Capital punishment in Indonesia
The Indonesian government does not issue detailed statistics about every person facing the death penalty in the country. In fact, "the search for precise ﬁgures is hampered by prevailing state secrecy over the death penalty." It is believed, however, that there are around 130 people, Indonesians and foreign nationals, currently (as of 2013?) sentenced to die in Indonesia. About ten new death sentences are handed down annually, though executions are infrequent. Many of the prisoners awaiting execution have been waiting for ten years or more. Four executions took place in 2013, the first since 2008. In 2014, no executions took place. In January 2015 six people (among them one Dutchman, one Brazilian, one Vietnamese, one Malawian and Nigerian) were shot for drug-related crimes. In April 2015, another eight men, including several Nigerian nationals, one Brazilian and two Australian citizens were executed, also for drug trafficking. Indonesia is well noted as "a strong advocate against the death penalty for its citizens abroad."
Prisoners spend often a long time in prison before their sentence is finally carried out. Usually their final appeal has been exhausted through the trial court, two appellate courts, and consideration of clemency by the President.
Prisoners and their families are notified 72 hours in advance of their pending execution. They are usually transferred to Nusa Kambangan island. They are woken up in the middle of the night and taken to a remote (and undisclosed) location and executed by firing squad. The method has not changed since 1964.
The blindfolded prisoner is led to a grassy area where they have an option to sit or stand. The armed soldiers shoot at the prisoner from a range of five to ten metres, aiming at the heart. Only three fire live bullets and the rest fire blanks. If the prisoner does not die, the commander is required to shoot the prisoner in the head with his, the commander's, own weapon.
In 2007, the Indonesian Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia) upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty for drug cases, by a vote of six to three. The case was brought by prisoners sentenced to death for drug crimes, including some of the Bali 9, a group of Australian citizens sentenced to prison and the death penalty for drug trafficking in Bali in 2005.
The following is a list of the criminal offences that carry the death penalty in Indonesia:
- Attempt with intent to deprive the President or Vice-President of his or her life or liberty or to render him or her unfit to govern (Indonesian Criminal Code (Kitab UU Hukum Pidana – KUHP) Art. 104)
- Aiding or protecting Indonesia's enemies at war (KUHP Art. 123 & 124)
- Fraud in delivery of military materials in time of war (KUHP Art. 127)
- Killing the head of state of a friendly state (KUHP Art. 140)
- Premeditated murder (KUHP Art. 340)
- Robbery or theft resulting in grave injury or death (KUHP Art. 365)
- Piracy resulting in death (KUHP Art. 444)
- Instigating or inciting rebellion or riot against a state defence company during times of war (KUHP)
- Extortion with violence (KUHP)
- Possession and misuse of firearm and/or other explosive (Emergency Law No. 12/1951)
- Criminal acts during air flights or against aviation infrastructure (Law No. 4/1976)
- Production, transit, import and possession of psychotropic drugs (Law No. 5/1997 on Psychotropic Drugs)
- Production, transit, import and possession of narcotics (Law No. 22/1997 on Narcotics)
- Corruption under "certain circumstances," including repeat offenders and corruption committed during times of national emergency/disaster (Law No. 31/1999 on Corruption)
- Gross violations of human rights, including genocide and crimes against humanity (Law No. 26/2000 on Human Rights Courts)
- Acts of terrorism (Law No. 15/2003 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism)
Indonesia ended a four-year moratorium on the death penalty with the execution of Adami Wilson, a citizen of Malawi, on 14 March 2013.
On 17 May 2013, three more prisoners were executed at Nusa Kambangan Prison on an island off the coast of Java. All three were sentenced to die for murder. Suryadi Swabuana was convicted of the premeditated murder of a family in Sumatra in 1991; Jurit bin Abdullah and Ibrahim bin Ujang were convicted of a joint murder in Sekayu, South Sumatra, in 2003.
|2016||Freddy Budiman||(♂)||Indonesia||Drug trafficking||Surabaya|
|Seck Osmane||38 (♂)||Senegal/Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Humphrey Jefferson Ejike||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Michael Titus Igweh||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|2015||Ang Kiem Soei||(♂)||Netherlands||Drug trafficking||Tangerang|
|Marco Archer||53 (♂)||Brazil||Drug trafficking||Jakarta|
|Daniel Enemuo||38 (♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Namaona Denis||48 (♂)||Malawi||Drug trafficking|
|Rani Andriani||38 (♀)||Indonesia||Drug trafficking||Tangerang|
|Tran Bich Hanh||(♀)||Vietnam||Drug trafficking|
|Martin Anderson||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Raheem Agbaje Salaami||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Sylvester Obiekwe Nwolise||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Okwudili Oyatanze||(♂)||Nigeria||Drug trafficking|
|Zainal Abidin||(♂)||Indonesia||Drug trafficking|
|Rodrigo Gularte||42 (♂)||Brazil||Drug trafficking|
|Andrew Chan||31 (♂)||Australia||Drug trafficking||Bali|
|Myuran Sukumaran||34 (♂)||Australia||Drug trafficking||Bali|
|2013||Ademi (or Adami or Adam) Wilson alias Abu||(♂)||Malawi||Drug trafficking|
|Jurit bin Abdullah||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|Ibrahim bin Ujang||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|2008||Amrozi bin Nurhasyim||(♂)||Indonesia||Terrorism||Bali|
|Huda bin Abdul Haq alias Mukhlas||(♂)||Indonesia||Terrorism||Bali|
|Rio Alex Bulo alias Rio Martil||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|Tubagus Yusuf Maulana alias Usep||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|Samuel Iwuchukuwu Okoye||(♂)||Nigeria||Narcotics|
|Hansen Anthony Nwaliosa||(♂)||Nigeria||Narcotics|
|2004||Ayodya Prasad Chaubey||(♂)||India||Drug trafficking||North Sumatra|
|Saelow Prasad||Thailand||Drug trafficking||North Sumatra|
|Namsong Sirilak||Thailand||Drug trafficking||North Sumatra|
|2001||Gerson Pande||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder||East Nusa Tenggara|
|Fredrik Soru||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder||East Nusa Tenggara|
|Dance Soru||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder||East Nusa Tenggara|
|1995||Chan Tian Chong||Indonesia||Narcotics|
|Karta Cahyadi||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder||Central Java|
|Kacong Laranu||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder||Central Sulawesi|
|1992||Sergeant Adi Saputro||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|1991||Azhar bin Muhammad||(♂)||Indonesia||Terrorism|
|1990||Satar Suryanto||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|Yohannes Surono||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|Simon Petrus Soleiman||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|Noor alias Norbertus Rohayan||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|1989||Tohong Harahap||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|Mochtar Effendi Sirait||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|1988||Abdullah Umar||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, Islamist activist)|
|Bambang Sispoyo||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, Islamist activist)|
|Sukarjo||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|Giyadi Wignyosuharjo||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
|1987||Liong Wie Tong alias Lazarus||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|Tan Tiang Tjoen||(♂)||Indonesia||Murder|
|Sukarman||(♂)||Indonesia||Subversion (politics, 1965 case)|
The people on death row include foreign nationals, all but one of whom were convicted of drug-related offences. These foreign inmates come from 18 different countries: Australia, Brazil, China, France, Ghana, India, Iran, Malawi, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, the United Kingdom, the United States, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.[not in citation given]
- Hood, Roger (2003). The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0199251292.
- Daniel Pascoe. "Three Coming Legal Challenges to Indonesia's Death Penalty Regime". academia.edu.
- Wall Street Journal: Indonesia Executes 6 Drug Convicts, Including 5 Foreigners
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH (17 January 2015). "Empörung über Todesstrafe: Indonesien lässt fünf Ausländer erschießen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
- Andrew Novak. "The Future of the Mandatory Death Penalty in Malaysia and Singapore: "Asian Values" and Abolition in Comparative Perspective, with Implications for Indonesia". academia.edu.
- Emily Crane and Nelson Groom and Candace Sutton (7 January 2015). "Bali Nine drug smuggler could be given just 72 HOURS notice before he faces a firing squad after Indonesian President rejects his plea to be spared execution". Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- Cormack, Lucy (17 January 2015). "Drug traffickers in Indonesia face firing squad of 12 in first executions of 2015". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Finlayson, Gregory. "Indonesian Death Penalty Mechanism". Greg Finlayson Lawyers. Greg Finlayson. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Indonesia widens use of executions". The New York Times. 11 July 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Decision No. 2-3/PUU-V/2007" (PDF). 30 October 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- KontraS, The Death Penalty (2006)[full citation needed]
- "Indonesia executes first convict in four years". Jakarta Globe. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Indonesia steps up killing of death row prisoners". The Age. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Praktek Hukuman Mati di Indonesia" (PDF). Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS). 2007. pp. 21–22. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "The Death Penalty (Hukuman Mati)". Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS). 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.[unreliable source?]
- "Indonesia executes four drug convicts on Nusakambangan". BBC. BBC. July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Karmini, Niniek (18 January 2015). "Indonesia executes 6 drug convicts, including 5 foreigners". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "'Bali Nine' Executed". CNN. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.