Capital punishment in Singapore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Changi Prison, where Singapore's death row is located

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Singapore. Executions are carried out by long drop hanging, and usually take place at dawn. 33 offences including murdering, drug trafficking, terrorism, use of firearms and kidnapping warrants the death penalty under Singapore law.

In 2012, Singapore amended its laws to exempt some offences from the mandatory death sentence.[1] In a survey done in 2005 by The Straits Times, 95% of Singaporeans believe that their country should retain the death penalty.[2] The support steadily fell throughout the years and despite the decline, a huge majority of the public remains supportive of the use of the death penalty, with more than 80% of Singaporeans believing that their country should retain the death penalty in 2021.[3]

The most recent executions to be conducted in Singapore were on 5 August 2022, when two Singaporeans - 45-year-old Abdul Rahim Shapiee and his 49-year-old co-accused Ong Seow Ping - were both hanged at Changi Prison at dawn.[4]

Legislation[edit]

Procedures[edit]

Under Section 316 of the Criminal Procedure Code:[5]

"When any person is sentenced to death, the sentence shall direct that he shall be hanged by the neck till he is dead but shall not state the place where nor the time when the sentence is to be carried out."

Hangings always take place at dawn and are by the long drop method developed in the United Kingdom by William Marwood. The executioner refers to the Official Table of Drops. The government have said that they:

"... had previously studied the different methods of execution and found no reason to change from the current method used, that is, by hanging."[6]

It is a normal practice for everyone present in the courtroom to stand and remain silent before the death sentence is passed. The judge will then proceed to announce the death sentence on the accused, who has been found guilty and convicted of the capital offence.

The condemned will be given notice at least four days before execution. In the case of foreigners sentenced to death, their families and diplomatic missions or embassies will be given one to two weeks' notice.[7]

Exemptions[edit]

Underaged and pregnant offenders[edit]

Persons under the age of 18 at the time of their offence and pregnant women cannot be sentenced to death. Offenders who were under 18 years old at the time of their offences would be indefinitely detained at the President's Pleasure (TPP), and the normal period of detention was between 10 and 20 years. There were reports of underaged offenders being detained under this practice from 1965 to 2008. These underaged inmates would be released after receiving clemency from the President of Singapore once they were assessed to be suitable for release. In 2010, the law was amended to allow judges to mete out life imprisonment to offenders who were convicted of capital offences but aged below 18 at the time of their crimes instead of subjecting them to indefinite imprisonment under TPP. They would be required to serve a minimum of 20 years before they can be reviewed for possible release. As for women who were pregnant at the time of their sentencing, they would automatically be sentenced to life imprisonment upon their conviction of any capital offences, though there were no such cases occurring in Singapore.[8]

Offenders of unsound mind[edit]

Similarly, there were cases of people committing capital crimes but were acquitted due to them being of unsound mind at the time of the offences. These people, once they were proven to be of unsound mind when they commit capital crimes, and once they were found guilty, they will not be given the death penalty but were sentenced to another form of indefinite detention under TPP, different from the type of TPP applied to underaged offenders (at least until 2010). These people will be detained at medical facilities, prisons or at some other safe places in custody, and will be subjected to psychiatric review of their mental conditions until they were suitable for release.[8]

Pre-1970 jury trials[edit]

Before they were abolished in 1970, jury trials had been conducted to hear capital cases in Singapore since the British colonial era. Normally, a seven-men jury was set to hear the case together with a single judge, with the jurors randomly selected from members of the public to hear the case. After hearing the case, the judge would summarise the case and the arguments from the defence and the prosecution on behalf of the jurors for their consideration before they reached their final verdict. The jury would take some time to consider if a person was guilty as charged or guilty of a lesser charge or not guilty before they released their final verdict based on the majority or unanimous decision. Based on the final verdict, if a person was found guilty, the judge would convict and impose a penalty to the defendant in accordance to the charge he/she was found guilty of; otherwise, the judge would discharge and acquit the defendant if the jury returned with a verdict of "not guilty". One notable case in which a person was sentenced to death in a jury trial was the trial of Sunny Ang Soo Suan, who allegedly murdered his girlfriend Jenny Cheok Cheng Kid during a scuba diving trip in 1963. Despite the circumstantial evidence and the absence of the victim's body, the seven-men jury unanimously found Ang guilty of murder and sentenced him to death. Ang was eventually hanged on 6 February 1967 after he lost all his appeals to both the Court of Appeal and the Privy Council, and the failure of his clemency plea to President Yusof Ishak.[9]

The first person to be tried before two judges in the High Court and sentenced to death for a capital case was armed robber Teo Cheng Leong, who was found guilty and sentenced in February 1970 for unlawfully discharging a firearm twice when he fired two missed shots at a police officer.[10] Another first case was the kidnapping and murder of Ong Beang Leck, the son of a rich tycoon. Five men were involved in the abduction and they had murdered Ong after luring him into a rented car on 24 May 1968. Three of the kidnappers were found guilty of murder and sentenced to death in June 1970.[11] In the first case of a woman being sentenced to death in Singapore, dance hostess Mimi Wong Weng Siu was convicted of murdering Ayako Watanabe out of jealousy in 1970 and received the death sentence in the same trial as her ex-husband Sim Woh Kum, who assisted her in killing the Japanese victim, who was the wife of Wong's Japanese boyfriend. The couple were executed on 27 July 1973.[12][13]

Appeals[edit]

Since the amendment of the Criminal Procedure Code in 1992, all capital cases have been heard by a single judge in the High Court instead of two judges. After conviction and sentencing, the offender has the option of making an appeal to the Court of Appeal. If the appeal fails, the final recourse rests with the President of Singapore, who has the power to grant clemency on the advice of the Cabinet. In exceptional cases since 2012, the Court of Appeal would be asked to review its previous decisions in concluded criminal appeals where it was necessary to correct a miscarriage of justice, most of which involved drug cases attracting the death penalty. The exact number of successful appeals is unknown. In November 1995, one Poh Kay Keong had his conviction overturned after the court found that his statement to a Central Narcotics Bureau officer had been made under duress.[14] Another was the case of Nadasan Chandra Secharan, who was initially convicted of murder and sentenced to death by the High Court in June 1996, but later acquitted of murder by the Court of Appeal in January 1997 after they found the evidence against him was insufficient to show that he had murdered his lover Ramipiram Kannickaisparry.[15][16] Another case was that of Ismil bin Kadar, who was initially sentenced to death for a 2005 robbery-murder case in Boon Lay, but eventually acquitted of the crime as the Court of Appeal found that based on the evidence, Ismil was not involved in the case and that it was solely his younger brother Muhammad bin Kadar who was responsible for the robbery and murder; Muhammad was subsequently executed in April 2015.[17][18]

Successful clemency applications are thought to be even rarer. Since 1965, the presidential clemency has been granted seven times to death row inmates, whose sentences were commuted to life imprisonment (not counting the clemency pleas of the underaged offenders serving TPP).[19] The last presidential clemency was granted by President Halimah Yacob in December 2018 to the teenager involved in the killing of Anthony Ler’s wife.[20]The last clemency granted to a death row inmate prior to 2018 was in April 1998 when President Ong Teng Cheong pardoned a 19-year-old death row inmate and convicted murderer Mathavakannan Kalimuthu, and commuted his death sentence to life imprisonment.[21][22][23]

Previously, other than the Court of Appeal, offenders were allowed to file criminal or civil appeals to the Privy Council in London, where the judges could hear their appeals once they exhausted all avenues of appeal in Singapore. This avenue of appeal was fully abolished for all criminal and civil matters in April 1994. One case in which an appeal to the Privy Council was successful was the case of murderer Mohamed Yasin bin Hussin. 19-year-old Yasin robbed, raped and murdered a 58-year-old woman at Pulau Ubin in April 1972. He was sentenced to death for murder in 1974 and lost his appeal before the Privy Council accepted his appeal and sentenced him to two years' imprisonment for causing death while committing a rash/negligent act.[24]

Changes to the law[edit]

In July 2012, the government decided to make a review of the mandatory death penalty applied to certain drug trafficking or murder offences. In the midst of this review, a moratorium was imposed on all the 35 pending executions in Singapore at that time (7 for murder and 28 for drug trafficking). During that period of the review of the mandatory death penalty, one convicted murderer, Pathip Selvan s/o Sugumaran, who made headlines for the violent murder of his girlfriend in 2008, won his appeal in October 2012 and was re-sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment for culpable homicide.[25][26] Wang Zhijian, a Chinese national who committed the 2008 Yishun triple murders, was sentenced to death for a conviction of murder under Section 300(a) of the Penal Code in November 2012,[27][28] and another unnamed death row convict died of natural causes while in prison.[29]

In November 2012, capital punishment laws in Singapore were revised such that the mandatory death penalty for those convicted of drug trafficking or murder was lifted under certain specific conditions. Judges were empowered with the discretion to sentence such offenders to life imprisonment, which suggests the offenders spend their entire natural lives in jail with the possibility of parole after 20 years. Before the landmark judgement of Abdul Nasir bin Amer Hamsah's appeal on 20 August 1997, a life sentence meant 20 years' imprisonment, and with one-third remission for good behaviour, it would be 13 years and 4 months for the offender receiving the said sentence.[30]

In January 2013, the law was amended to make the death penalty no longer mandatory for certain capital offences. The judges in Singapore were given a discretion to impose a sentence of life imprisonment with mandatory caning for offenders who commit murder but had no intention to kill, which come under Sections 300(b), 300(c) and 300(d) of the Penal Code. The death penalty remains mandatory only for murders committed with the intent to kill, which come under section 300(a) of the Penal Code. This discretion is similarly applied to those convicted of drug trafficking, provided that they only act as couriers, suffering from impaired mental responsibility (e.g. depression), substantively assisting the authorities in tackling drug trafficking activities or any other conditions. For drug traffickers who were not being condemned to death but to life-long incarceration with caning, they should receive not less than 15 strokes of the cane. Drug traffickers who were suffering from diminished responsibility will be spared from caning while serving a mandatory life sentence for their crimes. Despite this discretion, a sentence of life imprisonment is the mandatory minimum penalty one will face for capital murder or drug trafficking offences in these circumstances.

The first person to be convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment for a capital offence under the amended death penalty laws was Singaporean drug trafficker Abdul Haleem bin Abdul Karim on 10 April 2013; he was certified to have been acting as a courier and assisted the authorities in disrupting the drug trafficking activities after both his and his accomplice's arrest on 6 May 2010 for trafficking in 72.5 g of pure heroin. Abdul Haleem was also the first drug trafficker to be spared the gallows after being found guilty under the amended laws of Singapore. In addition to his life sentence, Abdul Haleem, who pleaded guilty to two charges of drug trafficking, was also given the maximum sentence of 24 strokes of the cane.[31][32] Abdul Haleem's accomplice and friend, Muhammad Ridzuan bin Md Ali, on the other hand, was sentenced to death for drug trafficking and later hanged on 19 May 2017.[33]

After the changes to the law, the first executions to take place were those of drug traffickers Tang Hai Liang and Foong Chee Peng on 18 July 2014, after their sentences were finalized and their refusal to further appeal against their sentences.[29]

Re-sentencing of death row inmates[edit]

The amendments of the law also offered a chance for all the death row inmates to have their cases to be reviewed for re-sentencing.[34][35] There were also some cases where some death row inmates declined to be re-sentenced, including Tang Hai Liang and Foong Chee Peng (whose hangings were mentioned in the above paragraph).[29] The below cases are the known cases where some death row inmates applied for re-sentencing, as well as the details of their respective crimes and outcomes of their re-sentencing applications.

Murder[edit]
  • 17 April 2015: Muhammad bin Kadar was hanged after spending five years and nine months on death row for the robbery and murder of an elderly housewife in 2005. He was sentenced to death by the High Court in 2008 and had his appeal dismissed by the Court of Appeal in 2011. He applied for re-sentencing when changes to the law took effect in 2013, but the Court of Appeal denied his application in 2014.[36][17][37][38][30][39][18]
  • 16 July 2013: Fabian Adiu Edwin, a Malaysian who partnered with his childhood friend Ellary Puling to commit a series of six robberies in 2008, resulting in the death of one of the victims. While Ellary was sentenced to 19 years' imprisonment and 19 strokes of caning for robbery with hurt, Fabian was meanwhile convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 2011. The Court of Appeal dismissed his appeal against his sentence in 2012. After amendments to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 24 strokes of the cane.[40][30][41]
  • 28 August 2013: Bijukumar Remadevi Nair Gopinathan, an Indian national who robbed and murdered a Filipino prostitute in 2010, was initially sentenced to death in 2012. He appealed to the Court of Appeal in 2012 but was still found guilty of murder. After changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced in 2013 to life imprisonment and 18 strokes of the cane.[42][43][44][45][46]
  • 12 November 2013: Kamrul Hasan Abdul Quddus, a Bangladeshi who murdered his Indonesian girlfriend in 2007. He was initially found guilty of murder and sentenced to death in 2010, and had his appeal to the Court of Appeal dismissed in 2012. After changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 10 strokes of the cane. He tried filing an appeal for a lighter sentence but was turned down by the Court of Appeal in 2014.[47][48][49]
  • 13 November 2013: Wang Wenfeng, a Chinese national who robbed and murdered a taxi driver in 2009, was initially convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 2011. He had also lost his appeal to the Court of Appeal in 2012. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 24 strokes of the cane. The prosecution filed an appeal but withdrew it in 2015 in light of the outcome of the prosecution's appeal against Kho Jabing's life sentence.[50][51][52][53][54][55]
  • 20 May 2016: Kho Jabing, a Malaysian hanged for the 2008 robbery and murder of a construction worker. After changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was initially re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 24 strokes of the cane on 14 August 2013. However, after the prosecution appealed, he was sentenced to death again in a landmark ruling by a majority decision of 3–2 in the Court of Appeal and eventually hanged in the afternoon of the same day his final appeal was dismissed.[56][57][58]
Drug trafficking[edit]
  • 17 November 2013: Yong Vui Kong, a Malaysian found guilty of drug trafficking in 2007 and sentenced to death in 2008. He lost multiple appeals against his sentence to the Court of Appeal and President of Singapore. However, when changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane. Yong was the first drug convict on death row to be spared the gallows since the 2013 law reforms.[59][30][60]
  • 6 January 2014: Subashkaran Pragasam, a Singaporean found guilty of trafficking heroin in 2008 and sentenced to death in 2012. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced in 2014 to life imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane.[30][61]
  • 3 March 2014: Dinesh Pillai Reja Retnam, a Malaysian found guilty of trafficking heroin in 2009 and sentenced to death in 2011. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced in 2014 to life imprisonment on the grounds of diminished responsibility due to him suffering from depression when he committed the crime.[30][62]
  • 27 May 2014: Yip Mun Hei, a Singaporean convicted of trafficking heroin in 2008 and sentenced to death in 2009. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced in 2014 to life imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane. He had an accomplice Leong Soy Yip (also sentenced to death) whose fate remains unknown.[30][63][64]
  • 28 October 2014: Wilkinson A/L Primus, a Malaysian convicted of trafficking heroin in 2008 and sentenced to death in 2009. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced to life imprisonment in 2014 on the grounds that he was intellectually challenged and suffering from depression at the time of the crime.[65][66][67]
  • 20 April 2015: Cheong Chun Yin, a Malaysian convicted of trafficking heroin in 2008 and sentenced to death in 2010. He lost his appeal to the Court of Appeal in 2010. After changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing and was re-sentenced in 2015 to life imprisonment and 15 strokes of the cane. His boss and accomplice, Pang Siew Fum, was also re-sentenced to life imprisonment on the same day, due to Pang suffering from depression at the time of the crime.[68]
  • 1 July 2015: Kester Ng Wei Ren, a 47-year-old Singaporean caught trafficking in 23.38g of heroin on 12 August 2008. He tried to argue that he only meant to import only 9.92g of heroin while the rest of his drug supply was only meant for his own consumption. Ng was given the mandatory death penalty in 2010 and he also lost his appeal in the same year. After changes to the law took effect in 2013, Ng applied for re-sentencing and but he lost his chance to be re-sentenced on 1 July 2015, since he was not certified as a courier. He was presumably executed sometime after the loss of his re-sentencing application.[69][70]
  • 22 April 2016: Phua Han Chuan Jeffery, a Singaporean and chronic ketamine abuser who was arrested on 20 January 2010 for trafficking more than 100g of heroin into Singapore at Woodlands Checkpoint. He was found guilty and sentenced to death in September 2011. Phua, who lost his three previous appeals against the sentence between July 2012 to September 2015, was granted a re-trial three years after the government implemented new changes to the death penalty laws (in 2013). He was diagnosed to be suffering from persistent depressive disorder, and the condition, coupled with his chronic ketamine addiction, was argued by Phua's lawyers as sufficient to impair his mental responsibility at the time of the crime. The High Court accepted the defence's arguments and thus re-sentenced Phua, then 30 years old, to life-long incarceration on 22 April 2016, with his sentence backdated to the date of his remand.[71][72][73]
  • 18 November 2016: Chijioke Stephen Obioha, a Nigerian convicted of trafficking cannabis in 2007 and sentenced to death in 2008. He lost his appeal to the Court of Appeal in 2010. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he filed for re-sentencing in 2015 but withdrew in 2016. Later, he filed another appeal and a plea for presidential clemency but failed. He was eventually hanged on 18 November 2016 along with Malaysian drug trafficker Devendran A/L Supramaniam.[74]
  • 27 April 2022: Nagaenthran K Dharmalingam, a Malaysian convicted of trafficking heroin in 2009 and sentenced to death in 2010. When changes to the law took effect in 2013, he applied for re-sentencing but had his application rejected. His appeals to the Court of Appeal were dismissed in 2019. In May 2019 he planned to appeal to the President of Singapore for clemency, but he lost his plea and his execution date was scheduled on 10 November 2021.[75][76][77] However, Nagaenthran contracted COVID-19 while in jail and he also made an appeal, hence his execution is postponed and the appeal itself was also postponed twice.[78][79][80][81][82] The appeal was heard on 1 March 2022, and it was finally dismissed on 29 March 2022. Nearly a month after the loss of his appeal, 34-year-old Nagaenthran was hanged at dawn on 27 April 2022.[83][84][85][86][87][88]

Sentencing guidelines for murder (2015–present)[edit]

On 14 January 2015, a landmark ruling was made by the Court of Appeal in the prosecution's appeal against the re-sentencing case of one former death row inmate, Kho Jabing, who was re-sentenced to life imprisonment and 24 strokes of the cane for the murder of Chinese national Cao Ruyin during a robbery under Section 300(c) of the Penal Code of Singapore. The landmark judgement in which the court, by a majority decision of 3–2, overturned Kho's life sentence and sentenced him to death a second time, had set the main guiding principles for all judges in Singapore to decide if the death penalty is appropriate for those murder cases committed with no intention to kill while exercising their discretion to impose either a life term or death for offenders responsible for such.[89]

The main guiding principles set were as such:

  1. Whether an offender displayed viciousness during the time of the commission of the offence of murder;
  2. Whether an offender demonstrated a blatant disregard for human life at the time of the killing; and
  3. Whether the offender's actions sparked an outrage of the feelings of the community.

In Kho's case, the majority three of the five judges were satisfied that Kho, who had used a tree branch to bash Cao's head repeatedly (resulting in a completely shattered skull that caused Cao to die in a coma six days after the attack), had demonstrated both a blatant disregard for human life and viciousness while committing the crime, and Kho's actions were such that they had outraged the feelings of the community. Due to this, Kho was once again given the death penalty and he was eventually hanged on 20 May 2016.[57][58] at 3:30 pm after his appeal for a stay of execution was dismissed that same morning, a rare occurrence of an execution not carried out at dawn on Friday.[90]

Consequently, the guiding principles from Kho's case also impacted on several subsequent murder cases and influenced the sentencing or appeal outcomes of these murder cases, which include the 2010 Kallang slashing,[91][92] the 2016 Gardens by the Bay murder,[93] the 2016 Circuit Road murder,[94][95] and the 2013 murder of Dexmon Chua Yizhi,[96][97][98] etc.

Capital offences[edit]

In addition to the Penal Code, there are four Acts of Parliament that prescribe death as punishment for offences. According to the Think Centre, a Singaporean civil rights group, 70% of hangings are for drug-related offences.[99] All eight hangings in 2017 were for drug-related offences that year, and 11 of 13 hangings in 2018 were also for drug-related offences.[100]

Penal Code[edit]

Under the Penal Code,[101] the commission of the following offences may result in the death penalty:

  • Waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Government (§121)
  • Offences against the President's person (§121A)
  • Piracy that endangers life (§130B) (mandatory)
  • Genocide resulting in death (§130E) (mandatory)
  • Abetting of mutiny (§132)
  • Perjury that results in the execution of an innocent person (§194)
  • Murder (§302) (mandatory for S300(a) of the Penal Code; discretionary for S300(b), S300(c) and S300(d) of the Penal Code)
  • Abetting the suicide of a person under the age of 18 or an "insane" person (§305)
  • Attempted murder by a prisoner serving a life sentence (§307 (2)) (mandatory)
  • Kidnapping in order to commit murder (§364)
  • Robbery committed by five or more people that results in the death of a person (§396)

Since the Penal Code (Amendment) Act 2007,[102] Singapore no longer allows for the death penalty for rape and mutiny.

Arms Offences Act[edit]

The Arms Offences Act regulates criminal offences dealing with firearms and weapons.[103] Any person who uses or attempts to use arms (Section 4) can face execution, as well as any person who uses or attempts to use arms to commit scheduled offences (Section 4A). These scheduled offences are being a member of an unlawful assembly; rioting; certain offences against the person; abduction or kidnapping; extortion; burglary; robbery; preventing or resisting arrest; vandalism; mischief. Any person who is an accomplice (Section 5) to a person convicted of arms use during a scheduled offence can likewise be hanged.

Trafficking in arms (Section 6) is a capital offence in Singapore. Under the Arms Offences Act, trafficking is defined as being in unlawful possession of more than two firearms.

One notable case involving a conviction under this act was the murder of Lim Hock Soon, where Ang Soon Tong triad leader Tan Chor Jin used a Beretta pistol to fatally shoot Lim, a nightclub owner, to death after robbing him and his family of their valuables. Tan was initially charged under the Penal Code for murder but the charge was later amended into one of illegal discharge of firearms under the Arms Offences Act. Tan was eventually convicted and executed by hanging under this Act on 9 January 2009.[104]

Misuse of Drugs Act[edit]

The Singapore embarkation card contains a warning to visitors about the death penalty for drug trafficking. Warning signs can also be found at the Johor-Singapore Causeway and other border entries.

Under Schedule 2 of the Misuse of Drugs Act,[105][106] any person importing or exporting more than the following quantities of drugs receives a mandatory death sentence:

  • 1200 grams of opium and containing more than 30 grams of morphine (§5 and §7, (2)(b));
  • 30 grams of morphine (§5 and §7, (3)(b));
  • 15 grams of diamorphine (heroin) (diamo (§5 and §7, (4)(b));
  • 30 grams of cocaine (§5 and §7, (5)(b));
  • 500 grams of cannabis (§5 and §7, (6)(b));
  • 1000 grams of cannabis mixture (§5 and §7, (7)(b));
  • 200 grams of cannabis resin (§5 and §7, (8)(b));
  • 250 grams of methamphetamine (§5 and §7, (9)(b)).

Death sentences are also mandatory for any person caught manufacturing:

  • Morphine, or any salt of morphine, ester of morphine or salt of ester of morphine (§6, (2));
  • Diamorphine (heroin) or any salt of diamorphine (§6, (3));
  • Cocaine or any salt of cocaine (§6, (4));
  • Methamphetamine (§6, (5)).

Under the Act:

any person who is proved to have had in his possession or custody or under his control —

  1. anything containing a controlled drug;
  2. the keys of anything containing a controlled drug;
  3. the keys of any place or premises or any part thereof in which a controlled drug is found; or
  4. a document of title relating to a controlled drug or any other document intended for the delivery of a controlled drug,

shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have had that drug in his possession.

Furthermore, any person who has a controlled drug in his possession shall be presumed to have known the nature of that drug.[citation needed]

The majority of executions in Singapore are for drug offences. Since 2010, 23 prisoners have been executed for drug offences, while only five have been executed for other offences, such as murder. Death penalty supporters, such as blogger Benjamin Chang, claim that Singapore has one of the lowest prevalence of drug abuse worldwide. Chang claims, for instance, that over two decades, the number of drug abusers arrested each year has declined by two-thirds, from over 6,000 in the early 1990s to about 2,000 in 2011.[107] The validity of these figures is disputed by other Singaporeans, such as drugs counsellor Tony Tan.[108] The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime notes that Singapore remains a transit destination for drug traffickers in Asia, drug seizures continue to increase, and heroin drug use within Singapore is continuing to rise.[109]

Internal Security Act[edit]

The preamble of the Internal Security Act states that it is an Act to "provide for the internal security of Singapore, preventive detention, the prevention of subversion, the suppression of organised violence against persons and property in specified areas of Singapore, and for matters incidental thereto".[110] The President has the power to designate certain security areas. Any person caught in the possession or with someone in possession of firearms, ammunition or explosives in a security area can be punished by death.

Kidnapping Act[edit]

The terms of the Kidnapping Act designate abduction, wrongful restraint or wrongful confinement for ransom as capital offences.[111]

Public debate[edit]

Death row conditions[edit]

Amnesty International reports that death row inmates are housed in cells of roughly three square metres (32 square feet).[14] Walls make up three sides, while the fourth is made up of vertical bars. They are equipped with a toilet, a sleeping mat, and a bucket for washing. Exercise is permitted twice a day for half an hour at a time.[7] Four days before the execution, the condemned is allowed to watch television or listen to the radio.[14] Special meals of their choice are also cooked, if within the prison budget. Visiting rights are increased from one 20-minute visit per week to a maximum of four hours each day,[7] though no physical contact is allowed with any visitors.[14] In addition, two days before an execution, an inmate is allowed to have a photo shoot and be given their own clothes to pose during a photoshoot; the photo will be given to their families as remembrance.[112]

Strong support for death penalty by Singaporeans[edit]

Public debate in the Singaporean news media on the death penalty is almost non-existent, although the topic is occasionally discussed in the midst of highly publicised criminal cases. Efforts to garner public opinion on the issue are rare, although it has been suggested that the population is influenced by a traditional Chinese view which held that harsh punishment deters crime and helps maintain social peace and harmony.[113] In October 2007, Senior Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs Ho Peng Kee said in Parliament that "Certain of us may hold the view that the death penalty should be abolished. But in a survey done two years ago, reported in the Straits Times, 95% of Singaporeans feel that the death penalty should stay. This is something which has helped us to be safe and secure all these years and it is only reserved for a very few select offences."[2]

Joshua Benjamin Jeyaretnam, a former opposition Member of Parliament, was reportedly only given a few minutes to speak in Parliament on the issue before his comments were rebutted by Ho Peng Kee.[14][114]

Few other opposition Members of Parliament would bring up the issue, which may be reflective of a population generally indifferent to the matter.

There were a few instances where in certain high-profile cases, the public would argue for the death penalty to be imposed on those who allegedly committed murder. In the case of Annie Ee Yu Lian's alleged abuse and murder by Tan Hui Zhen and Pua Hak Chuan, who were sentenced to between 14 and 16 years in jail (and Pua receiving caning of 14 strokes) for causing grievous hurt with a weapon, netizens were angered at the cruelty displayed by the couple and felt that the sentences were too light, which prompted them to petition for harsher punishments; some even demanded for the death penalty to be imposed on the couple.[115][116][117] In another case, where two-year-old Mohamad Danial Mohamad Nasser died due to child abuse. Given the difficulty to convict the couple on murder charges based on the evidence, the prosecution could only proceed on charges of causing grievous hurt. Danial's mother Zaidah was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment while her boyfriend Zaini Jamari received 12 strokes of the cane and a simultaneous jail term of ten years. The netizens felt that the sentences were too light and they petitioned to the courts to sentence the couple to death for Danial's alleged murder as they were outraged at the extreme brutality and violence displayed against Danial.[118][119]

As for the attitudes towards the death sentence for drug trafficking, the younger generation tend to have a more liberal approach towards drug use, and the government introduced programmes to educate them about the dangers of drugs.[120] There were cases of ex-drug convicts who also advocated against the use of drugs; some even agree that the death penalty was effective. A former trafficker once stated that in the past, he would awalys make sure the measurement of his delivered drugs were below the minimum amount to avoid capital punishment.[121] A female prisoner and drug convict also spoke up about the death penalty while being interviewed in prison, where she was serving 26 years' jail since 2014. She agreed to the relevance and effect of the death penalty in stopping people from selling and taking drugs, as she knew how drug trafficking caused damage to families and inflict sufferings especially to the children of drug addicts.[122]

In the aftermath of several executions (including that of Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam), there were discussions among the Singaporean public (from the young to the old) about the need for compassion for some death row inmates, since there were increasing citations by activists the cases of several drug convicts who came from low-income families or having drug addictions before ending up on death row. However, the public sentiments remained leaning towards capital punishment for drugs, given that there were rampant rates of drug trafficking at the Golden Triangle in Southeast Asia, the effectiveness of the death penalty in maintaining Singapore's low crime rate and the devastating impact drugs had on the addicts and their families.[123]

Protests and opposition[edit]

Before the hanging of Shanmugam Murugesu, a three-hour vigil was held on 6 May 2005. The organisers of the event at the Furama Hotel said it was the first such public gathering organised solely by members of the public against the death penalty in Singapore. Murugesu had been arrested after being caught in possession of six packets containing just over 1 kilograms of cannabis after returning from Malaysia. He admitted knowledge of one of the packets, which contained 300 grams, but not the other five.[124][125] The event went unreported on the partially state-owned media and the police shut down an open microphone session just as the first person began to speak.[124][126]

After the hanging of Australian citizen Van Tuong Nguyen on 2 December 2005, Susan Chia, province leader of the Good Shepherd Sisters in Singapore, declared that "the death penalty is cruel, inhumane and it violates the right to life." Chia and several other nuns comforted Nguyen's mother two weeks before his execution for heroin trafficking.[127]

Singapore's death penalty laws have drawn comments in the media. For example, science fiction author William Gibson, while a journalist, wrote a travel piece on Singapore that he sarcastically titled "Disneyland with the Death Penalty".[128]

In 2010, British author Alan Shadrake published his book Once a Jolly Hangman: Singapore Justice in the Dock, which was critical of the Singapore judicial system.[129] Shadrake was arrested whilst promoting the book in Singapore and later sentenced to six weeks in prison for contempt of court. He is also charged with criminal defamation. The case attracted worldwide attention, putting the Singapore legal system in the spotlight.[130][131] Shadrake apologised to the court if he had offended the sensitivities of the judiciary and did not mean to undermine the judges or the judiciary, but stood by his book, apart from one small mistake.[132]

My so-called apology was to merely point out that my book was sub-titled Singapore Justice in the Dock – NOT Singapore Judiciary in the Dock. I did not 'apologise' at all and welcomed the prison sentence which drew even more attention to the real issues. The many cases I exposed where various judges sentenced some accused to death despite dubious, suspect evidence concocted by the police and their informers while others with powerful countries behind them had their charges inexplicably reduced to a non-hanging offence. But Judge Loh completely ignored the evidence I produced in Once a Jolly Hangman even though he claimed to have read it from cover to cover. This proved again that the judiciary is not independent from the executive – a fact which the International Bar Association ably pointed out in its 2008 report on Singapore – and that the judiciary has to do the government's bidding when it suits them.

The judge, Quentin Loh, dismissed his apology as "nothing more than a tactical ploy in court to obtain a reduced sentence".[133] Shadrake's conviction for scandalising the court was upheld by the Court of Appeal.[134]

In March 2022, when Singapore dismissed the final appeal of Malaysian death row prisoner Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam and later authorized the execution of Singaporean drug convict Abdul Kahar Othman, which was its first execution during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 400 Singaporeans, including rights activists Jolovan Wham, Kirsten Han and Kokila Annamalai, who took part in a protest against the government's use of the death penalty at Hong Lim Park.[135][136] With regards to Abdul Kahar's execution, the European Union (EU) condemned it and stated that capital punishment is a cruel and inhumane punishment, which not only failed to deter crime but also defied both humanity's dignity and integrity.[137] Two days prior to Nagaenthran's execution (which took place on 27 April 2022), a candlelight vigil was held on his behalf.[138][139][140]

Law Society review[edit]

In December 2005, the Law Society revealed that it has set up a committee, named Review Committee on Capital Punishment, to examine capital punishment in the country. The President of the Society, Senior Counsel Philip Jeyaretnam, said that the main focus of the review was on issues regarding administering the death penalty such as whether it should be mandatory. A report of the review would be submitted to the Ministry of Law.[141] On 6 November 2006, they were invited to give its views on proposed amendments to the Penal Code to the Ministry of Home Affairs. In their report, issued on 30 March 2007, they argued against the mandatory death penalty:

The death penalty should be discretionary for the offences where the death sentence is mandatory – murder, drug trafficking, firearms offences and sedition – a position similar to that for the offence of kidnapping. There are strong arguments for changing the mandatory nature of capital punishment in Singapore. Judges should be given the discretion to impose the death penalty only where deemed appropriate.[142]

Singapore government's response[edit]

The Singapore government states that the death penalty is only used in the most serious of crimes, sending, they say, a strong message to potential offenders. They point out that in 1994 and 1999 the United Nations General Assembly failed to adopt United Nations resolutions calling for a moratorium on the death penalty worldwide, as a majority of countries opposed such a move.

Singapore's Permanent Representative to the United Nations wrote a letter to the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions in 2001 which stated:

"... the death penalty is primarily a criminal justice issue, and therefore is a question for the sovereign jurisdiction of each country [...] the right to life is not the only right, and [...] it is the duty of societies and governments to decide how to balance competing rights against each other."[14]

In January 2004, the Ministry of Home Affairs issued a response to Amnesty International's report, "Singapore: The death penalty - A hidden toll of executions". It defended Singapore's policy to retain the death penalty, predicating its arguments on, among others, the following grounds:[7]

  • There is no international consensus on whether the death penalty should be abolished.
  • Each country has the sovereign right to decide on its own judicial system, taking into account its own circumstances.
  • The death penalty has been effective in keeping Singapore one of the safest places in the world to work and live in.
  • The application of the death penalty is only reserved for "very serious crimes".

The Ministry of Home Affairs also refuted Amnesty International's claims of the majority of the executed being foreigners, and that it was "mostly the poor, least educated, and vulnerable people who are executed". The Ministry stated: "Singaporeans, and not foreigners, were the majority of those executed... Of those executed from 1993 to 2003, 95% were above 21 years of age, and 80% had received formal education. About 80% of those who had been sentenced to capital punishment had employment before their convictions."[7]

Following the hanging of Van Tuong Nguyen in 2005, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong reiterated the government's position, stating that "The evil inflicted on thousands of people with drug trafficking demands that we must tackle the source by punishing the traffickers rather than trying to pick up the pieces afterwards... It's a law which is approved of by Singapore's inhabitants and which allows us to reduce the drug problem."[143]

Prior to the United Nations General Assembly's voting on a moratorium on the death penalty in November 2007, Singapore's ambassador Vanu Gopala Menon said, "My delegation would like to remind this committee that capital punishment is not prohibited under international law. Yet it is clear that the sponsors of this draft resolution have decided that there can only be one view on capital punishment, and that only one set of choices should be respected... [the death penalty] is an important component of the administration of law and our justice system, and is imposed only for the most serious crimes and serves as a deterrent. We have proper legal safeguards in place to prevent any miscarriage of justice."[144]

In October 2020, Law Minister K. Shanmugam emphasised that the death penalty is a powerful deterrent to capital crimes in Singapore. He cited the statistics of the rate of firearms-related offences and kidnapping cases had dropped dramatically after the introduction of the death penalty as evidence of its deterrence. Shanmugam also cited that after the government mandates the death penalty since 1991, the average net amount of opium trafficked dropped by 66% and many drug traffickers are illegally transporting less and less amounts of drugs to avoid the punishment. The government conducted surveys on Singaporeans and non-Singaporeans, and the majority of both groups responded that the death penalty is more effective than life imprisonment in discouraging people from committing capital offences.[145]

On 27 April 2022, when Singapore executed Malaysian drug convict Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam despite his alleged intellectual disability, both the AGC and the Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB) made statements to defend Singapore's decision to hang Nagaenthran in light of the international condemnation of Singapore and the execution. They reiterated that the governmental and judicial stand from November 2021 that Nagaenthran clearly knew what he was doing and the magnitude of his actions. The government similarly stood by its stand that the death penalty had effectively helped maintained Singapore's crime rate as one of the lowest in the world during the time when Singapore faced the international pressure to abolish the death penalty and impose a moratorium on its upcoming executions, and over 80% of Singaporeans believed that the death penalty should remain.[146][147][148]

During a June 2022 BBC interview, Shanmugam, who was asked by the host and journalist Stephen Sackur regarding the death penalty for drugs, stated that the death penalty in Singapore was the right punishment adopted by the government to protect Singaporeans and save lives. He also cited a 2021 report by the World Health Organisation that showed there were 500,000 deaths linked to drug abuse in just one year. Shanmugam added that in the 1990s, Singapore was arresting about 6,000 people a year for drugs, but this has now dropped to about 3,000 people a year. He stated that it goes to show how the draconian laws deployed by Singapore on narcotics offences has safeguarded the lives of many locals and maintains a safe society in Singapore.[149] The death penalty response by Shanmugam during the BBC interview was well-received and supported by many members of the public on social media, who also voiced their support for capital punishment for drugs in Singapore.[150]

In light of the execution of Abdul Rahim Shapiee (and his accomplice), Pritam Singh, opposition leader of Parliament and chairman of Workers' Party, wrote to Singapore newspaper Today to express his support for the death penalty for drug crimes in Singapore and the execution of drug traffickers. While his opinion centers on the need for the death penalty to remain due to high public support and its deterrence effect, Singh cited that there should be changes made to rectify the shortcomings in determining the extent of one's cooperation with the authorities during investigations before sentencing, since there were cases of traffickers receiving death sentences before the courts decided they were couriers and sentenced them for life, as well as similar cases like Abdul Rahim who were sentenced to execution despite being couriers and provided substantive assistance. Singh also expressed concern about the need to curb the frequent abuse of court processes, as a result of such instances by many recent high-profile capital drug cases that attracted international attention. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) revealed that from 2013 to early 2022, certificates of substantive assistance were issued to 82 out of 104 drug traffickers regardless of nationality, while there were 14 out of the remaining 22 sentenced to death and the other eight traffickers sentenced to life imprisonment due to mental illnesses. Another data revealed that 78% of the traffickers were not subjected to capital punishment despite having brought drugs exceeding the capital threshold, as a reslt of plea bargains to reduce their capital charges or certifications for substantive assistance.[151]

International impact of Singapore's death penalty laws[edit]

Impact on negotiations of extraditing suspects to Singapore[edit]

In 2002, Singapore tried to negotiate with Australia for the extradition of a British murder suspect and fugitive Michael McCrea, who was wanted for the double murder of a couple whose corpses were discovered abandoned in a car at Orchard Towers. However, McCrea, who was arrested in Australia, was not extradited as Australia, which abolished the death penalty for all offences by then, was not legally allowed to extradite suspects back to countries where they would face the death sentence; McCrea would be sentenced to death should the courts of Singapore find him guilty of murder. It was only after Singapore gave the Australian government the assurance that McCrea would not be hanged even if he was convicted of murder, which allowed McCrea to be sent back to Singapore for trial. McCrea was eventually convicted of culpable homicide and destroying evidence of a murder case, and sentenced to a total of 24 years in jail. This left an impact and precedent on Singapore's avenues to successfully negotiating for extradition of suspects from countries where the death penalty or caning was not practiced, including the extradition of suspected bank robber David James Roach, whom the Singapore government promised would not face caning for robbery. Roach was eventually sent back to Singapore, where he later served five years in prison, and he was pardoned from caning by President Halimah Yacob.[152][153][154][155]

Impact on official debate and discussion in the United States[edit]

In 2012, a couple of American elected officials and office-seekers have suggested that Singapore's success in combating drug abuse should be examined as a model for the United States. Michael Bloomberg, a former Mayor of New York City, said that the United States could learn a thing or two from nations like Singapore when it came to drug trafficking, noting that "executing a handful of people saves thousands and thousands of lives."[156] The last execution in New York took place in 1963. Several courts have ruled that the death penalty violates the New York Constitution (see People v. LaValle). In 2007, the state of New York abolished the death penalty. 22 states, plus Washington D.C., have abolished the death penalty, with the most recent being Virginia in 2021. However, certain states, such as Texas and Georgia, still regularly execute prisoners for aggravated murder.

Even when an American politician mentions capital punishment in Singapore, the application of the death penalty in the United States is limited by the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution to only murders committed by mentally competent adults and crimes against the state. For example, former presidential candidate Newt Gingrich repeated his longstanding advocacy for Singaporean methods in the United States' War on Drugs during campaign interviews and speeches.[157]

Statistics[edit]

The following table of executions was compiled by Amnesty International from several sources, including statistics supplied by the Ministry of Home Affairs in January 2001 and government figures reported to Agence France-Presse in September 2003.[14] Numbers in curly brackets are the number of foreign citizens executed, according to information disclosed by the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Year Murder Drug-related Firearms Total
1991 19 7 0 26
1992 13 7 1 21
1993 10 2 0 12
1994 21 54 1 76
1995 20 52 1 73
1996 10 {7} 40 {10} 0 50
1997 {3} 11 {2} 5 15
1998 4 {1} 24 {5} 0 28
1999 8 {2} 35 {7} 0 43
2000 4 {2} 17 {5} 0 21
2000 ? 23 ? ?
2001 ? 22 ? ?
2002 ? ? ? ?
2003 ? ? ? 10
2004 ? ? ? 8{2}[158]
2005 ? ? ? 8{1}[158]
2006 ? ? ? 8{2}[158]
2007 1 2 0 3{2}[158]
2008 4 2 0 6{3}[159]
2009 1 3 1 5{2}[159]
2010 0 0 0 0[159]
2011 2? 2 0? 4[160]
2012 0 0 0 0[161]
2013 0 0 0 0[161]
2014 0 2 0 2[161]
2015 1 3 0 4[162]
2016 2 2 0 4[163]
2017 0 8 0 8[164][165][166][100]
2018 2 11 0 13[167][168][169][170]
2019 2 2 0 4[171]
2020 0 0 0 0
2021 0 0 0 0
2022 0 10 0 10[172][173][174][175][176][177][178]

Detailed statistics were not released by the Singapore government between 2000 and 2006. Singapore's Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong told the BBC in September 2003 that he believed there were "in the region of about 70 to 80" hangings in 2003. Two days later he retracted his statement, saying the number was in fact ten.[179] While there is no information about the overall percentage of whichever race and ethnicity among the inmates, it is revealed in 2021 that there were a large number of Malays among those waiting on death row, with a handful of Chinese and Indians and other minority races, as revealed by an appeal by 17 Malay death row inmates against their sentences on basis of alleged racist bias. It was revealed that between 2010 and 2021, Malays made up 66 of the 120 prosecutions for capital drug offences, where some 76% ended up being handed the death sentence. 50 out of 77 people sentenced to death between 2010 and 2021 were Malays, 15 Indians, 10 Chinese and two from other races.[180] A source in April 2022 revealed that since 2010, of all the 77 sentenced to death, there were 14 Malaysians being condemned to death row, with eleven of them were ethnic Indians, two Malays and one Chinese; five of them were executed between 2016 and April 2022 when this information was revealed.[181]

The chief executioner, Darshan Singh (who recently died on 31 October 2021 at age 89 from COVID-19),[182] said that he has executed more than 850 people during his service from 1959 using the phrase: "I am going to send you to a better place than this. God bless you." This included 18 people on one day, using three ropes at a time; these 18 people were among the 58 rioters who killed four prison officers while they were serving their jail terms in a Pulau Senang island prison in 1963. Singh also said that he has hanged seven people within 90 minutes; these seven men were the culprits of the 1971 Gold Bars triple murders, in which a businessman and illegal gold trader was killed together with his driver and colleague over a total of 120 gold bars.[183]

Executions peaked between 1994 and 1998; Singapore had the second highest per-capita execution rate in the world during this period, estimated by the United Nations to be 13.83 executions annually per one million people,[184] just behind Turkmenistan with 14.92. Since then, executions have become far less common, with some years having no executions at all. For example, no one was executed in 2012 and 2013, and two persons were executed in 2014. Nevertheless, in the late 2010s, the number of executions has started to increase again: in 2018, 13 people were executed, the most since at least 2003.[185] and four people (including two unreported executions) were hanged in 2019. No one has been executed from the start of 2020 to August 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. There were originally two executions scheduled for drug traffickers Syed Suhail bin Syed Zin and Mohd Fadzir bin Mustaffa on 18 September 2020 and 24 September 2020 respectively, but they were subsequently postponed due to stays of execution granted pending last-minute appeals against the death sentences.[186][187] As a result, there were no one executed in 2020. Similarly between January and October 2021, no new execution dates were set for the inmates on Singapore's death row, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and resurgence of community cases (as affected by the mutated Delta variant) in the city state.

Originally, one execution of a drug convict named Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam was supposed to be carried out on 10 November 2021,[77][188][78] before it was postponed due to Nagaenthran contracting COVID-19. The suspension of Nagaenthran's execution in 2021 also led to no executions being carried out in 2021 itself.[189] There were originally two executions of Roslan Bakar and Pausi Jefridin to be carried out on 16 February 2022 and a third execution of Rosman Abdullah on 23 February 2022 before they were postponed due to the men's appeals.[190][191][192] Due to the increasing notices of executions being revealed publicly, there were lingering concerns from civil groups and international figures that Singapore might resume executions to accommodate the growing death row inmate population at Changi Prison.[193]

The first death row prisoner to be hanged in Singapore during the COVID-19 pandemic was 68-year-old Singaporean drug offender Abdul Kahar Othman on 30 March 2022, who had not appealed against his sentence and later executed as scheduled, therefore resuming executions in Singapore.[194] By the time Abdul Kahar was executed, there were 62 prisoners on death row, awaiting execution (reduced to 61 with Nagaenthran's execution).[195] Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam was the second to be hanged on 27 April 2022 after Abdul Kahar.[196] Datchinamurthy Kataiah was originally the third in line to be executed on 29 April 2022 after Nagaenthran before his execution was postponed due to an appeal.[197] On 7 July 2022, Kalwant Singh Jogindar Singh and Norasharee Gous became the third and fourth convicts to be hanged in Singapore in 2022. In the same month, Nazeri Lajim was executed 15 days after Kalwant and Norasharee.[198][199][200] Three more hangings - one on 26 July and two (Malaysian Rahmat Karimon and his accomplice Zainal Hamad) on 2 August - were conducted after Nazeri's execution.[201][202][203] On 5 August 2022, 45-year-old Singaporean Abdul Rahim Shapiee and his 49-year-old accomplice Ong Seow Ping were the ninth and tenth to be executed.[204][205]

Foreign nationals[edit]

The people on death row include foreign nationals, many of whom were convicted of drug-related offences. These inmates come from a diverse range of countries, including the United States, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. Figures released by the Singapore government show that between 1993 and 2003, 36% of those executed were foreigners, including some residents in Singapore (half of Singapore residents are foreigners).[206]

Cases of people sentenced to death[edit]

Murder[edit]

  • 1965: Tan Kheng Ann (alias Robert Black) and 17 others who led the Pulau Senang prison riot. They were found guilty of the murders of a prison officer and his three assistants, and hanged in October 1965.[207][208]
  • 1967: Sunny Ang, a Grand Prix driver and part-time student who killed his girlfriend Jenny Cheok for her insurance during a scuba diving trip near Sisters' Islands in 1963. He was the first person in Singapore to be convicted of murder solely based on circumstantial evidence and without a body. He received a mandatory death sentence and was executed in February 1967.
  • 1968: Usman bin Haji Muhammad Ali and Harun Thohir, two Indonesian marines who carried out the 1965 MacDonald House bombing which killed three people (when Singapore was still a part of Malaysia). They were convicted of murder and hanged on 17 October 1968.
  • 1973: Mimi Wong Weng Siu and her husband Sim Woh Kum, the first couple to be sentenced to death in Singapore. Both Wong and Sim were convicted of the 1970 murder of Ayako Watanabe, the wife of Wong's Japanese lover, and hanged on 27 July 1973. Wong was also the first woman to be executed for murder in Singapore since its independence.
  • 1975: Andrew Chou Hock Guan, his brother, and five other accomplices were hanged on 28 February 1975 for the Gold Bars triple murders.[209][210][211]
  • 1980: Quek Kee Siong, a labourer who was found guilty of the rape and murder of ten-year-old Cheng Geok Ha and sentenced to death in March 1979. He lost his appeal in November 1980, and later hanged.
  • 1984: Ong Hwee Kuan, Ong Chin Hock and Yeo Ching Boon were hanged on 24 February 1984 for the robbery, kidnapping and murder of a policeman, Lee Kim Lai, on 25 April 1978. The trio were also responsible for the murder of a taxi driver Chew Theng Hin on the same night Lee was killed.[212][213]
  • 1988: Adrian Lim, Tan Mui Choo, and Hoe Kah Hong, the three perpetrators of the 1981 Toa Payoh ritual murders, were hanged on 25 November 1988.
  • 1988: Sek Kim Wah, a Singaporean military conscript and serial killer who committed the 1983 Andrew Road triple murders and another double murder near Seletar Road, was hanged on 9 December 1988.[214][215]
  • 1992: Vasavan Sathiadew and his two Thai accomplices - Phan Khenapin and Wan Pathong - were hanged on 23 October 1992 for the 1984 murder of Frankie Tan.[216]
  • 1995: Flor Contemplacion, a Filipino domestic worker hanged on 17 March 1995 for murdering another Filipino domestic worker and a four-year-old boy.
  • 1995: Chin Seow Noi, Chin's younger brother Chin Yaw Kim and Yaw Kim's friend Ng Kim Heng, the three Malaysians who were hanged on 31 March 1995 for the murder of Lim Lee Tin in January 1989.
  • 1995: Oh Laye Koh, a Singaporean and former school bus driver who was hanged on 19 May 1995 for the 1989 murder of Liang Shan Shan, a 17-year-old Malaysian schoolgirl. He was also the suspected killer of 18-year-old lounge waitress Norhayah binti Mohamed Ali back in 1982.
  • 1996: John Martin Scripps, a British spree killer hanged in April 1996 for murdering three tourists.
  • 1998: Asogan Ramesh Ramachandren and Selvar Kumar Silvaras were hanged in May 1998 for the 1996 murder of a gangster.
  • 1998: Jimmy Chua Hwa Soon, a former army sergeant who killed his sister-in-law and slashed his nephew. He was sentenced to death for murder in April 1997 and lost his appeal in February 1998.
  • 1999: Gerardine Andrew, a prostitute who was hanged on 26 February 1999 together with two men - Nazar Mohamed Kassim and Mansoor Abdullah - for stabbing her landlady, 53-year-old Sivapackiam Veerappan Rengasamy in March 1997.
  • 1999: Both Shaiful Edham bin Adam and Norishyam s/o Mohamed Ali were hanged on 2 July 1999 for the 1998 murder of a Bulgarian student named Iordanka Apostolova.
  • 1999: Jonaris Badlishah, a Malaysian and nephew of the Sultan of Kedah who was sentenced to death for the 1998 murder of Sally Poh Bee Eng and theft of her Rolex watch. He lost his appeal in February 1999, and afterwards, he was hanged.
  • 2000: Lau Lee Peng, a fishmonger who was hanged on 1 September 2000 for the robbery and murder of his 50-year-old friend and fruit stall helper Lily Tan Eng Yan.
  • 2001: Julaiha Begum, her lover Loganatha Venkatesan and Venkatesan's friend Chandran Rajagopal who were hanged on 16 February 2001 for the murder of Julaiha's husband T. Maniam.
  • 2002: Three men - Rosli bin Ahmat, Wan Kamil bin Mohamed Shafian, and Ibrahim bin Mohamed - were executed on 25 October 2002 for the August 2000 murders of Koh Ngiap Yong and Jahabar Sathick at Chestnut Avenue and Jalan Kukoh respectively.
  • 2002: Anthony Ler Wee Teang was hanged on 13 December 2002 for hiring a teenager to murder his wife.[217]
  • 2006: Took Leng How, a Malaysian hanged in November 2006 for the 2004 murder of an eight-year-old girl.
  • 2007: Leong Siew Chor, a factory supervisor who killed his lover Liu Hong Mei. He was hanged on 30 November 2007.[218]
  • 2008: Mohammed Ali bin Johari was hanged on 19 December 2008 for the 2006 rape and murder of his stepdaughter.[219]
  • 2009: Tan Chor Jin, alias Tony Kia, nicknamed the "One-eyed Dragon" in Singapore media, was executed on 9 January 2009 for illegally discharging a firearm and killing 41-year-old nightclub owner Lim Hock Soon by shooting.
  • 2014: Wang Zhijian, a Chinese national sentenced to death in 2012 for the 2008 Yishun triple murders. The Court of Appeal dismissed his appeal in 2014.
  • 2015: Iskandar bin Rahmat, a former police officer sentenced to death in December 2015 for the 2013 Kovan double murders. As of May 2021, Iskandar is still awaiting execution.[220][221]
  • 2016: Kho Jabing, a Malaysian hanged on 20 May 2016 for the 2008 robbery and murder of a construction worker.
  • 2018: Chia Kee Chen, a Singaporean businessman who murdered his wife's 37-year-old lover Dexmon Chua Yizhi. His life sentence was commuted to a death sentence by the Court of Appeal of Singapore after the prosecution appealed on 27 June 2018.
  • 2019: Micheal Anak Garing, a Malaysian hanged on 22 March 2019 for the murder of a construction worker during a series of armed robberies in 2010.[222]
  • 2020: Teo Ghim Heng, a former property agent who was sentenced to death for killing his wife and their daughter in 2017, which became known as the Woodlands double murders.[223][224][225]

Drug trafficking[edit]

List of death row inmates granted clemency by the President[edit]

  • 1978: Mohamad Kunjo s/o Ramalan, a Singaporean convicted of murdering a lorry driver in 1975 and sentenced to death in 1976. After losing his appeals against his sentence over the next two years, he filed for clemency, which was granted by President Benjamin Sheares in 1978. His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.[227][228][229][230]
  • 1980: Bobby Chung Hua Watt, a Singaporean convicted of murdering his brother-in-law's brother in 1975. He was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death. After losing his appeal against his death sentence, he was initially scheduled to be executed on 18 January 1980. However, on 15 January 1980, President Benjamin Sheares granted him clemency and his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was released from prison in 1993 for good behaviour after serving at least two-thirds of his life sentence.[231][232][233]
  • 1983: Siti Aminah binte Jaffar, a Singaporean convicted of drug trafficking in 1977 and sentenced to death in 1978 along with her lover, Anwar Ali Khan. The two of them appealed to President Devan Nair for clemency in 1983. Anwar's plea was rejected and he was executed, but Siti's was accepted and she had her death sentence commuted to life imprisonment.[234][235][230]
  • 1993: Sim Ah Cheoh, a Singaporean convicted of drug trafficking in 1985 and sentenced to death in 1988 along with her two accomplices. President Wee Kim Wee accepted her plea for clemency in 1992 and her death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment; her two accomplices, however, were executed in 1992. While serving her life sentence, she was diagnosed with cervical cancer in 1993 and had at most a year to live. She appealed to President Ong Teng Cheong for clemency so that she could be released in order to spend the final moments of her life with her family. The President accepted the petition, and she was released on 16 February 1995 and eventually died on 30 March that year.[236][237][238][239][240][241][242][243][244][233]
  • 1992: Koh Swee Beng, a Singaporean who killed a man who assaulted his foster father in 1988. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 1990. He lost his appeal against his death sentence in 1991 but was eventually granted clemency by President Wee Kim Wee on 13 May 1992 (two days before he was scheduled to be executed) and had his sentence commuted to life imprisonment. He was released from prison in September 2005 for good behaviour after serving at least two-thirds of his life sentence.[245][233]
  • 1998: Mathavakannan Kalimuthu, a Singaporean convicted of murder and sentenced to death in 1996 along with his two friends. After losing their appeals in 1997, the three of them petitioned to President Ong Teng Cheong for clemency in 1998. The President accepted only Mathavakannan's plea so his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment; the other two had their pleas rejected and were subsequently executed. Mathavakannan was eventually released in 2012 after spending about 16 years in prison.[246][247][248]

Mental health[edit]

In 2010, Nagaenthran Dharmalingam, a 33-year-old mentally disabled Malaysian man was sentenced to death by Singapore after police found him attempting to bring 42.5 grams (1.5 ounces) of heroin into the country. In November 2021, days before his scheduled execution, his lawyer launched an appeal on mental health grounds as his IQ was tested at 69, below the legal threshold for disability[249] and the execution has been put on hold.[250] Later, due to Nagaenthran contracting COVID-19, the appeal was suspended until 30 November 2021, when it will rule the verdict in his case. The date was later postponed to January 2022.[78][79][80] The postponement was extended until finally, the appeal was scheduled to be heard on the afternoon of 1 March 2022.[81][82] On 29 March 2022, he lost his appeal and was executed on 27 April 2022.[251][252][253]

In popular culture[edit]

In 2016, Singaporean director Boo Junfeng directed and released a film titled Apprentice, starring Firdaus Rahman and Wan Hanafi Su. The film, which narrates the fictional story of newly appointed prison officer and executioner Aiman Yusof, touched on the subject of the death penalty in Singapore and an executioner's perspective of the practice, as well as the experiences and ostracisation of the families when their loved ones were tried and executed. The director also revealed that he had gathered information through interviews of the retired executioners, imams and priests who counselled the death row inmates, and also the families of the executed prisoners while producing the film. The film, which was released in several international film festivals, was met with positive public responses and it attracted both nominations and awards for the director and production team.[254][255][256][257]

In Singapore, there were local crime shows like Crimewatch and True Files which re-enact the real-life crimes in Singapore. Among these cases, there were murder and drug trafficking cases which attract the death penalty in the city-state. Often, the re-enactments of these capital cases would also show the final verdicts of the convicts, where it revealed the dates of their sentencing and/or executions. Notably, executed criminals like English serial killer John Martin Scripps, notorious wife-killer Anthony Ler and child rapist and killer Adrian Lim and many more had their cases featured in these re-enactment shows since the 1980s till the present.[258][259][260][261]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chen, Sharon (14 November 2012). "Singapore Amends Death Penalty Law to Exempt Some Offences". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  2. ^ a b Ho, Peng Kee, Singapore Parliamentary Reports, 11th Parliament, Session 1, Volume 83, 23 October 2007.
  3. ^ "Majority of Singapore residents still support death penalty in latest MHA survey: Shanmugam". CNA. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Singapore carries out another double dawn hanging after marathon midnight appeal". Malaysia Now. 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  5. ^ Cap. 68, 1985 Rev. Ed.
  6. ^ "Singapore stands by hanging". 21 November 2005. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e "The Singapore Government's Response To Amnesty International's Report "Singapore - The Death Penalty: A Hidden Toll of Executions"". Ministry of Home Affairs. 30 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2013. Contrary to AI's claims, Singaporeans, not foreigners, were the majority of those executed in Singapore. From 1993 to 2003, 64% of those executed were Singaporeans. In the last five years, 73% executed were Singaporeans. Given that one in four residents in Singapore is a foreigner, it is not only false but mischievous to allege that a significant proportion of prisoners executed were foreigners; Although family members are not with the inmate at the moment of execution, they are informed four days before the executions (for foreigners, the families and embassy will be informed earlier, usually seven to fourteen days) and allowed daily visits lasting up to four hours for each visit during these four days. The execution is carried out in the presence of a Prison medical doctor. Upon request, a priest or a religious minister is allowed to be present, to pray for the person to be executed; Our prison conditions are spartan but adequate. Visiting Justices, who are prominent members of the community, conduct regular unannounced visits to the prison institutions to make sure that prisoners, including those on death row, are not ill-treated. It is not true that prisoners are not allowed to exercise. All prisoners, including condemned prisoners, are entitled to their daily exercises. In fact, there are two exercise yards dedicated for this use. They are normally allowed to exercise twice a day, half an hour each time, one or two at a time.
  8. ^ a b "The last 2 detainees serving time at the President's pleasure". The Straits Times. 7 January 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  9. ^ "True Files S1". meWATCH. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  10. ^ "True Files S5". meWATCH. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  11. ^ "True Files S3". meWATCH. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  12. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Dance hostess Mimi Wong murdered her Japanese lover's wife". The Straits Times. Singapore. 14 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  13. ^ "True Files S1 Ep3 - The trial of Mimi Wong". meWATCH. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Singapore: The death penalty - A hidden toll of executions" (PDF). Amnesty International. 14 January 2004. Retrieved 29 December 2007. Amnesty International recognizes the need to combat drug trafficking, and the harm that illicit drugs can cause. However there is no convincing evidence that the death penalty deters would-be traffickers more effectively than other punishments; Amnesty International is gravely concerned that such presumptions erode the right to a fair trial, increasing the risk that an innocent person may be executed, particularly as the law provides for a mandatory death sentence; Amnesty International opposes the death penalty worldwide in all cases without exception; Relatives have informed Amnesty International that prisoners under sentence of death are kept in strict isolation in individual cells measuring approximately three square meters. The cells are thought to have walls on three sides, with bars on the remaining side. Cells are sparse, furnished only with a toilet and a mat for sleeping, but no bedding. Inmates are allowed the use of a bucket for washing; They may receive one 20-minute visit per week in a special area where they are separated from visitors by a thick pane of glass and have to communicate via a telephone. About four days before the execution date, as a special concession, prisoners are permitted to watch television or listen to the radio and are given meals of their choice, within the prison's budget. They are also allowed extra visits from relatives but no physical contact is permitted at any time before the execution; In July 2001 then parliamentarian and prominent human rights campaigner, J.B. Jeyaretnam, called for a parliamentary debate about the case of a drug user who was facing execution, urging the Cabinet to consider various aspects of the case during examination of his clemency appeal. J.B. Jeyaretnam was given just a few minutes to speak before his arguments were rebutted by the Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs.
  15. ^ True Files S3 - EP7: The Tooth Fragment. Channel 5. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2020 – via meWATCH.
  16. ^ The Best I Could S1 - EP5 The Missing Tooth. Channel 5. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via meWATCH.
  17. ^ a b "Man jailed for 6 years acquitted of murder charges". Yahoo!News. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  18. ^ a b Lin, Melissa (17 April 2015). "Convicted killer executed after final plea failed". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  19. ^ Zahara, Rita (29 December 2006). "19 murders in first 11 months of 2006, one more than same period in 2005". Channel NewsAsia.
  20. ^ Hui, Saw Su (21 January 2019). "Death Penalty in Singapore: Is It Time to Abolish It?". SingaporeLegalAdvice.com. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  21. ^ "From death sentence to life in prison to freedom". AsiaOne. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  22. ^ "Man serving life sentence to be released". Today. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via VR-Zone Forums.
  23. ^ "Mathavakannan s/o Kalimuthu v Attorney-General [2012] SGHC 39" (PDF). 27 February 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via Singapore Law Watch.
  24. ^ True Files S3 - EP6: Death on Pulau Ubin. Channel 5. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2020 – via meWATCH.
  25. ^ "Man's murder conviction reduced to culpable homicide". AsiaOne. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  26. ^ The Best I Could S2. Love vs Hate. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via meWATCH.
  27. ^ "Yishun triple killer to hang". The Star. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  28. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Man murders lover, her daughter and flatmate after quarrel over money for crab". The Straits Times. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  29. ^ a b c Xing Hui, Kok (19 July 2014). "Two hanged after forsaking chance to escape gallows". Today Singapore. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Abu Baker, Jalelah (16 January 2015). "Murderer fails to escape the gallows: 6 other cases involving the revised death penalty laws". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  31. ^ Lum, Selina (11 April 2013). "Drug courier spared the death penalty". The Straits Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  32. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Abdul Haleem bin Abdul Karim and another" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  33. ^ Vijayan, K. C. (20 May 2017). "Drug trafficker hanged after exhausting avenues of appeal". The Straits Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  34. ^ Tang, Louisa (30 November 2018). "The Big Read: Capital punishment – a little more conversation on a matter of life and death". Today Singapore. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  35. ^ Saad, Imelda; Ramesh, S (9 July 2012). "Singapore completes review of mandatory death penalty". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  36. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Ismil Bin Kadar and Another" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  37. ^ "Muhammad bin Kadar and Another v Public Prosecutor" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  38. ^ "Muhammad bin Kadar v Public Prosecutor" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  39. ^ Vijayan, K. C. (17 April 2015). "Killer faces gallows after final plea fails". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  40. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Ellarry Bin Puling and Another" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  41. ^ Neo Chai Chin (16 July 2013). "Murderer given life term under amended laws". Today Singapore. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  42. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Nair Gopinathan Bijukumar Remadevi" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  43. ^ Lum, Selina (1 May 2013). "Two death row cases sent back for review". The Straits Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  44. ^ Poh, Ian (28 August 2013). "Convicted murderer escapes the gallows; third such case in Singapore after changes in law". The Straits Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  45. ^ "Murderer gets life in jail after changes in law". AsiaOne. 31 August 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  46. ^ Lee, Amanda (29 August 2013). "Man convicted of murder to serve life sentence". Today Singapore. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  47. ^ Lum, Selina (12 November 2013). "Bangladeshi escapes death penalty for girlfriend's murder". The Straits Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  48. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Kamrul Hasan Abdul Quddus" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  49. ^ Lee, Amanda (29 August 2014). "Foreign worker loses appeal against life sentence for murder". Today Singapore. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  50. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Wang Wenfeng (2011)" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  51. ^ "Wang Wenfeng v Public Prosecutor" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  52. ^ Lee, Amanda (14 November 2013). "Man spared the gallows despite killing cabbie". Today. Singapore. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  53. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Man stabs taxi driver to death during robbery attempt, then demands ransom". The Straits Times. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  54. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Wang Wenfeng (2014)" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  55. ^ Lum, Selina (20 April 2015). "Murderer escapes death after prosecution drops appeal". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  56. ^ "Murderer back on death row after landmark ruling". AsiaOne. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  57. ^ a b Abu Baker, Jalelah (16 January 2015). "Murderer fails to escape the gallows: 6 other cases involving the revised death penalty laws". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Kho Jabing hanged after bid to defer execution fails, lawyers receive ticking-off from court". Today Singapore. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  59. ^ Lum, Selina (14 November 2013). "Malaysian is first condemned drug trafficker to be spared the gallows following new law". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  60. ^ "Drug courier spared the gallows". AsiaOne. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  61. ^ Lee, Amanda (6 January 2014). "Second drug trafficker on death row escapes gallows". Today Singapore. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  62. ^ Poh, Ian (3 March 2014). "Drug trafficker on death row gets life sentence instead, in first case involving depression". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  63. ^ Lum, Selina (27 May 2014). "Drug trafficker on death row spared gallows". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  64. ^ Chia, Ashley (27 May 2014). "Singaporean drug courier spared death penalty". Today Singapore. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  65. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Wilkinson a/l Primus" (PDF). Supreme Court judgements. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  66. ^ Lum, Selina (28 October 2014). "Malaysian drug trafficker escapes death penalty under amended laws". The Straits Times. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  67. ^ "He gives hope to those on death row". The New Paper. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  68. ^ Pei Shan, Hoe (21 April 2015). "2 death row traffickers get life term instead". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  69. ^ "Heroin trafficker fails in attempt to escape death penalty". AsiaOne. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  70. ^ "Heroin trafficker fails in attempt to escape death penalty". The Straits Times. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  71. ^ "Heroin trafficker escapes the gallows". The Straits Times. 23 April 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  72. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Phua Han Chuan Jeffery" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  73. ^ "Phua Han Chuan Jeffery v Public Prosecutor" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  74. ^ Boh, Samantha (18 November 2016). "Two drug traffickers hanged for their offences". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  75. ^ Lam, Lydia (27 May 2019). "Apex Court dismisses appeals by Malaysian man on death row for 9 years for importing drugs". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  76. ^ "Apex Court dismisses appeals by Malaysian man on death row for 9 years for importing drugs". Today Singapore. 27 May 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  77. ^ a b "智障大马人下周死刑,母还不知是最后一面" [Malaysian with low IQ to be hanged next week, mother unaware it was the last visit]. Sin Chew Daily (in Chinese). 2 November 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  78. ^ a b c "M'sian drug trafficker gets last-minute stay of death penalty after testing positive for Covid-19". Today. 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  79. ^ a b "Singapore to rule Tuesday on disabled Malaysian's execution". AP News. 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  80. ^ a b "A sister's plea for her brother's life". Malaysia Now. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  81. ^ a b "Singapore court to hear appeal of disabled death row man". New Straits Times. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  82. ^ a b "Singapore court due to decide on high-profile execution case of Malaysian". Malay Mail. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  83. ^ "Singapore judges asked to show 'mercy' in high-profile execution appeal". Today. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  84. ^ "Court of Appeal reserves judgement on convicted drug trafficker's case, rebukes defence for last-minute applications". Today. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  85. ^ "Singapore rejects Malaysian man Nagaenthran K. Dharmalingam's 'hopeless' appeal against execution". South China Morning Post. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  86. ^ "Disabled Malaysian loses appeal will be hanged in singapore". NPR. 29 March 2022.
  87. ^ "Singapore to execute Nagaenthran on April 27 as lawyer appeals to Putrajaya". Malaysia Now. 20 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  88. ^ "Nagaenthran has been executed: Family". New Straits Times. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  89. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Kho Jabing (2015)" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  90. ^ "Kho Jabing executed at 3.30pm, first execution in Singapore not carried out at dawn of Friday". The Online Citizen. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.[permanent dead link]
  91. ^ "Kallang slashing: Apex court upholds death penalty, life sentence for duo". Today Singapore. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  92. ^ "Kallang slasher hanged after clemency bid fails". The Straits Times. 23 March 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  93. ^ Lum, Selina (19 August 2019). "Gardens by the Bay murder trial: Leslie Khoo sentenced to life imprisonment for killing lover, burning her body". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  94. ^ Lum, Selina (8 February 2020). "Circuit Road murder: Man, 51, gets life sentence for strangling nurse". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  95. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Boh Soon Ho" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  96. ^ Lum, Selina (27 June 2018). "Businessman who murdered wife's ex-lover sentenced to death upon prosecution's appeal". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  97. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Chia Kee Chen and Chia Kee Chen v Public Prosecutor" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  98. ^ "【林厝港弃尸案】商人改判死刑 死者父母:终于为儿讨公道". 联合早报 (in Chinese). 28 June 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  99. ^ "Singapore Death Penalty Shrouded in Silence". Reuters. 12 April 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  100. ^ a b "AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL REPORT DEATH SENTENCES AND EXECUTIONS 2017" (PDF).
  101. ^ Cap. 224, 1985 Rev. Ed.
  102. ^ "Singapore Statutes Online - Results". statutes.agc.gov.sg. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  103. ^ Cap. 14, 1998 Rev. Ed.
  104. ^ Hoe, Pei Shan (17 May 2016). "Guilty As Charged: 'One-eyed Dragon' Tan Chor Jin shot nightclub owner". The Straits Times. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  105. ^ Cap. 185, 2001 Rev. Ed.
  106. ^ Second Schedule - Offences Punishable on Conviction
  107. ^ "Results on Poll: Would you support a total abolishment of the death sentence?". Five Stars And a Moon. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  108. ^ Goyder, James (23 May 2011). "Drug Addiction and Rehabilitation in Draconian Singapore". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  109. ^ "Singapore". The Global SMART programme. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  110. ^ Cap. 143, 1985 Rev. Ed.
  111. ^ Cap. 151, 1999 Rev. Ed.
  112. ^ "Inside Singapore's Death Row where prisoners are hanged alone without a last meal". Daily Star. 28 April 2022. Retrieved 1 May 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  113. ^ Kuppusamy, Baradan (3 December 2007). "Death Penalty-Singapore: Stand at UN Leaves Many Angered". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007.
  114. ^ Tan Kong Soon (19 July 2001). "Death Penalty Case Gets an Airing in Parliament". Think Centre. The Parliamentary session of 11 July 2001 saw a veteran politician broach the issue of clemency for a death row-bound, Malay male convicted of drugs trafficking; Within the span of allocated time, JBJ managed to raise only three points of the clemency plea before interrupted by the Speaker of the House; Rising to reply JBJ's tirades was the Minister of State for Law and Home Affairs Associate Professor Ho Peng Kee.
  115. ^ "1 day 10,000 signatures: Intellectually disabled woman tortured to death by couple sparks outrage". Mothership. Singapore. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  116. ^ "The tragic death of intellectually disabled waitress Annie Ee Yu Lian". The Independent. Singapore. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  117. ^ "Why the couple who tortured intellectually disabled woman to death wasn't charged with murder". Mothership. Singapore. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  118. ^ "Sentence abusers who caused death of boy to be hung, netizens petition Court". The Independent (Singapore). 26 June 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  119. ^ "Death of abused 2-year-old boy: Mother jailed 11 years, boyfriend gets 10 years and 12 strokes of the cane". The Straits Times. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  120. ^ "Youths' lax mindset, liberal attitudes on drugs pose stiff challenge to S'pore authorities' zero tolerance stance". Today. 26 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  121. ^ "Ex-trafficker recalls calculating drug quantities on him to avoid capital punishment". The Straits Times. 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  122. ^ "Convicted trafficker hopes drug sellers will think about impact on families". The Straits Times. 20 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  123. ^ "Singapore's death penalty: Is there room for compassion?". Yahoo News. 8 August 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  124. ^ a b Aglionby, John (8 May 2005). "Singapore finally finds a voice in death row protest". The Observer. London. Retrieved 30 December 2007. Murugesu, 38, a former jet ski champion, military veteran and civil servant, was arrested in August 2003 after six packets containing a total of just over a kilo of cannabis were found in his bags when he returned home after a trip to Malaysia. He admitted to knowing about one of the packets, containing 300 g, but nothing about the others; The government clearly does not want the campaign gathering momentum. The partially state-owned local media ignored the vigil and the police shut down the open mike session just as the first person was getting into his stride.
  125. ^ "IR Legislation; Death Row in Singapore". The Law Report. Melbourne: ABC Radio National. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 30 December 2007. [...] he was caught for one kilogram of cannabis which is what he was charged for, although he admitted only one packet.
  126. ^ Martin Abbugao (AFP) (16 May 2005). "Singapore anti-death penalty fight lives on". The Standard. Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2007. In an example of the extent authorities still monitor dissenters, an "open mike session" at the vigil in which the audience was invited to speak was abruptly ended just after the first speaker began to talk. Organizers said plainclothes police officers stepped in and asked them to scrap that portion of the program. The death row is about a couple weeks long, and only one appeal is permitted
  127. ^ Butcher, Steve (4 December 2005). "End death penalty: Singapore nun". The Age. Melbourne.
  128. ^ Gibson, William (September 1993). "Disneyland with the Death Penalty". Wired.
  129. ^ England, Vaudine (20 July 2010). "British death penalty author freed on bail in Singapore". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  130. ^ "British author of death penalty book held in Singapore". BBC News. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  131. ^ British author jailed for contempt by Singapore court, The Guardian, 16 November 2010
  132. ^ "British author Alan Shadrake jailed in Singapore". The Telegraph. London. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  133. ^ Guardian, as above
  134. ^ Shadrake v. Attorney-General [2011] SGCA 26, [2011] 3 S.L.R. 778, Court of Appeal (Singapore)
  135. ^ "Death penalty protest at Speakers' Corner as it reopens 2 years after Covid-19 closure". The Straits Times. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  136. ^ "Singaporeans protest against city's 'brutal' death penalty in rare demonstration". South China Morning Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  137. ^ "S'poreans Gather At Hong Lim Park To Protest Death Penalty, Organiser Says 475 Showed Up". Must Share News. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  138. ^ "S'poreans share their reasons for showing up at candlelight vigil on Apr. 25 for M'sians on death row". Mothership. 26 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  139. ^ "Singapore executes Malaysian on drugs charges after rejecting mental disability appeal". Today. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  140. ^ "How a Singapore execution set off a wave of protest". BBC News. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 3 June 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  141. ^ Ng, Ansley (13 January 2006). "Singapore's Law Society to give death penalty a fair airing". Today.
  142. ^ Extract of the Council's Report on the proposed Penal Code Amendments submitted to the Ministry of Home Affairs, 30 March 2007, lawsociety.org Archived 16 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  143. ^ "Drug trafficking 'deserves death penalty': Singapore PM". ABC News Online. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  144. ^ Deen, Thalif (1 November 2007). "Death Penalty Threatens to Split World Body". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  145. ^ Yuen-C, Tham (5 October 2020). "Parliament: Statistics, studies show death penalty deterred drug trafficking, firearms use and kidnapping, says Shanmugam". The Straits Times. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  146. ^ "CNB reiterates that executed drug trafficker Nagaenthran wasn't intellectually disabled". Mothership. 28 April 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  147. ^ "AGC flags potential contempt over false allegations in Malaysian drug trafficker's case". The Straits Times. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  148. ^ "Majority of Singapore residents still support death penalty in latest MHA survey: Shanmugam". CNA. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  149. ^ "S'pore's death penalty for drug trafficking saves lives, Shanmugam tells BBC". The Straits Times. 29 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  150. ^ "K Shanmugam's defence of Singapore's policies on BBC's HARDtalk wins praise from netizens". The Independent. 2 July 2022. Retrieved 2 July 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  151. ^ "Commentary: Death penalty for drug trafficking should stay, but certain aspects of drug law can be improved". Today. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  152. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Michael McCrea killed a woman and a man he called his brother". The Straits Times. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  153. ^ "Singapore agrees not to cane StanChart robbery suspect in exchange for getting him extradited here". The Straits Times. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  154. ^ hermesauto (7 July 2021). "Canadian who robbed StanChart bank in Singapore gets 5 years' jail, may not be caned". The Straits Times. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  155. ^ "Canadian who robbed StanChart will not be caned; S'pore gave assurance to Britain to secure his extradition". The Straits Times. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  156. ^ Colvin, Jill (26 March 2012). "U.S. Could Learn From Singapore's Harsh Drug Laws, Bloomberg Says". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012.
  157. ^ Jilani, Zaid (29 November 2011). "Gingrich Praises Singapore's 'Very Draconian' Laws That Mandate Executions For Drug Possession". ThinkProgress. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  158. ^ a b c d "Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)". www.mha.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013.
  159. ^ a b c "Prisons Annual Report 2011 Part 4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012.
  160. ^ "Singapore court rejects death-row Malaysian's appeal". Agence France-Presse. 4 April 2012 – via Yahoo News. According to official figures, there were four executions in 2011, two of them for drug-related offences
  161. ^ a b c "Massive leap backwards as Singapore resumes executions". Amnesty International. 18 July 2014.
  162. ^ "Malaysian, Nigerian men hanged in Singapore for drug trafficking". NST Online. 18 November 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  163. ^ "Enhancing Inmates' Employability to Prevent Re-offending" (PDF) (Press release). Singapore Prison Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  164. ^ "Hanged because he had not "substantively assisted" the CNB". publichouse.sg. 21 April 2017. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  165. ^ "Singaporean drug trafficker executed at Changi Prison for heroin offence". The Straits Times. 19 May 2017.
  166. ^ hermesauto (14 July 2017). "Drug trafficker hanged after failing in 11th-hour bid to escape gallows". The Straits Times. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  167. ^ "Singapore: Ghanaian Drug Trafficker Hanged after Clemency Plea Rejected". Ghana Guardian. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018 – via www.handsoffcain.info.
  168. ^ "Singapore: Drug Trafficker Hanged after Last-ditch Bid to Reopen Case Fails". handsoffcain.info. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  169. ^ "Executions worldwide this month". www.capitalpunishmentuk.org.
  170. ^ "The Death Penalty in Singapore". Death Penalty Worldwide.
  171. ^ "AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL GLOBAL REPORT DEATH SENTENCES AND EXECUTIONS 2019" (PDF).
  172. ^ "Singapore hangs drug trafficker in resumption of executions". Yahoo News. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  173. ^ "Singapore executes Malaysian on drugs charges after rejecting mental disability appeal". Today. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  174. ^ "Kalwant hanged in Singapore after losing final appeal". Malaysia Now. 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  175. ^ "Singaporean Nazeri hanged in Changi prison". Malaysia Now. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  176. ^ "Singapore executes another ethnic Malay involved in racial bias suit". Malaysia Now. 26 July 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  177. ^ "UN rights office 'deeply troubled' by Singapore executions: 'We deplore the hanging'". South China Morning Post. 3 August 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  178. ^ "Singapore carries out another double dawn hanging after marathon midnight appeal". Malaysia Now. 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  179. ^ "More people executed in Singapore". The Age. Melbourne. Agence France-Presse. 25 September 2003. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  180. ^ "Singapore Malay death row inmates file historic suit accusing govt of racial bias". Malaysia Now. 31 August 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  181. ^ "Five hanged in last decade, nine more in line: A look at Malaysians facing gallows in Singapore for drug offences". Malay Mail. 29 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  182. ^ "Ex-prisons hangman Darshan Singh, 89, dies of Covid-19 complications". The Straits Times. 31 October 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  183. ^ Shadrake, Alan (28 October 2005). "Nguyen executioner revealed". The Australian. Surry Hills, NSW, Australia: News Limited. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2007. Mr Singh joined the British colonial prison service in the mid-1950s after arriving from Malaysia. When the long-established British hangman Mr Seymour retired, Singh, then 27, volunteered for the job. He was attracted by the bonus payment for executions. Mr Singh is credited with being the only executioner in the world to single-handedly hang 18 men in one day -- three at a time. They had been convicted of murdering four prison officers during a riot on the penal island of Pulau Senang in 1963. He also hanged seven condemned men within 90 minutes a few years later. They had been convicted in what became known as the "gold bars murders", in which a merchant and two employees were killed during a robbery. One of the most controversial executions in his career was the 1991 hanging of a young Filipina maid, Flor Contemplacion, who was convicted of the murder of a co-worker, Delia Maga, and her four-year-old son, on what many believed was shaky evidence. He carries out the executions wearing simple casual clothes, often just a T-shirt, shorts, sports shoes and knee-length socks. To mark his 500th hanging four years ago, four of his former colleagues turned up at his home to celebrate the event with a couple of bottles of Dom Perignon. Mr Singh boasts that he has never botched an execution. "Mr Seymour taught him just how long the drop should be according to weight and height and exactly where the knot should be placed at the back of the neck," his colleague said. "Death has always come instantaneously and painlessly. In that split second, at precisely 6 am, it's all over."
  184. ^ "para 68 UNODC.org (page 18)" (PDF).
  185. ^ "The Death Penalty in Singapore". www.deathpenaltyworldwide.org. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  186. ^ "Reprieve for drug trafficking convict sentenced to die on Sept 18". The Independent. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  187. ^ "President To Grant Drug Trafficker Moad Fadzir Respite From Execution, Says His Lawyer M. Ravi". The Independent. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  188. ^ "Court dismisses last-ditch application in case of Malaysian drug trafficker on death row". CNA. 8 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  189. ^ "Singapore to execute Nagaenthran on April 27 as lawyer appeals to Putrajaya". Malaysia Now. 20 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  190. ^ "Singapore set to execute 2 men on 16 February 2022". The Independent. 13 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  191. ^ "Another hanging scheduled as lawyers work to save duo in Singapore". Malaysia Now. 17 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  192. ^ "Singapore court rejects appeals by three men on death row". Yahoo News. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  193. ^ "Singapore hangs drug trafficker in resumption of executions". The Washington Post. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  194. ^ "Singapore hangs drug trafficker in resumption of executions". The Washington Post. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  195. ^ "S'poreans Gather At Hong Lim Park To Protest Death Penalty, Organiser Says 475 Showed Up". Must Share News. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  196. ^ "Nagaenthran has been executed: Family". New Straits Times. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  197. ^ "Another Malaysian to be hanged in Singapore wins reprieve". AP News. 28 April 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  198. ^ "Kalwant hanged in Singapore after losing final appeal". Malaysia Now. 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  199. ^ "As Singapore targets another man for execution, debate reignites on ethnic bias, unfair drug laws". Malaysia Now. 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  200. ^ "Singaporean Nazeri hanged in Changi prison". Malaysia Now. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  201. ^ "Singapore executes another ethnic Malay involved in racial bias suit". Malaysia Now. 26 July 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  202. ^ "Two more inmates hanged in Singapore prison". Malaysia Now. 2 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  203. ^ "Malaysian prisoner hugs Quran to chest in final 'photo shoot' ahead of execution". Malaysia Now. 3 August 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  204. ^ "UN condemns latest Singapore executions as pressure mounts". Malaysia Now. 3 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  205. ^ "Singapore carries out another double dawn hanging after marathon midnight appeal". Malaysia Now. 5 August 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  206. ^ "The Singapore Government's Response To Amnesty International's Report "Singapore - The Death Penalty: A Hidden Toll of Executions"". Ministry of Home Affairs. 30 January 2004. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2013. Contrary to AI's claims, Singaporeans, not foreigners, were the majority of those executed in Singapore. From 1993 to 2003, 64% of those executed were Singaporeans. In the last five years, 73% executed were Singaporeans. Given that one in four residents in Singapore is a foreigner, it is not only false but mischievous to allege that a significant proportion of prisoners executed were foreigners; Although family members are not with the inmate at the moment of execution, they are informed four days before the executions (for foreigners, the families and embassy will be informed earlier, usually seven to fourteen days) and allowed daily visits lasting up to four hours for each visit during these four days. The execution is carried out in the presence of a Prison medical doctor. Upon request, a priest or a religious minister is allowed to be present, to pray for the person to be executed; Our prison conditions are spartan but adequate. Visiting Justices, who are prominent members of the community, conduct regular unannounced visits to the prison institutions to make sure that prisoners, including those on death row, are not ill-treated. It is not true that prisoners are not allowed to exercise. All prisoners, including condemned prisoners, are entitled to their daily exercises. In fact, there are two exercise yards dedicated for this use. They are normally allowed to exercise twice a day, half an hour each time, one or two at a time.
  207. ^ Cornelius-Takahama, Vernon (2001). "Pulau Senang". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  208. ^ "True Files S3". meWATCH. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  209. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Seven who killed for 120 gold bars hanged". The Straits Times. Singapore. 16 May 2016. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  210. ^ Tok, Cherylyn. "Gold Bar Murders". Infopedia. National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  211. ^ "True Files S1". meWATCH. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  212. ^ "True Files S1". meWATCH. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  213. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Three friends who wanted to become robbers killed 2 men to get a gun". The Straits Times. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  214. ^ "True Files S2". Toggle. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  215. ^ Jalelah, Abu Baker (15 May 2016). "Guilty As Charged: Serial murderer Sek Kim Wah found it 'thrilling' to strangle victims". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  216. ^ True Files S2 - EP6: Jealousy knows no limit. Channel 5. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2020 – via meWATCH.
  217. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Anthony Ler lured teen into killing his wife". Newsmine. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  218. ^ "Guilty As Charged: Leong Siew Chor killed lover and cut up her body to cover up theft of ATM card". Straits Times. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  219. ^ Hussain, Amir (18 May 2016). "Guilty As Charged: Man dunked stepdaughter Nonoi, 2, in pail of water, killing her". Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  220. ^ Lum, Selina; Lee, Min Kok (4 December 2015). "Kovan double murder: Iskandar found guilty of murder of both victims, sentenced to hang". The Straits Times. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  221. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Iskandar bin Rahmat" (PDF). Supreme Court Judgements. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  222. ^ "Sarawakian Michael Garing executed at Changi Prison". Malay Mail. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  223. ^ "Woodlands double-murder: Ex-property agent convicted of strangling pregnant wife and daughter, gets death penalty". The Straits Times. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  224. ^ "Public Prosecutor v Teo Ghim Heng" (PDF). Singapore Law Watch. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  225. ^ "Woodlands murders: Man sentenced to death for killing pregnant wife and 4-year-old daughter". CNA. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  226. ^ Aglionby, John (8 May 2005). "Singapore finally finds a voice in death row protest". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  227. ^ "Murder Trial Continues Today". The Straits Times. 10 February 1976. p. 9. Retrieved 7 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  228. ^ "Clemency plea to Sheares by man sentenced to die". The Straits Times. 6 January 1978. p. 13. Retrieved 7 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  229. ^ "Presiden ringankan hukum mati Kunjo". Berita Harian (in Malay). 23 March 1978. p. 8. Retrieved 7 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  230. ^ a b "这11人在新加坡犯了滔天大罪也能有退路". 红蚂蚁 (in Chinese). 3 January 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  231. ^ Chan, Gloria (16 January 1980). "President grants plea for clemency". The Straits Times. p. 1. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  232. ^ Chan, Gloria (29 January 1980). "'Rousing send-off' for ex-death row man". The Straits Tiimes. p. 11. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  233. ^ a b c "这11人在新加坡犯了滔天大罪也能有退路". 红蚂蚁 (in Chinese). 3 January 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  234. ^ "Drugs woman told she will not hang". The Straits Times. 19 February 1983. p. 9. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  235. ^ "Drug trafficker was given second chance but she blew it". The Straits Times. 20 November 2001. Retrieved 26 May 2020 – via Facebook.
  236. ^ "No marriage, no family, no love". The New Paper. 16 February 1995. p. 9. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  237. ^ "Housewife recruited to smuggle heroin into US, court told". The Straits Times. 8 July 1988. p. 40. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  238. ^ "Mother of two faces death penalty for drug trafficking". The Straits Times. 6 July 1988. p. 30. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  239. ^ "Housewife and 2 men to hang for drug trafficking". The Straits Times. 30 July 1988. p. 43. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  240. ^ "Mum saved from the gallows". The Straits Times. 25 March 1992. p. 2. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  241. ^ "2 hanged for helping to traffick in 1.3 kg of heroin". The Straits Times. 4 April 1992. p. 25. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  242. ^ "Cancer-stricken, dying drug trafficker pardoned and freed". The Straits Times. 17 February 1995. p. 30. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  243. ^ "Free But Still Racing Death". The New Paper. 16 February 1995. p. 8. Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  244. ^ "Cancer pardon woman dies". Retrieved 8 June 2020 – via National Library Board.
  245. ^ True Files S2 - EP13: The Story of Koh Swee Beng. Channel 5. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2020 – via meWATCH.
  246. ^ "From death sentence to life in prison to freedom". AsiaOne. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  247. ^ "Man serving life sentence to be released". Today. 21 January 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2020 – via VR-Zone Forums.
  248. ^ "Mathavakannan s/o Kalimuthu v Attorney-General [2012] SGHC 39" (PDF). 27 February 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2020 – via Singapore Law Watch.
  249. ^ "Disabled Malaysian loses appeal will be hanged in singapore". NPR. 29 March 2022.
  250. ^ "Singapore suspends Malaysian's execution".
  251. ^ "Disabled Malaysian loses appeal will be hanged in singapore". NPR. 29 March 2022.
  252. ^ "Singapore to execute Nagaenthran on April 27 as lawyer appeals to Putrajaya". Malaysia Now. 20 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  253. ^ "Nagaenthran has been executed: Family". New Straits Times. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  254. ^ "Positive reviews for Singapore's Apprentice at Cannes Film Fest". Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  255. ^ "Boo Junfeng's Singapore death penalty film stirs emotions in Cannes". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings Ltd. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  256. ^ Tan, Marguerita (16 June 2016). "If prison walls could talk". TODAY Online. Mediacorp Press Ltd. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  257. ^ "Boo Junfeng's Apprentice continues winning streak". Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  258. ^ "True Files S1 Ep 11 Tourist From Hell". MediaCorp. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  259. ^ "True Files S1 (The Trial Of Adrian Lim)". meWATCH. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  260. ^ "Crimewatch 2002 S1 Ep 5 The Anthony Ler Case / African E-mail Scam / The Northern Loner". meWATCH. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  261. ^ "True Files S2 Ep 1 Murder He Wrote". meWATCH. Retrieved 20 August 2021.

External links[edit]