Capture of Berwick (1296)

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Siege of Berwick (1296)
Part of the First War of Scottish Independence
Date 30 March 1296[1]
Location Berwick-upon-Tweed
55°46′30″N 2°00′47″W / 55.775°N 2.013°W / 55.775; -2.013Coordinates: 55°46′30″N 2°00′47″W / 55.775°N 2.013°W / 55.775; -2.013
Result English victory
Belligerents
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg Kingdom of Scotland England COA.svg Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
Douglas Arms 1.svg William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford
Strength
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
ca. 30,000 civilians Light

The Capture of Berwick was the first significant battle of the First War of Scottish Independence in 1296.

Background[edit]

Upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, in late September 1290, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland were the de facto heads of state[2] until such time as a king would be chosen. The late king, Alexander III had been married to Margaret of England, sister to Edward I, and he was asked to arbitrate in the dispute.[3]

John Balliol, a descendant of King David I was chosen and inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292.[4] Edward I treated Scotland as a feudal vassal state, claiming contributions towards the costs for the defence of England. When he demanded military support for his war against France, the Scots responded by forming the Auld Alliance with the French, and launched an unsuccessful attack on Carlisle.[2]

Berwick[edit]

After the raid on Carlisle, the English, under Edward I, began the initial conquest of Scotland in the first phase of the war. On the Wednesday in Easter week, being the twenty-eighth day of March, Edward passed the river Tweed with his troops and stayed that night in Scotland at the priory of Coldstream. From there he marched on the town of Berwick.[5]

Berwick-upon-Tweed, a Royal burgh that sat just north of the border, was Scotland's most important trading port. The garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, while the besieging party was led by Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. Contemporary accounts of the number slain range from 4,000 to 17,000. Then they took the castle, whereupon Douglas surrendered and his life and those of his garrison were spared.[6]

The Battle of Dunbar crushed further Scottish resistance.

References[edit]

  1. ^ James H. Webb (11 October 2005). Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-7679-1689-9. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Barrow, G. W. S. (2005). Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748620227. 
  3. ^ Powicke, F. M. (1962). The Thirteenth Century, 1216–1307 (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. OCLC 3693188.
  4. ^ Dunbar, Sir Archibald H., Scottish Kings – A Revised Chronology of Scottish History 1005–1625, Edinburgh, 1899
  5. ^ Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I. New Haven, US: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07209-0.
  6. ^ John Parker Lawson (1849), "Siege of Berwick, 1296", Historical Tales of the Wars of Scotland, and of the Border Raids, Forays, and Conflicts, pp. 113–116