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Temporal range: Middle Miocene to present
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Brookes, 1828


The Capreolinae, Odocoileinae, or the New World deer are a subfamily of deer. Alternatively, they are known as the telemetacarpal deer, due to their bone structure being different from the plesiometacarpal deer subfamily Cervinae. The telemetacarpal deer maintain their distal lateral metacarpals, while the plesiometacarpal deer maintain only their proximal lateral metacarpals.[1] The Capreolinae are believed to have originated in the Middle Miocene, between 7.7 and 11.5 million years ago, in Central Asia.[2]

Although this subfamily is called New World deer in English, it includes reindeer, moose, and roe deer, all of which live in Eurasia in the Old World.


The following extant genera and species are recognized:[3][4][5][6][7]

Extinct genera[edit]


  1. ^ Azanza, B.; Rossner, G. & Ortiz-Jaureguizar E. (2013). "The early Turolian (late Miocene) Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the fossil site of Dron-Durkheim 1 (German) and implications on the origin of crown cervids". Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. 93 (1): 217–258. Bibcode:2013PdPe...93..217A. doi:10.1007/s12549-013-0118-8. hdl:11336/13861. S2CID 129071065.
  2. ^ Gilbert, C.; Ropiquet, A.; Hassanin A. (July 2006). "Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 101–117. doi:10.1016/J.Ympev.2006.02.017. PMID 16584894.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ Randi, E.; Mucci, N.; et al. (February 2001). "A mitochondrial DNA control region phylogeny of the Cervinae: speciation in Cervus and implications for conservation". Animal Conservation. 4 (1): 1–11. Bibcode:2001AnCon...4....1R. doi:10.1017/S1367943001001019. S2CID 86572236.
  4. ^ Pitraa, C.; Fickel, J.; et al. (December 2004). "Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (3): 880–895. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.013. PMID 15522810.
  5. ^ Alvarez D. (2007)[full citation needed]
  6. ^ a b Duarte, J.M.B.; González, S.; Maldonado, J.E. (October 2008). "The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49 (1): 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.009. PMID 18675919.
  7. ^ "A new perspective on Ungulate Taxonomy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2013-01-23.