A cappello romano (literally Roman hat in Italian) or saturno (because its appearance is reminiscent of the ringed planet Saturn) is a hat with a wide, circular brim and a rounded crown worn outdoors in some countries by Catholic clergy, when dressed in a cassock. It is made of either beaver fur or felt, and lined in white silk. Unlike many other articles of ecclesiastical attire, it serves no ceremonial purpose, being primarily a practical item. (The galero is a ceremonial wide brim hat no longer usually worn, though on February 19, 2011, Raymond Cardinal Burke became the first cardinal in recent times to wear (for a single photo) the galero.) The cappello romano is not used in liturgical services. Since the general abandonment of the cassock as street dress, it is uncommon even in Rome today, though it was quite popular there and in some other countries with a Catholic majority population from the 17th century until around 1970.
There are some, mostly minor, differences in the designs of cappelli, depending on the rank of the wearer. The pope wears a red cappello with gold cords. Cardinals formerly also had the privilege of wearing a red cappello, but this rule was overturned by Paul VI, and now Cardinals' cappelli are black, as are those of all other clerics.
A cardinal may have a cappello with red and gold cords with scarlet lining. A bishop's may have green and gold cords with violet lining. A priest may substitute black lining for his. Cappelli for deacons and seminarians have no distinguishing items.
- Philippi, Dieter (2009). Sammlung Philippi - Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität,. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-2800-6.
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- Picture of the Saturno of Pope Benedict XVI
- Picture of the red summer Saturno of Pope Benedict XVI, the white summer Saturno of Pope John XXIII and a black beaver-hair winter Saturno of an archbishop, all hand embroidered
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