionist state.|
|Slovenia||*None since independence in 1991||1991||Last execution when a part of Yugoslavia was in 1959. Abolished in Slovenian Yugoslav Republic 1989 by Constitution. Upon declaration of independence in 1991 Slovenia removed itself from the jurisdiction of the Federal Yugoslav capital punishment statutes effectively achieving complete abolition.|
|Spain||1975||1995||Abolished in 1978 by constitution except for military laws during wartime. Abolished from the military penal code in 1995.|
|Sweden||1910||1973||Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975. See also capital punishment in Sweden.|
|Switzerland||1944||1992||Capital Punishment was abolished in 1874, but reinstated in 1879. It was practiced by a few cantons (nine executions up to 1940). Abolished by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was abolished in 1992. Banned by the 1999 constitution.|
|Turkey||1984||2004||Abolished in 2004 by Constitution. On October 29, 2016, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says his government would ask parliament to consider reintroducing the death penalty as a punishment for the plotters behind the July coup bid.|
|Ukraine||1997||2000||Abolished February 2000 after the Constitutional Court ruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999. New criminal code passed in April 2000.|
|United Kingdom||1977 (Bermuda)
|Last execution in the UK was in 1964. The last execution on British Overseas Territory occurred in Bermuda in 1977. Abolished for murder in 1969 in Great Britain and 1973 in Northern Ireland. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in UK in 1998. European Convention, Thirteenth Protocol ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. See Capital punishment in the United Kingdom. The last British Territory or Crown Dependency to completely abolish capital punishment was Jersey on 10 December 2006 (see Capital punishment in Jersey).|
|Vatican City||1870 (as Papal States)||1969||Mazzatello, Never used within the Vatican and only carried out in the Papal States by local authorities where the sentences were handed out. The death penalty was reserved for assassins of the pope until it's abolish in 1969.|
The table below lists in chronological order the 102 independent states, that are either UN members or have UN observer status, that have completely abolished the death penalty. In the hundred years following the abolition of capital punishment by Venezuela in 1863 only 10 more countries followed, not counting temporary abolitions which were later reversed. From the 1960s onwards abolition became far more popular. 4 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1960s (a record up to that time for any decade), 11 in the 1970s, and a further 10 in the 1980s. After the end of the Cold War, the rate of abolition greatly increased. 35 countries abolished capital punishment in the 1990s, and a further 23 in the 2000s. Since 1985, there have been only five years when no country has abolished the death penalty: 1988, 2003, 2011, 2013 and 2014.
Note: Where a country has abolished, re-instated, and abolished again (e.g. Philippines, Switzerland, Portugal) only the later abolition date is included. Countries who have abolished and since reinstated (e.g. Liberia) are not included. Non-independent territories are considered to be under the jurisdiction of their parent country – which leads to unexpectedly late abolition dates for the UK, New Zealand and the Netherlands, where Jersey (UK), the Cook Is (NZ), and the Netherlands Antilles, were the last territories of those states to abolish capital punishment, and all were rather later than the more well known abolitions on the respective mainlands. Defunct countries such as the GDR (East Germany), which abolished capital punishment in 1987 but was dissolved in 1990, are also not included. References are in the continental tables above and not repeated here.
Capital punishment for non-violent offenses
Brunei, Iran, Maldives, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Yemen
Apostasy and blasphemy
Apostasy: Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Maldives, Mauritania, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.
Blasphemy: Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates
China (not in Hong Kong or Macao), Cuba, Iran ("corruption on Earth"), Somalia
(See also Capital punishment for drug trafficking)
Bangladesh, Brunei, China (not in Hong Kong and Macau), Cuba, Egypt, Guatemala, India (option when second conviction for drug trafficking in quantities specified), Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Laos, Malaysia, Morocco, Myanmar, North Korea, Oman, Qatar, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, South Korea, South Sudan (if aggravated circumstances), Sri Lanka, Syria, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United States (only under certain conditions), Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe
Algeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Iran, Peru, Qatar, United States, Vietnam, Syria
China (not in Hong Kong and Macao), Vietnam
(See also LGBT rights by country or territory)
Afghanistan, Brunei, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
Perjury and treason
Perjury causing the execution of an innocent person: Bangladesh, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, some US States (e.g. California)
Treason: Algeria, Bahamas, Bahrain (collaboration with foreign hostile country), Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, Israel (high treason), Japan, Kenya, Laos, Libya, Maldives, Myanmar (high treason), North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Korea (conspiracy with foreign countries), South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, United States (Federal and in some individual States [Arkansas, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Vermont; Vermont keeps death penalty for treason, but has abolished it for murder]), Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe (high treason)
Bangladesh (women's trafficking in purposes of prostitution), Cuba (child prostitution), Somalia, Sudan
Saudi Arabia, Central African Republic
Afghanistan, Algeria (aggravated theft), North Korea (grand theft), Saudi Arabia (fourth conviction), Syria
(See also Zoophilia and the law)
Brunei, Iran, Niger, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
There have been no recorded executions so far
In the Central African Republic, one can be executed for charlatanism.
- List of most recent executions by jurisdiction
- American Convention on Human Rights
- European Convention on Human Rights
- Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- Life imprisonment
- Corporal punishment
-  Archived 23 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Leigh B. Bienen (2011). Murder and Its Consequences: Essays on Capital Punishment in America (2 ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8101-2697-8.
- Michael H. Tonry (2000). The Handbook of Crime & Punishment. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-514060-6.
- Elisabeth Reichert (2011). Social Work and Human Rights: A Foundation for Policy and Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-231-52070-6.
- Russil Durrant (2013). An Introduction to Criminal Psychology. Routledge. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-136-23434-7.
- Clifton D. Bryant; Dennis L. Peck (2009). Encyclopedia of Death & Human Experience:. Sage Publications. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4129-5178-4.
- Cliff Roberson (2015). Constitutional Law and Criminal Justice, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4987-2120-2.
- "DEATH SENTENCES AND EXECUTIONS REPORT 2015". Amnesty International. April 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Executions of juveniles since 1990". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012.
- "Death Sentences and Executions 2013" (PDF). Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- European External Action Service (2008-09-30). "European Union - EEAS (European External Action Service) | EU Policy on Death Penalty". Eeas.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "Document - Amnesty International". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "2013 DP Report Map". amnestyusa.org.
- "HANDS OFF CAIN against death penalty in the world". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Benin: Accession to the Second Optional Protocol Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty". Hands Off Cain. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Botswana: Patrick Gabaakanye Hanged At Gaborone Central Prison". Handsoffcain.info. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Burkina Faso Coup Plotter Admits Receiving Aid from Ivory Coast Military". PolitInfo. 8 April 2004. Archived from the original on 14 August 2004.
- "Burkina Faso: Opportunity to abolish the death penalty must be seized". Amnesty International. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Burundi: Imminent resumption of executions or summary trials and executions". Amnesty International. 22 November 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality". Amnesty International. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Capital punishment in the Commonwealth". Capital Punishment UK. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Cameroon, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.116 (1999).". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Cameroun: Paul Biya signe un décret conduisant à la libération de Michel Thierry Atangana". Jeune Afrique. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Ngala, Journalist (2016-03-19). "89 Boko Haram militants sentenced to death in Cameroon". CNN.com. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Human Rights Committee Considers The Situation In The Central African Republic". The United Nations Office at Geneva. 22 July 2004. Archived from the original on 30 July 2004.
- "Death Penalty | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
- "Chad executes 10 Boko Haram members by firing squad". Reuters.com. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- "Chad reintroduces death penalty for acts of terror - BBC News". Bbc.com. 2015-07-31. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "Le Tchad a un nouveau code péna" (in French). 15 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "The death penalty: List of abolitionist and retentionist countries (October 1996)". Amnesty International. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Congo death verdict prompts worry". BBC News. 6 May 2010.
- "Congo's Presidential Election Strengthens the Controversial New Constitution that Abolished Capital Punishment". 20 April 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "West Africa: Time to abolish the death penalty". Amnesty International. 9 October 2003. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Eq Guinea executes four coup convicts: Amnesty". Reuters. 24 August 2010.
- "The Death Penalty in Eritrea". Deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Ethiopia executes spy boss killer". BBC News. 6 August 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Gabon, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/70/GAB (2000)". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Death Penalty: Hands Off Cain Announces Abolition in Gabon". Hands Off Cain. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Williams, Carol J. (31 August 2012). "Gambia, Iraq executions buck worldwide abolitionist trend". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Death Penalty News: Ghana referendum will abolish death sentence, weaken President's war powers". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Guinea: Death Penalty/Fear of Imminent Execution". Amnesty International. 14 October 2001. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Death Penalty | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "The Death Penalty Worldwide: Developments in 2003". Amnesty International. 5 April 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "The Death Penalty in Lesotho". Deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "The Death Penalty in Liberia". Deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Armed Robbery, Hijacking and Terrorism Now Capitol Offenses in Liberia". New Liberian. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Liberia: Death Penalty Under Fire". AllAfrica. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Libyan Court System And Criminal Justice". Bulgarian News Agency. Archived from the original on 13 January 2007.
- "MADAGASCAR: MPS ABOLISH THE DEATH PENALTY". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "The death penalty worldwide: developments in 2004". Amnesty International. 4 April 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Laws around the World". Sodomy Laws. Archived from the original on 4 February 2005.
- Sookhdeo, Patrick (3 July 2006). "Islamic Teaching on the Consequences of Apostasy from Islam". Barnabas Fund. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "MOROCCO: NEW MOVES TO ABOLISH DEATH PENALTY". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "LEDAP condemns execution of prisoners in Edo, seeks repeal of death penalty — Features — Breaking News, Nigeria News and World News – The Guardian Nigeria". Guardian.ng. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Nigeria". Sodomy Laws. Archived from the original on 11 January 2006.
- "World Day". World Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
- "Rwanda's ban on executions helps bring genocide justice". CNN. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Sierra Leone: Amnesty International expresses dismay at 10 death sentences for treason". Amnesty International. 21 December 2004. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Somalia Court Executes Five Militants for Murders of Officials". Voanews.com. 2017-04-08. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Government Gazette". 390 (18519). Republic of South Africa. 19 December 1997.
- Sibiya and Others v Director of Public Prosecutions: Johannesburg High Court and Others  ZACC 6, 2005 (5) SA 315 (CC)
- "Two South Sudanese soldiers executed in Wau - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Acts Supplement" (PDF). The Southern Sudan Gazette. Ministry Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development. 1 (1). 10 February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2013.
- "Death penalty 2015: Facts and figures | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. 2016-04-06. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Sudan". Sodomy Laws. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007.
- Ramani, Ken (28 March 2005). "Sudan: Attorney General expects death penalty for islamist coup plotters". The East African Standard. Kenya.
- "Swaziland Moves Toward Execution By Lethal Injection; Hangman Unavailable". The Clarion Issue. 3 (2). February–March 2002. Archived from the original on 18 April 2003.
- "IRIN-SA Weekly Round-up 21". Center for International Disaster Information. Archived from the original on 30 April 2005.
- "Death Penalty News: September 2002". Amnesty International. 31 August 2002. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Togo abolishes the death penalty". BBC News. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "TUNISIA TO MAINTAIN CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN FUTURE CONSTITUTION". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Kiapi, Evelyn (14 November 2006). "Death Penalty: Uganda's Laws Favour Execution". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "DEATH PENALTY: Uganda's Laws Favour Execution". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Uganda: Amnesty International calls on the Ugandan government to abolish the death penalty". 22 January 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "Execution List 2015". Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Death penalty 2016 Facts and figures | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- Constitución de la Nación Argentina
- La historia reciente de la pena de muerte en la Argentina
- El derecho penal del primer peronismo y los fusilamientos de junio de 1956
- La pena de muerte en la Argentina, y su utilización en tiempos recientes: fue implantada por Onganía en 1970
- Pena de muerte por Marco Antonio Terragni
- Valente, Marcela (8 August 2008). "Last Vestiges of Capital Punishment Abolished". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Hang them!". Nation Newspaper. 10 October 2010. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012.
- Guyson Mayers, R.E. (19 September 2010). "A Guy's View: To hang or not to hang". The Barbados Advocate. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- "Belize: Death Penalty, Gilroy "Hooty" Wade, Oscar "Negro" Catzim Mendez, Glenford Baptist". Amnesty International. 20 November 2001. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Law 6620, 17 December 1978" (in Portuguese). Presidency of Brazil. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008.
- "Law Decree 431, 18 May 1938" (in Portuguese). Presidency of Brazil. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- "Law 1802, 5 January 1953" (in Portuguese). Presidency of Brazil. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- "Law Decree 898, 29 September 1969" (in Portuguese). Presidency of Brazil. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009.
- "Death penalty in Brazil". Brazilian Embassy in London. 2002. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
- "Tourist information". Best Western. Archived from the original on 14 June 2004.
- "Cuba ferry hijackers executed". BBC News. 11 April 2003.
- Frank, Marc (28 April 2008). "Cuba's Raul Castro commutes most death sentences". Reuters. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Constitutional prohibitions of the death penalty". Amnesty International. 31 May 1996. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Guatemala: Death Penalty/imminent execution". Amnesty International. 19 June 2000. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Annual Report 2004 – Guyana". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 15 August 2004.
- "Annual Report 2004 – Jamaica". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 15 August 2004.
- "No to the Death Penalty". Community of Sant'Egidio. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "The Death Penalty in Jamaica". Deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- Kennedy, Duncan (11 August 2008). "Mexican fury grows at kidnappings". BBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "St Kitts and Nevis: Execution is a shameless act". Amnesty International. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Death Penalty | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Capital punishment and implementation of the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty" (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Council. 9 March 2005. p. 9.
- AP January 11, 2017, 8:25 PM (2017-01-11). "Christopher Wilkins dead: Texas carries out nation's first execution in 2017". CBS News. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty". Death Penalty Information Center.
- Pinkard, Eric (Fall 1999). "The death penalty for drug kingpins: constitutional and international implications". Vermont Law Review.
In 1994 Congress enacted the Federal Death Penalty Act (FDPA) with provisions permitting the imposition of the death penalty on Drug Kingpins. The FDPA is unprecedented in American legal history in that the death penalty can be imposed in cases where the Drug Kingpin does not take a human life.
- "American Samoa: Governor moves to repeal death penalty". Hands Off Cain. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Iran executions see 'unprecedented spike' - Amnesty". BBC News Middle East. British Broadcasting Corporation. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Amnesty International said there is credible information that at least 743 people were executed in Iran in 2014. Officqlly 239 people were executed in Iran in 2014.
- AP May 8, 2016, 4:23 PM (2016-05-08). "In unusual move, Afghanistan executes 6 militants". CBS News. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "One-legged Afghan Red Cross worker set to be hanged after converting to Christianity". Daily Mail. London. 7 February 2011.
- "Death penalty in Australia". New South Wales Council for Civil Liberties.
- Reuters Editorial (2017-01-15). "Bahrain executes three Shi'ites for bombing, sparks outcry". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "HuJI chief, two associates executed for 2004 shrine attack in Bangladesh". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "MP murder case: Bangla court awards death penalty to 22". Zee News.[dead link]
- "Bangladesh – Laws". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "2003 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – Bangladesh". United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 25 February 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Brunei – Country Specific Information". United States Bureau of Consular Affairs. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Brunei Law To Allow Death By Stoning For Gay Sex". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Colombia protests China's execution of 72-year-old drug mule". Fox News. 2017-02-28. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
- "Executions in 2009". Hands Off Cain. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Saudi Arabia: Man beheaded after 30 yrs on death row". Hands Off Cain. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Ben Blanchard (2015-02-09). "Chinese billionaire mining tycoon Liu Han is executed over his links to a 'mafia-style' gang". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "People's Republic of China: Executed "according to law"? The death penalty in China". Amnesty International. 22 March 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Fiji abolishes death penalty for all crimes through amendment to military law". World Coalition Against the Death Penalty. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Executions spark Indonesia unrest". BBC News. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Baker, Luke (8 August 2004). "Iraq reimposes death penalty". IOL News. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Shumway, Chris (10 August 2004). "Human rights groups condemn Iraq's death penalty decision". The New Standard. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "Iraq to restore death penalty". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 June 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "4 Al Qaeda Leaders Executed in Iraq". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Should those who assist suicide bombers be given the death penalty?". The Jerusalem Report. 18 November 2002. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005.
- "'Panel to examine whether to reinstate executions'". Jordan Times. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "The Death Penalty Worldwide: Developments in 2003". Amnesty International. 5 April 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Kazakhstan Set To "Virtually" Abolish Death Penalty". Hands Off Cain. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Delaney, Greg (20 July 2009). "Death Penalty is Abolished in Kazakhstan". Kazakhstan Live. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Kazakhstan: Towards definitive abolition". Hands Off Cain. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "The Judiciary". North Korea: A Country Study. The Library of Congress. 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Death Penalty News: December 2002". Amnesty International. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Capital punishment in South Korea
- "South Korea: Death penalty abolition – historic opportunity". Amnesty International. 19 April 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Ahmed, Fajer (3 April 2013). "Capital Punishment". 248am. Mark. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Kyrgyzstan Abolishes Death Penalty". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Abolition of the death penalty by Kyrgyzstan". France Diplomatie. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
- "Annual Report 2003 – Laos". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 5 July 2003.
- "Lebanon resumes executions after 5-year lull". Sunday Observer. Sri Lanka. 18 January 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Lebanon: Further Information on Death penalty/imminent execution". Amnesty International. 15 January 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Devaraj, Prema (2003). "Is Capital Punishment Justified?". Aliran Monthly. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Haleem, Adam (27 January 2002). "Family demands death penalty". Maldives Culture. Archived from the original on 27 April 2002.
- [dead link]
- "Annual Report 2002 – Oman". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 13 November 2002.
- "Gaza: Hamas must end summary executions as 'informers' face firing squad". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "PNG urged to abandon death penalty". AM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 12 November 2007.
- "PNG death penalty 'horrific' - Amnesty". 3 News NZ. 29 May 2013.
- "Indian executed in Qatar". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 March 2003.
- "Qatar: Death Penalty, Firas Nassuh Salim Al-Majali". Amnesty International. 28 October 2002. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Kiss, Jemima (6 April 2005). "Crusading journalist wins case against Al-Jazeera". Journalism.co.uk. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Crimes (Abolition of Death Penalty) Amendment Act 2004". Samoa Sessional Legislation. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Saudi Arabia: Five beheaded and 'crucified' amid 'disturbing' rise in executionsa". Amnesty. 21 May 2013.
- "Women executed by sword in Saudi Arabia". AFP. Agence France-Presse. 13 October 2011.
- Tan, Amy (12 April 2002). "Singapore death penalty shrouded in silence". Reuters. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Tajikistan: Death Penalty". Legislationline. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Thailand carries out first executions in six years". Amnesty International. 26 August 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "UAE: WOMAN EXECUTED FOR KILLING AMERICAN TEACHER". Reuters. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "United Arab Emirates (UAE):". Amnesty International. 2 April 2002. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Uzbekistan: Further information on: Fear of imminent execution/torture and ill-treatment". Amnesty International. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Presidential Decree on the abolition of the death penalty". Legislationline. 19 August 2005. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007.
- "Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: The death penalty – inhumane and ineffective". Amnesty International. 27 August 2003. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Death Sentences and Executions - 2015". Amnesty International. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Yemen: Further information on Imminent execution, Fuad 'Ali Mohsin al-Shahari". Amnesty International. 6 April 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Yemen: Further Information on: Death by stoning and flogging". Amnesty International. 6 September 2004. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Signorile, Michelangelo. "Hate Crimes: Like the Taliban, America's Middle East Allies Tyrannize Gays and Women". Gay and Lesbian Arabic Society. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Luke Harding. "EU outraged after Belarus executes two men accused of Metro bombing". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Execution of Pavel Selyun". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "The end of capital punishment in Europe". Capital Punishment U.K. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008.
- "Death penalty: Ratification of international treaties". Amnesty International. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Belarus: Death Penalty". Legislationline. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Tomislav Mamić, Mario Pušić (2013-07-28). "'Karlovački monstrum nije imao milosti. Nismo imali izbora, morali smo ga osuditi na strijeljanje'". Jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
- "Deveterostruko ubojstvo najteži zločin". Glas Slavonije (in Croatian). 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011.
- "The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia". Constitution Society. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Bragadottir, Ragnheidur. "Dauðarefsingar á Íslandi" [Death penalties in Iceland] (in Icelandic). Akureyri, Iceland: Akureyri Art Museum. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
Síðan liðu 40 ár þar til síðasta aftakan fór fram, en það var 12. janúar 1830 þegar Agnes Magnúsdóttir og Friðrik Sigurðsson voru tekin af lífi í Vatnsdalshólum í Húnavatnssýslu fyrir morðið á Natani Ketilssyni.
- Bragadottir, Ragnheidur. "Dauðarefsingar á Íslandi" [Death penalties in Iceland] (in Icelandic). Akureyri, Iceland: Akureyri Art Museum. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
Árið 1928 var til meðferðar á Alþingi frumvarp til breytinga á almennum hegningarlögum. Þingmaður Dalamanna, Sigurður Eggerz, setti þá fram tillögu um afnám líflátsrefsinga. Var hún samþykkt án teljandi umræðna og var dauðarefsing þar með afnumin á Íslandi.
- Bragadottir, Ragnheidur. "Dauðarefsingar á Íslandi" [Death penalties in Iceland] (in Icelandic). Akureyri, Iceland: Akureyri Art Museum. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
Mannréttindasáttmáli Evrópu var lögfestur á Íslandi árið 1995 og eru ákvæði hans þar með orðin hluti af íslenskum rétti. Ári síðar var mannréttindaákvæðum stjórnarskrárinnar mikið breytt og þau aukin. Var þá m.a. sett í stjórnarskrána bann við dauðarefsingu, en þar segir nú að aldrei megi mæla fyrir um slíka refsingu í lögum.
- "Notification of Ratification". Council of Europe. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Antilles to abolish capital punishment". The Daily Herald. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Portuguese Constitution of 1933 - Part I, Title II, Article 8º, Nº11: [Translation]: There is no perpetual body feathers, nor death, except, on this, the case of belligerency with a foreign country, and to be applied in the war theater" (PDF) (in Portuguese). 11 April 1933. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "Article 3 of Law 635 - Amendment to the Portuguese Constitution of 1911 - The exception on the article of the death penalty: [Translation] The Death Penalty (...) cannot be reestablished in any case (...) # with the exception, about the Death Penalty, only in case of war with a foreign country (...) and only in the theater of war." (PDF). Diário do Governo (in Portuguese). Diário do Governo da República Portuguesa. 28 September 1916. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
- "Abolition of the death penalty". European Heritage Label. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Decree-Law No. 6" (in Romanian). National Salvation Front Council. 7 January 1990. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Russian Federation: Death Penalty". Legislationline. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Ley Orgánica 11/1995, de 27 de noviembre, de abolición de la pena de muerte en tiempo de guerra". Government of Spain. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Turkey's parliament 'to consider reintroducing death penalty'". The New Arab. 29 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "Annual Report 1999 – Ukraine". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 9 November 1999.
- International Actors, Democratization and the Rule of Law: Anchoring Democracy?, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0415492955 (page 196 a.f.)
- The Death Penalty: Beyond Abolition, Council of Europe, 2004, ISBN 9287153337 (page 74)
- Serial killer Onopriyenko dies in Zhytomyr prison, Interfax-Ukraine (28 August 2013)
- Allen, John R. (14 September 2001). "He executed justice". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 12 December 2001.
- "A history of capital punishment in NZ". TVNZ. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Amnesty International
- The Death Penalty Worldwide
- Countries retaining death penalty fail to give details of executions – United Nations, 14 July 2005
- Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- European Convention on Human Rights - Protocol 13
- American Convention on Human Rights - Protocol to Abolish the Death Penalty
- Death Penalty in Asia-Pacific
- Monthly updates of world-wide executions
- Hands Off Cain (results may vary)
- Abolition UK
- Death Penalty Worldwide Academic research database on the laws, practice, and statistics of capital punishment for every death penalty country in the world.