Captive import

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Captive import is a marketing term and a strategy[1] for a vehicle that is foreign-built and sold under the name of an importer or by a domestic automaker through its own dealer distribution system.[2]

The foreign vehicle may be produced by a subsidiary of the same company, be a joint venture with another firm, or be acquired under license from a completely separate entity. The brand name used may be that of the domestic company, the foreign builder, or an unrelated marque entirely (this is one type of "badge engineering").

A Merkur Scorpio manufactured in West Germany by Ford of Europe and marketed in the United States, an example of a captive import


Captive import arrangements are usually made to increase the competitiveness of the domestic brand by filling a perceived target market not currently served by its model lineup, that is either not practical or not economically feasible to fill from domestic production or a mutually beneficial agreement that helps automakers without a strong distribution network or a presence in a certain country to benefit from the distribution network and stronger brand image of an established automobile manufacturer in that location. One example is the agreement between Chrysler and Mitsubishi Motors that started in 1971, where Chrysler imported Mitsubishi-manufactured vehicles into the United States to fill a void in their compact lineup with vehicles such as the Dodge Colt. Mitsubishi would only start selling vehicles under their own name in the United States in 1982.

In countries or regions where a foreign manufacturer might have a fully owned subsidiary that develops and manufactures vehicles or a strong manufacturing presence, a captive import can be a vehicle from the manufacturers' indigenous country or an affiliated manufacturer worldwide. Holden is the Australian subsidiary of American General Motors, and was considered to be a domestic manufacturer in Australia until Australian domestic production completely ended in 2017. In the past, Holden has also imported the Mexican-built Holden Suburban, a variant of the North American Chevrolet Suburban, along with the Holden Jackaroo built by General Motors' Japanese affiliate Isuzu in Japan. An example of an Australian captive import is the Holden Barina that has since 1985 been the Suzuki Cultus, two generations of the European Opel Corsa, and is also the Korean Daewoo Kalos (marketed internationally as the Chevrolet Aveo.)

For countries that do not have native manufacturers or a development/manufacturing presence, a captive import is a vehicle not manufactured by the specific company that imported the vehicle but sold under its brand. Usually, the manufacturer of the vehicle might be an affiliate of the importer. The Chevrolet Forester was sold in India by General Motors, where its manufacturer, Japan-based Subaru does not have a sales presence and the importation agreement started during the period when the manufacturer of Subaru, Fuji Heavy Industries, was affiliated with General Motors.

A vehicle manufactured in a country where the manufacturers' indigenous country has a free-trade agreement with other countries in the same region such as the European Union for Europe, NAFTA for North America or ASEAN for Southeast Asia and manufactured in a plant fully or partially owned by that company should not be considered a captive import. The Ford Crown Victoria, which was known for livery use in the United States, particularly for taxi and police duty, was exclusively built in Southwold, Ontario, Canada, at St. Thomas Assembly from 1992 through 2011. It is not considered a captive import in the U.S. because of free trade between the two countries, originally under the Canada–United States Automotive Products Agreement and now under NAFTA.

American market[edit]

In the American market, captive imports "blurred national distinctions" because they have been designed and built elsewhere, but wear a domestic nameplate.[3] The chief reason domestic automakers market captive imports is because "it is cheaper to import those cars than to produce them" in the United States.[3]

The Nash-Healey two-seat sports car was produced for the U.S. market between 1951 and 1954.[4] It combined a Nash Ambassador drivetrain with a European chassis and body and was a product of a partnership between Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and British automaker Donald Healey.[5] After the first model year, the Nash-Healey was restyled and assembled by Pinin Farina in Italy.[6]

The Nash Metropolitan, sold in the U.S. from 1954 until 1962, a captive import for Nash Motors (who designed it themselves, unlike most captive imports built by another company) produced by Austin in the UK specifically for sale in the U.S. By entering into a manufacturing arrangement, Nash would avoid the expense associated with tooling, body panels, and components.[7] When this two-seater sub-compact car was launched, it was the first time an American-designed car had been only built in Europe, having never been built in the United States. Unlike typical European cars of the era, its look was "American" and it had a design resemblance to the large or "senior" U.S.-built Nashes. It became one of the few small cars to sell well during the most bulk-obsessed period of U.S. automotive history.[8]

When Mercedes-Benz was seeking entry into the American market in the 1950s, the company signed a marketing agreement with StudebakerPackard and became a captive brand in their showrooms.[9] Around the same time, Pontiac dealers sold the GM's British-built Vauxhalls from 1958 until 1962.[10]

Ford, who had invented the modern captive-import system in 1948 with the British Anglia and Prefect, added its own European Ford Cortina to its North American dealer network until low demand led to its discontinuation in 1970 when the company introduced its domestic Pinto replacement, and its European market Ford Capri to its U.S. Mercury line in the 1970s and saw strong sales. Ford returned to importing the Mk1 Fiesta in 1978 when the company developed the North American market Escort/Lynx twins until 2013 when the One Ford policy was in full swing where the European market Mondeo and Fiesta are now manufactured in both North America and Europe.

During the same period, Dodge marketed several small Mitsubishi models, mostly sold as Dodge Colts (versions of which would later also be sold under the Plymouth and Eagle brands as well). Chrysler Corporation did not develop its in-house subcompacts during the late 1960s (which GM and Ford Motor Company had done with the Vega and Pinto) where they partnered with an overseas manufacturer with Mitsubishi and Hillman.

The "Plymouth Cricket" (a rebadged Hillman Avenger) and Ford's entire Merkur line were introduced to the U.S. market, but were not as successful.

General Motors marketed its German-built Opel models like the Kadett through Buick dealers in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[11] This venture yielded ambivalent results; the Opels were generally well-regarded and sales were decent but never substantial. In the 1970s, when Buick decided to phase out its Opels and sell small Isuzus instead, the result was a handful of cars carrying a global brand, Buick Opel by Isuzu. Buick was not the first to rebadge Isuzus — Chevrolet did the same with their LUV pickup truck in 1972.

In the late 1980s, GM consolidated its various captive imports of the time (the Daewoo-built Pontiac LeMans notwithstanding) under the Geo brand, which was exclusively handled by Chevrolet dealers. The cars, built variously by Toyota (the Prizm), Isuzu (Spectrum, Storm) and Suzuki (Metro, Tracker) were generally well received, but the company decided to fold the line back into Chevrolet in 1998.

In 2004, GM began marketing the Chevrolet Aveo subcompact, a rebadged Daewoo Kalos (now a rebadged Daewoo Gentra) assembled in South Korea. In 2008, GM started marketing the Saturn Astra, which is a rebadged Opel Astra, assembled in Belgium. Prior to the brand's phaseout, Pontiac also returned to the captive idea by selling Holden vehicles, first the Holden Monaro as the Pontiac GTO and then the Holden VE Commodore as the Pontiac G8. Pontiac dealers also briefly received a version of the Kalos/Gentra/Aveo, which was sold in Canada as the G3 Wave and in the U.S. as the G3.

In 2011, GM once again used a Holden model, the WM/WN Caprice, as a captive import for its Caprice PPV, but designed for law enforcement agencies in the United States and Canada.

In 2013, GM used the Holden VF Commodore as the Chevrolet SS performance sedan for the 2014 model year.

Other markets[edit]

In Europe, there have been relatively few cases of captive imports, and most have been unsuccessful. The Chevrolet Venture minivan was sold as the Opel/Vauxhall Sintra (SWB) and Chevrolet Trans Sport (LWB) in the late-1990s, but was not only not to European tastes, but also gained a bad reputation due to poor results in safety tests. The practice has been revived by PSA Peugeot Citroën with the Peugeot 4007, Peugeot 4008, Citroën C-Crosser, and Citroën C4 Aircross, which are rebadged versions of the Mitsubishi Outlander and Mitsubishi ASX, respectively. However, the introduction of the Ford Mustang to Europe in 2015 has been successful, owing to the Mustang's image and unique positioning.

In Brazil, the Australian-built Holden Commodore has been sold since 1998 as Chevrolet Omega, replacing the locally built car bearing the same name. Despite being well received by the press and public, sales are much worse than its locally built counterpart, simply because of its high price. However, it is used very often as official government cars. Chevrolet also rebranded the Argentine-built Suzuki Vitara as the Chevrolet Tracker after Suzuki stopped selling cars in Brazil, but it never achieved the same sales figures as the original car.

In Japan, where foreign car manufacturers have traditionally struggled to compete in the local market, even rebadging of U.S. models like the Chevrolet Cavalier as a Toyota have failed to improve sales.

In Australia, GM's Holden operation sold the 1975-84 Isuzu Bellett/Gemini, itself a license-built version of the then-current Opel Kadett, as the Holden Gemini. The name was originally Holden-Isuzu Gemini, but after the initial TX series, the Isuzu cobranding was dropped. Perhaps the original idea was to foster the Japanese-ness of the model at a time when that might have been seen by customers as a positive, the Nissan's 610 Bluebird being marketed as the Datsun 180B being a big seller at the time. The Gemini was assembled in Australia at Acacia Ridge in Queensland and Holden was still the highest-selling brand. The Chevrolet LUV produced by Isuzu was also sold from 1973 for a couple of years, the only official Chevrolet branded model available in Australia at the time (and since). Ford sold the Taurus in Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Hong Kong in 1996, but stopped in 1999. In 1998, the Chevrolet Suburban, was marketed in Australia and New Zealand as a rebadged Holden Suburban with intentions to launch the full-sized SUV in a region that was used to having small to mid-sized SUVs, and the model was discontinued in 2001.

Reasons for failure[edit]

Captive imports often fail, and a shift in exchange rates can raise prices to uncompetitive levels.

Some models have been criticized for marginal quality, such as the spate of Daewoo models marketed under domestic General Motors marques during the 2000s, or for being a bad match for the local driving environment.

The commitment of domestic sales and service staff to an unfamiliar vehicle has been questioned, particularly if the import is seen as reducing sales of other, more profitable vehicles in the lineup.

Others fail due to no fault of their own; the Sunbeam Tiger, for instance, an early 1960s example of the concept of an American Ford Windsor engine in a British (Sunbeam Alpine) body and chassis, enjoyed substantial success until Sunbeam became a captive import of Chrysler Corporation in North America. Chrysler could not be realistically expected to sell a car with a Ford engine, and Chrysler V8 engines all had the distributor positioned at the rear of the engine, unlike the front-mounted distributor of the Ford V8, making it impossible to fit the Chrysler engine into the Sunbeam engine bay without major and expensive revisions. Thus this niche of the automotive market was left to be filled with legendary success by the Ford engined Shelby Cobra.

There may be a deeper, structural issue at work, however. It could simply be that a domestic buyer is unlikely to want an import, and an import buyer is unlikely to enter a domestic showroom. Also, consumers of a specific domestic brand might feel that a captive import does not have the qualities that they want and expect from vehicles of domestic vehicles manufactured by that brand. A captive thus easily falls between two stools. This is probably why the practice of using a separate brand name, such as Merkur and General Motors' short-lived Geo, has ceased — the foreignness of the car is thus discreetly made less apparent. Another factor concerns servicing where captives often do not share components with their domestic counterparts - this often leads to parts incompatibility and/or backorders.

Another view is that the practice could be seen by the public as simply dishonest, causing complete rejection. Certainly in cases when identical models are available at the same time with only the badges differentiating them such as what happened under the failed Button car plan in Australia during the 1980s.


Not every vehicle that appears to be a captive import really is. A vehicle that is foreign-designed or badged but assembled in the market where it is sold does not fall into this category. Such vehicles are frequently the result of joint venture or strategic alliance arrangements between automakers.

For example, the Renault Alliance was sold through American Motors (AMC) dealers starting in the fall of 1982 until production ended on 5 June 1987 after AMC was acquired by Chrysler, was actually assembled by AMC as part of a tie-up with the French company.[12][13] The 1985–1988 Chevrolet Nova and the later Geo Prizm, though it was a Toyota design and shared the Chevrolet showroom with many captives, was built domestically by the GM/Toyota NUMMI joint venture. The Eagle Talon and Plymouth Laser, both sisters to the Mitsubishi Eclipse, were manufactured in the U.S. by Diamond-Star Motors, a Chrysler/ Mitsubishi Motors joint venture. Australia's Holden, although it often shares planning and hardware with the rest of GM's global empire such as Opel and Isuzu, has generally preferred to assemble its versions of such vehicles locally. Rover and Honda have co-produced models for the European market, as have Alfa Romeo and Nissan. None of these would be considered imports. With the complete ceasing of automotive production in Australia by Holden and Ford Australia in 2016, who were both considered indigenous Australian automakers, each manufacturer will be switching to a completely-imported lineup and no vehicle sold by Holden or Ford after the cease of Australian production should be considered a captive import since neither maintains an Australian manufacturing presence.

In the United States, a vehicle that is assembled in Canada or Mexico and is distributed domestically by a Big Three automaker is not considered a captive import. This is due to the integration of manufacturing operations by the Big 3 in these countries due to the hospitable trade environment created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (and before NAFTA, the US-Canada Auto Pact), coupled with the proximity of these nations to the U.S. Also, vehicles made and marketed by European automakers that were eventually acquired by the Big Three automakers, such as Land Rover, Volvo, and Saab, are generally not considered to be captive imports. The Opel vehicles sold in the 1960s and 1970s are exceptions to this rule because they were sold through the Buick distribution channel, while retaining the Opel brand name. Thus, they are captive imports.

Recent models[edit]

Examples of captive imports in the U.S. have included the Cadillac Catera, a rebadged Opel Omega, the Chevrolet Aveo, built by GM Daewoo, and the Chrysler Crossfire — an American design which mostly uses Mercedes-Benz mechanicals but was actually built by Karmann in Germany.[14] The Pontiac GTO, which was built alongside the Australian Holden Monaro, also qualifies. The Saturn Astra is another example. It is a rebadged Opel Astra that is imported from Belgium. The successor for Pontiac's seventh generation Grand Prix, the Pontiac G8, is a modified Holden VE Commodore imported from Australia.

Notable captive imports[edit]

United States[edit]

Model Year(s) Country of assembly Original model
Buick Cascada 2016–2019 Poland Opel Cascada
Buick Encore 2013–present South Korea Opel Mokka
Buick Encore GX 2021–present South Korea
Buick Envision 2016–present China
Buick Opel 1976–1980 Japan Isuzu Gemini
Buick Regal 2010–2011 (some, but not all 2011) Germany Opel Insignia
Cadillac Catera 1997–2001 Germany Opel Omega
Chevrolet Aveo 2004–2011 South Korea Daewoo Kalos
Chevrolet Caprice PPV 2011–2017 Australia Holden Caprice
Chevrolet City Express 2014–2018 Japan/Mexico Nissan NV200
Chevrolet LUV 1972–1982 Japan Isuzu P'up
Chevrolet SS 2014–2017 Australia Holden VF Commodore
Chevrolet Spectrum 1985–1988 Japan Isuzu Gemini
Chevrolet Sprint 1985–1988 Japan Suzuki Cultus
Chevrolet Trailblazer (crossover) 2021–present South Korea
Chrysler Conquest 1987–1989 Japan Mitsubishi Starion
Chrysler Crossfire 2004–2008 Germany Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class
Chrysler TC by Maserati 1989–1991 Italy
Dodge Challenger 1978–1983 Japan Mitsubishi Galant Lambda
Dodge/Plymouth Colt 1971–1994 Japan Mitsubishi Galant
Mitsubishi Mirage
Dodge Conquest 1984–1986 Japan Mitsubishi Starion
Dodge D-50 1979–1986 Japan Mitsubishi Forte
Dodge Raider 1987–1989 Japan Mitsubishi Pajero
Dodge Ram 50 1987–1989 Japan Mitsubishi Mighty Max
Dodge Stealth 1991–1996 Japan Mitsubishi GTO
Eagle Medallion 1988–1989 France Renault 21
Eagle Summit 1989–1996 Japan Mitsubishi Mirage
Mitsubishi Lancer
Ford Anglia 1948–1967 United Kingdom Ford Anglia
Ford Aspire 1994–1997 South Korea Kia Avella
Ford Cortina 1962–1970 United Kingdom Lotus Cortina
Ford Courier 1972–1982 Japan Mazda B-Series
Ford Fiesta 1978–1980 Germany
Ford Festiva 1988–1993 South Korea Kia Pride
Ford Focus RS 2016–2018 Germany
Ford Transit Connect 2010–2013 Turkey
Ford Transit Connect 2014–present Spain
Geo Metro 1989–1994 Japan Suzuki Cultus
Geo Spectrum 1989 Japan Isuzu Gemini
Geo Storm 1990–1993 Japan Isuzu Piazza
Geo Tracker 1989–1990 (some, but not all 1990) Japan Suzuki Escudo
Jeep Renegade 2014–present Italy
Lincoln Nautilus 2024–present China
Mercury Capri 1970–1977 Germany Ford Capri
Mercury Capri 1991–1994 Australia Ford Capri
Mercury Tracer (3-door model) 1988–1989 Japan Mazda 323
Merkur Scorpio 1988–1989 Germany Ford Scorpio
Merkur XR4Ti 1985–1989 Germany Ford Sierra XR4i
Plymouth Arrow 1976–1980 Japan Mitsubishi Celeste
Plymouth Arrow Truck 1979–1982 Japan Mitsubishi Forte
Plymouth Champ 1979–1982 Japan Mitsubishi Mirage
Plymouth Conquest 1984–1986 Japan Mitsubishi Starion
Plymouth Cricket 1971–1973 United Kingdom Hillman Avenger
Plymouth Sapporo 1978–1983 Japan Mitsubishi Galant Lambda
Pontiac G3 2009 South Korea Daewoo Kalos
Pontiac G8 2008–2009 Australia Holden Commodore
Pontiac GTO 2004–2006 Australia Holden Monaro
Ram ProMaster City 2015–present Turkey Fiat Doblò
Pontiac LeMans 1988–1993 South Korea Daewoo LeMans
Saturn Astra 2008–2009 Belgium Opel Astra
Saturn Vue 2007–2009 South Korea Daewoo Winstorm
Vauxhall Victor (sold by Pontiac dealers) 1957–1962 United Kingdom


Model Year(s) Country of assembly Original model
Chevrolet Optra (sold by Suzuki dealers) 2005–2007 South Korea Daewoo Lacetti
Chevrolet TrailBlazer (sold by Suzuki dealers) 2001–2009 United States
Daihatsu Gran Max 2020–present Indonesia
Honda Accord (sedan) 2020–2022,[15] 2023–present Thailand
Honda Accord (coupe) 1988–1997 United States
Honda Accord (wagon) 1991–1997[16] United States
Honda Civic (coupe) 1992–2000 United States
Honda Civic (hatchback) 2017–2021 United Kingdom
Honda Civic Type R 2001–2005, 2009–2011, 2015–2021 United Kingdom
Honda Crossroad 1993–1998 United Kingdom Land Rover Discovery
Honda Element 2002–2006 United States
Honda Fit Aria 2003–2008 Thailand Honda City
Honda Inspire/Saber 1998–2002 United States Acura TL
Honda LaGreat 1999–2005 Canada Honda Odyssey (North America)
Honda MDX 2003–2006 Canada Acura MDX
Honda NSX 2017–2022 United States Acura NSX
Honda Odyssey 2023–present China
Honda WR-V 2024–present India Honda Elevate
Isuzu Statesman DeVille 1973–1976 Australia Holden Statesman HQ
Mazda Bongo 2020–present Indonesia Daihatsu Gran Max
Mazda CX-3 2022–present Thailand
Mazda Roadpacer AP 1975–1977 Australia Holden HJ/HX
Mitsubishi Diamante (some) 1991–2005 Australia Mitsubishi Magna
Mitsubishi Eclipse 1990–1998, 2004–2006 United States
Mitsubishi Mirage 2012–present Thailand
Mitsubishi Triton 2006–2011, 2024–present Thailand
Mitsuoka Viewt 2011–2022[17] Thailand Nissan March
Nissan Dualis 2007 United Kingdom Nissan Qashqai
Nissan Kicks 2020–present Thailand
Nissan Latio 2012–2016 Thailand Nissan Almera
Nissan March 2010–2022 Thailand
Nissan Mistral 1994–1999[16] Spain Nissan Terrano II
Nissan Primera (hatchback) 1990–2002 United Kingdom
Nissan Pulsar Milano X1 1984–1986 Italy Alfa Romeo Arna
Subaru Traviq 2001–2004 Thailand Opel Zafira
Suzuki Baleno 2016–2020 India
Suzuki Escudo 2015–present Hungary Suzuki Vitara
Suzuki Splash 2008–2014 Hungary
Suzuki SX4 S-Cross 2015–2020 Hungary
Toyota Avalon 1995–1999 United States
Toyota Avensis 2003–2009, 2011–2018 United Kingdom
Toyota Cavalier 1996–2000 United States Chevrolet Cavalier
Toyota Hilux 2017–present Thailand
Toyota LiteAce/TownAce 2008–2020 (LiteAce)
2008–present (TownAce)
Indonesia Daihatsu Gran Max
Toyota Pronard 2000–2005 United States Toyota Avalon
Toyota Scepter (wagon/coupe) 1992–1996 United States Toyota Camry (wagon/coupe)
Toyota GR Supra 2019–present Austria BMW Z4
Toyota Voltz 2002–2004 United States Pontiac Vibe


Model Year(s) Country of assembly Original model
Audi Q5 2016–present Mexico
BMW Z3 1995–2002 United States
BMW X5 1999–present United States
BMW Z4 2002–2008 United States
BMW X3 2010–present United States
BMW X6 2007–present United States
BMW X4 2014–present United States
BMW X7 2018–present United States
BMW 2 Series 2021–present Mexico
Chevrolet Trans Sport 1997–2007 United States Pontiac Trans Sport
Chevrolet Alero 1999–2001 United States Oldsmobile Alero
Chevrolet Evanda 2000–2006 South Korea Daewoo Magnus
Chevrolet Lacetti / Nubira 2002–2009 South Korea Daewoo Lacetti
Chevrolet Kalos / Aveo 2002–2014 South Korea Daewoo Kalos
Chevrolet Lanos 2005–2009 South Korea Daewoo Lanos
Chevrolet Matiz / Spark 2005–2014 South Korea Daewoo Matiz
Chevrolet Epica 2006–2011 South Korea Daewoo Tosca
Chevrolet Captiva 2006–2014 South Korea Daewoo Winstorm
Chevrolet Cruze 2008–2014 South Korea Daewoo Lacetti Premiere
Chevrolet Orlando 2011–2014 South Korea
Citroën C-Crosser 2007–2012 Japan Mitsubishi Outlander
Citroën C4 Aircross 2012–2017 Japan Mitsubishi ASX
Citroën Ami (electric vehicle) 2020–present Morocco
Citroën C5 X 2021–present China
Dacia Dokker 2012–2021 Morocco
Dacia Lodgy 2012–2022 Morocco
Dacia Spring 2021–present China Renault City K-ZE
DS 9 2020–present China
Fiat Fiorino 1988–2014 Brazil
Fiat Freemont 2011–2015 Mexico Dodge Journey
Fiat 124 Spider 2016–2019 Japan Mazda MX-5
Fiat Fullback 2016–2019 Thailand Mitsubishi Triton
Fiat Topolino 2023–present Morocco Citroën Ami (electric vehicle)
Ford Probe 1989–1997 United States
Ford Ka 2016–2020 Brazil
Ford Explorer (United Kingdom) 1997–2001 United States
Ford Explorer 2019–present United States
Ford Cougar 1998–2002 United States Mercury Cougar
Ford Maverick 2001–2006 United States Ford Escape
Ford Ranger 2011–present United States
Ford EcoSport 2014–2017 India
Ford Edge 2014–present Canada
Ford Mustang 2015–present United States
Ford Mustang Mach-E 2021–present United States
Lancia Thema 2011–2014 Canada Chrysler 300
Lancia Voyager 2011–2015 Canada Chrysler Voyager
Lancia Flavia 2012–2014 United States Chrysler 200
Mercedes-Benz M-Class / GLE 2005–present United States
Mercedes-Benz R-Class 2005–2017 United States
Mercedes-Benz GL-Class / GLS 2006–present United States
Mercedes-Benz GLB 2019–present Mexico
Every MG model made after the SAIC acquisition 2006-present China
Opel / Vauxhall Monterey 1992–2003 Japan Isuzu Bighorn
Opel Frontera 1992–2004 Japan Isuzu Mysterious Utility Wizard
Opel / Vauxhall Sintra 1996–1999 United States Chevrolet Venture
Opel GT 2006–2009 United States Saturn Sky
Opel / Vauxhall Antara 2006–2015 South Korea Daewoo Winstorm
Opel / Vauxhall Ampera 2012–2016 United States Chevrolet Volt
Opel / Vauxhall Mokka 2012–2020 South Korea
Opel Karl / Vauxhall Viva 2015–2019 South Korea Chevrolet Spark
Opel Ampera-e 2017–2020 United States Chevrolet Bolt
Opel Rocks 2021–present Morocco Citroën Ami (electric vehicle)
Peugeot 4007 2007–2012 Japan Mitsubishi Outlander
Peugeot 4008 2012–2017 Japan Mitsubishi ASX
Peugeot iOn 2011–2018 Japan Mitsubishi i-MIEV
Renault Koleos 2008–2021 South Korea Renault Samsung QM5 / QM6
Renault Latitude 2010–2015 South Korea Renault Samsung SM5
Renault Twizy 2019–2023 South Korea
Renault Arkana 2020–present South Korea Renault Samsung XM3
Rover CityRover 2003–2005 India Tata Indica
SAAB 9-7X 2004–2008 United States
SAAB 9-4X 2011 Mexico Cadillac SRX
Smart #1 2022–present China
Vauxhall Monaro 2001–2006 Australia Holden Monaro
Vauxhall VXR8 2007–2017 Australia HSV Clubsport / HSV GTS
Volkswagen Caddy 1982–1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia)
Volkswagen Caddy pickup 1996–2000 Czechia Škoda Felicia
Volkswagen New Beetle 1999–2019 Mexico
Volkswagen Fox 2005–2011 Brazil
Volkswagen Jetta 2005–2018 Mexico
Volvo S60 2019–present United States


Model Year(s) Country of assembly Original model
Ford Maverick (Australia) 1988–1994 Japan Nissan Patrol
Ford Courier 1985–2006 Japan/Thailand Mazda B-Series
Ford Laser 1981–2003 Japan Mazda 323
Ford Taurus Ghia (Australia and New Zealand) 1996–1998 United States Ford Taurus
Ford Telstar 1982–1999 Japan Mazda Capella
Holden Barina 1985–1994 Japan Suzuki Cultus
Holden Barina 1994–2005 Spain Opel Corsa
Holden Barina 2005–2011 South Korea Daewoo Kalos
Holden Camira JJ (New Zealand) 1984–1987 Japan Isuzu Aska
Holden Commodore 2017–2020 Germany Opel Insignia
Holden Cruze 2001–2008 Japan Suzuki Swift
Holden Jackaroo 1981–2005 Japan Isuzu Bighorn
Holden Suburban 1998–2001 Mexico Chevrolet Suburban
Holden Vectra 1995–2007 Germany Opel Vectra
Holden Viva 2005–2008 South Korea Daewoo Lacetti
Holden Volt 2012–2013 United States Chevrolet Volt
Pontiac LeMans (New Zealand) 1986–1994 South Korea Daewoo LeMans
Rambler Rebel 1967–1970 United States AMC Rebel
Rover 416i 1985–1989 Japan Honda Quint Integra

Other markets[edit]

Model Year(s) Country of sale Country of assembly Imported by Original model
Chevrolet Cassia 2000–2002 Philippines Japan General Motors Philippines Suzuki Cultus Crescent
Chevrolet Forester 1997–2008 India Japan General Motors India Subaru Forester
Chevrolet Epica 2004–2006 Canada South Korea General Motors Canada Daewoo Magnus
Chevrolet Optra 2004–2008 Canada South Korea General Motors Canada Daewoo Lacetti
Chevrolet Optra 2014–present Egypt China General Motors Egypt Baojun 630
Chevrolet Lumina 1998–2013 several countries Australia General Motors Holden Commodore
Chevrolet Lumina 2005–2006 Philippines China General Motors Philippines Buick Regal
Chevrolet Venture 1999–2006 Philippines China General Motors Philippines Buick GL8
Dodge Attitude 2005–2014 Mexico South Korea Chrysler Mexico Hyundai Accent
Dodge Attitude 2015–present Mexico Thailand Chrysler Mexico Mitsubishi Attrage
Daewoo Veritas 2008–2010 South Korea Australia GM Daewoo Holden Caprice (WM)
Dodge 1000 2007–2008 Mexico Taiwan Chrysler Mexico CMC Delica
Dodge/Eagle 2000GTX 1989–1992 Canada Japan Chrysler Canada Mitsubishi Galant (sixth generation)
Nissan Aprio 2008–2010 Mexico Brazil Nissan Mexico Dacia Logan
Passport Optima 1988–1991 Canada South Korea General Motors Canada Daewoo LeMans
Perodua Nautica 2008–2009 Malaysia Japan Perodua Daihatsu Terios
Pontiac Firefly 1989–2001 Canada Japan General Motors Canada Suzuki Cultus
Proton X70 2018–2020 Malaysia China Proton Geely Boyue
Renault Samsung QM3 2013–2019 South Korea Spain Renault Samsung Renault Captur
Timor S515 (some) 1996–1998 (sales continued until 2007) Indonesia South Korea Timor Putra Nasional Kia Sephia
Pyeonghwa 410 1994–2002 North Korea Germany Pyeonghwa Mercedes-Benz 190
Pyeonghwa Ppeokkugi 2002–present North Korea Vietnam Pyeonghwa Fiat Doblò
Pyeonghwa Ppeokkugi 4WD-B 2009–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa Huanghai Qisheng CUV
Pyeonghwa Ppeokkugi 4WD-C 2009–present North Korea Vietnam Pyeonghwa
Pyeonghwa Hwiparam II 2005–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa Brilliance BS4
Pyeonghwa Hwiparam III 2011–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa Brilliance BS2
Pyeonghwa Paso 990 2011–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa DFSK K-Series
Pyeonghwa Samchunri 2005–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa Jinbei Haise
Pyeonghwa Junma 1606 2013–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa FAW-Volkswagen Sagitar
Pyeonghwa Junma 2008 2013–present North Korea China Pyeonghwa FAW-Volkswagen CC

See also[edit]


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  5. ^ "Nash Builds a Sports Car". Popular Mechanics. Vol. 95, no. 3. March 1951. pp. 107–109. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  6. ^ "Nash-Heally ads LeMans hardtop to sports line". Popular Mechanics. Vol. 99, no. 5. May 1953. p. 101. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  7. ^ "Nash Metropolitan". Unique Cars and Parts (Australia). Retrieved 29 October 2014.
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