Capital punishment was common in the Austrian Monarchy (with a short exception from 1787 to 1795 under the rule of Joseph II) in Austria-Hungary, and from 1918 in the newly created Czechoslovakia. From 1918 to 1989, 1217 people were executed legally, the majority of them immediately after World War II. Due to chaos in historical records the actual number may be slightly different. This number doesn't include people executed during the occupation of the Czech lands from 1939 to 1945 or during the existence of the Slovak State (thousands were executed at that time; of these about 1079 were guillotined in Pankrác prison).
During the presidency of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1918–35) 16 people were executed, 4 of the for military related crimes. Masaryk was an opponent of capital punishment and had the privilege of commuting death sentences, one he exercised frequently.[clarification needed]