Capital punishment in Indonesia

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Capital punishment in Indonesia is restricted to 16 crimes. Though the death penalty existed as a punishment from the inception of the Republic of Indonesia, the first execution did not take place until 1973.[1]

The Indonesian government does not issue detailed statistics about every person facing the death penalty in the country. In fact, "the search for precise figures is hampered by prevailing state secrecy over the death penalty."[2] It is believed, however, that there are around 130 people, Indonesians and foreign nationals, currently (as of 2013?) sentenced to die in Indonesia. About ten new death sentences are handed down annually, though executions are infrequent. Many of the prisoners awaiting execution have been waiting for ten years or more. Four executions took place in 2013, the first since 2008. In 2014, no executions took place. In January 2015 six people (among them one Dutchman, one Brazilian, one Vietnamese, one Malawian and Nigerian) were shot for drug-related crimes.[3] In April 2015, another eight men, including several Nigerian nationals, one Brazilian and two Australian citizens were executed, also for drug trafficking.[4][5] Indonesia is well noted as "a strong advocate against the death penalty for its citizens abroad."[6]

Method[edit]

Prisoners (particularly those convicted of murder, terrorism or drug trafficking offences) spend a long time in prison before their sentence is finally carried out. Usually their final appeal has been exhausted through the courts and President. Prisoners and their families are notified 72 hours in advance of their pending execution.[7] They are usually transferred to Nusa Kambangan island.[7] They are woken up in the middle of the night and taken to a remote (and undisclosed) location and executed by firing squad. The method has not changed since 1964.[8]

Capital punishment is carried out in Indonesia by a firing squad. The blindfolded prisoner is led to a grassy area where they have an option to sit or stand.[8] The 12 armed executioners shoot the prisoner in the chest from a range of five to ten metres.[8] Only three fire live bullets and the rest fire blanks.[8] If the prisoner does not die, the Commander is required to issue a final bullet to the prisoner's head.[9]

Statutory provisions[edit]

The following is a list of the criminal offenses that carry the death penalty in Indonesia:[10]

  • Attempt with intent to deprive the President or Vice-President of his or her life or liberty or to render him or her unfit to govern (Indonesian Criminal Code (Kitab UU Hukum Pidana – KUHP) Art. 104)
  • Aiding or protecting Indonesia’s enemies at war (KUHP Art. 123 & 124)
  • Fraud in delivery of military materials in time of war (KUHP Art. 127)
  • Killing the head of state of a friendly state (KUHP Art. 140)
  • Premeditated murder (KUHP Art. 340)
  • Robbery or theft resulting in grave injury or death (KUHP Art. 365)
  • Piracy resulting in death (KUHP Art. 444)
  • Instigating or inciting rebellion or riot against a state defense company during times of war (KUHP)
  • Extortion with violence (KUHP)
  • Possession and misuse of firearm and/or other explosive (Emergency Law No. 12/1951)
  • Criminal acts during air flights or against aviation infrastructure (Law No. 4/1976)
  • Production, transit, import and possession of psychotropic drugs (Law No. 5/1997 on Psychotropic Drugs)
  • Production, transit, import and possession of narcotics (Law No. 22/1997 on Narcotics)
  • Corruption under “certain circumstances,” including repeat offenders and corruption committed during times of national emergency/disaster (Law No. 31/1999 on Corruption)
  • Gross violations of human rights, including genocide and crimes against humanity (Law No. 26/2000 on Human Rights Courts)
  • Acts of terrorism (Law No. 15/2003 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism)

Execution statistics[edit]

Indonesia ended a four-year moratorium on the death penalty with the execution of Adami Wilson, a citizen of Malawi, on March 14, 2013.[11]

On May 17, 2013, three more prisoners were executed at Nusa Kambangan Prison on an island off the coast of Java. All three were sentenced to die for murder. Suryadi Swabuana was convicted of the premeditated murder of a family in Sumatra in 1991; Jurit bin Abdullah and Ibrahim bin Ujang were convicted of a joint murder in Sekayu, South Sumatra, in 2003.[12]

Executions in Indonesia during and after Suharto era:[13][14]

Year Convict Age (Gender) Nationality Crime Location
2015 Ang Kiem Soei (♂) Netherlands Drug trafficking Tangerang
Marco Archer 53 (♂) Brazil Drug trafficking Jakarta
Daniel Enemuo 38 (♂) Nigeria Drug trafficking
Namaona Denis 48 (♂) Malawi Drug trafficking
Rani Andriani 38 (♀) Indonesia Drug trafficking Tangerang
Tran Bich Hanh[15] (♀) Vietnam Drug trafficking
Martin Anderson (♂) Nigeria Drug trafficking
Raheem Agbaje Salaami (♂) Nigeria Drug trafficking
Sylvester Obiekwe Nwolise (♂) Nigeria Drug trafficking
Okwudili Oyatanze (♂) Nigeria Drug trafficking
Zainal Abidin (♂) Indonesia Drug trafficking
Rodrigo Gularte 42 (♂) Brazil Drug trafficking
Andrew Chan 31 (♂) Australia Drug trafficking Bali
Myuran Sukumaran[16] 34 (♂) Australia Drug trafficking Bali
2014 None
2013 Ademi (or Adami or Adam) Wilson alias Abu (♂) Malawi Drug trafficking
Suryadi Swabuana (♂) Indonesia Murder
Jurit bin Abdullah (♂) Indonesia Murder
Ibrahim bin Ujang (♂) Indonesia Murder
2012 None
2011 None
2010 None
2009 None
2008 Amrozi bin Nurhasyim (♂) Indonesia Terrorism Bali
Imam Samudra (♂) Indonesia Terrorism Bali
Huda bin Abdul Haq alias Mukhlas (♂) Indonesia Terrorism Bali
Rio Alex Bulo alias Rio Martil (♂) Indonesia Murder
Tubagus Yusuf Maulana alias Usep (♂) Indonesia Murder
Sumiarsih (♀) Indonesia Murder
Sugeng (♂) Indonesia Murder
Ahmad Suradji (♂) Indonesia Murder
Samuel Iwuchukuwu Okoye (♂) Nigeria Narcotics
Hansen Anthony Nwaliosa (♂) Nigeria Narcotics
2007 Ayub Bulubili (♂) Indonesia Murder
2006 Fabianus Tibo (♂) Indonesia Murder Poso
Marinus Riwu (♂) Indonesia Murder
Dominggus Dasilva (♂) Indonesia Murder
2005 Astini Sumiasih (♀) Indonesia Murder
Turmudi (♂) Indonesia Murder
2004 Ayodya Prasad Chaubey (♂) India Drug trafficking North Sumatra
Saelow Prasad Thailand Drug trafficking North Sumatra
Namsong Sirilak Thailand Drug trafficking North Sumatra
2003 None
2002 None
2001 Gerson Pande (♂) Indonesia Murder East Nusa Tenggara
Fredrik Soru (♂) Indonesia Murder East Nusa Tenggara
Dance Soru (♂) Indonesia Murder East Nusa Tenggara
2000 None
1999 None
1998 Adi Saputra (♂) Indonesia Murder Bali
1997 None
1996 None
1995 Chan Tian Chong Indonesia Narcotics
Karta Cahyadi (♂) Indonesia Murder Central Java
Kacong Laranu (♂) Indonesia Murder Central Sulawesi
1994 None
1993 None
1992 Sergeant Adi Saputro (♂) Indonesia Murder
1991 Azhar bin Muhammad (♂) Indonesia Terrorism
1990 Satar Suryanto (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
Yohannes Surono (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
Simon Petrus Soleiman (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
Noor alias Norbertus Rohayan (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
1989 Tohong Harahap (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
Mochtar Effendi Sirait (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
1988 Abdullah Umar (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, Islamist activist)
Bambang Sispoyo (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, Islamist activist)
Sukarjo (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
Giyadi Wignyosuharjo (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)
1987 Liong Wie Tong alias Lazarus (♂) Indonesia Murder
Tan Tiang Tjoen (♂) Indonesia Murder
Sukarman (♂) Indonesia Subversion (politics, 1965 case)


Foreign nationals[edit]

The people on death row include foreign nationals, all but one of whom were convicted of drug-related offences. These foreign inmates come from 18 different countries: Australia, Brazil, China, France, Ghana, India, Iran, Malawi, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, the United Kingdom, the United States, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.[14]

Court cases[edit]

In 2007, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia) upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty for drug cases, by a vote of six to three.[17] The case was brought by prisoners sentenced to death for drug crimes, including some of the Bali 9, a group of Australian citizens sentenced to prison and the death penalty for drug trafficking in Bali in 2005.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hood, Roger (2003). The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0199251292. 
  2. ^ Daniel Pascoe. "Three Coming Legal Challenges to Indonesia’s Death Penalty Regime". academia.edu. 
  3. ^ Wall Street Journal: Indonesia Executes 6 Drug Convicts, Including 5 Foreigners
  4. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/28/bali-nine-pair-executed-indonesia
  5. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH (17 January 2015). "Empörung über Todesstrafe: Indonesien lässt fünf Ausländer erschießen". FAZ.NET. 
  6. ^ Andrew Novak. "The Future of the Mandatory Death Penalty in Malaysia and Singapore: "Asian Values" and Abolition in Comparative Perspective, with Implications for Indonesia". academia.edu. 
  7. ^ a b Emily Crane and Nelson Groom and Candace Sutton (2015-01-07). "Bali Nine drug smuggler could be given just 72 HOURS notice before he faces a firing squad after Indonesian President rejects his plea to be spared execution". Dailymail. Dailymail. Retrieved 2015-01-22. 
  8. ^ a b c d Cormack, Lucy (2015-01-17). "Drug traffickers in Indonesia face firing squad of 12 in first executions of 2015". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2015-01-17. 
  9. ^ "Indonesia widens use of executions". New York Times. 2008-07-11. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  10. ^ KontraS, The Death Penalty (2006)[full citation needed]
  11. ^ "Indonesia executes first convict in four years". Jakarta Globe. 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  12. ^ "Indonesia steps up killing of death row prisoners". The Age. 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  13. ^ "Praktek Hukuman Mati di Indonesia" (PDF). Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS). 2007. p. 21-22. Retrieved 2015-05-02. 
  14. ^ a b "The Death Penalty (Hukuman Mati)". Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS). 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  15. ^ Karmini, Niniek (18 January 2015). "Indonesia executes 6 drug convicts, including 5 foreigners". Yahoo News. AP. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  16. ^ "'Bali Nine' Executed". CNN. 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2015-04-29. 
  17. ^ "Decision No. 2-3/PUU-V/2007" (PDF). 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2013-05-30.