Captive Nations

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Well, of course they don't admit there are any captive nations. They have their own propaganda. They present a picture to their own peoples, including the world, so far as they can, that we know is distorted and is untrue.
-Dwight D. Eisenhower[1]

"Captive Nations" is a term sometimes used in the United States to describe nations under undemocratic regimes. During the Cold War, when the phraseology appeared and was more frequently used, it referred to nations under Communist domination, primarily Soviet rule.

As a part of the United States’ Cold War strategy, an anti-Communism advocacy group, the National Captive Nations Committee, was established in 1959 according to Pub.L. 86–90 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The American economist and diplomat of Ukrainian heritage Lev Dobriansky played a key role in it.[2]

The law also established Captive Nations Week, traditionally proclaimed for the third week in July since then. The move aimed at raising public awareness of the problems of nations under the control of Communist and other non-democratic governments.

The original Public Law 86-90 specifically referred to the following Captive Nations:[3]

Public Law 86-90 which establishes Captive Nations Week

Reactions[edit]

Russian emigres living in US, criticized P.L. 86-90, because speaking of "Russian communism" and "imperialistic policies of Communist Russia" this law by implication equated the terms "Russian", "Communist" and "Imperialist".

Group of prominent American historians issued a statement claiming that PL 86-90 was largely based on misinformation and committed the United States to aiding ephemeral "nations" such as Cossackia and Idel-Ural.[4]

Gregory P. Tschebotarioff, Stephen Timoshenko, Nicholas V. Riasanovsky, Gleb Struve, Nicholas Timasheff were among opponents of the PL 86-90.

Current vision[edit]

American leaders continue the tradition of celebrating Captive Nations Week and each year issue a new version of the Proclamation. Contemporary Proclamations do not refer to particular nations or states. The latest US President to specify a list of countries with oppressive regimes was George W. Bush, whose 2008 Proclamation mentioned Belarus and North Korea, though in 1959 Belarus was denoted as White Ruthenia. George W. Bush characterized the leaders of the two countries as 'despots'.[5]

When declaring the July 2009 Captive Nations Week, President Barack Obama stated that while the Cold War was over, concerns raised by President Eisenhower remained still valid.[6][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eisenhower's 165 News Conference". The American Presidency Project. July 22, 1959. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  2. ^ Edwards, Lee (February 14, 2008), Remembering ‘Mr. Captive Nations’ Lev Dobriansky. HumanEvents.com Archived March 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Campbell, John Coert (1965), American Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe: the Choices Ahead, p. 116. University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-0345-6
  4. ^ "A Statement on U.S. Public Law 86-90". Russian Review. 20 (1): 97–98. 1961. JSTOR 126589. 
  5. ^ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-07-23/pdf/08-1464.pdf
  6. ^ Captive Nations Week, 2009 – A Proclamation by the President of the United States of America. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. July 17, 2009
  7. ^ Dale, Helle C. (August 24, 2009), Captive Nations Past and Present. The Heritage Foundation.