Vehicle-ramming attack

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Car ramming attack)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A vehicle-ramming attack is an assault in which a perpetrator deliberately rams a vehicle into a building, crowd of people,[1][2] or another vehicle. The earliest known use of a vehicle-ramming attack took place in 1973 in Prague, former Czechoslovakia, when Olga Hepnarová killed 8 people. According to Stratfor Global Intelligence analysts, this attack represented a new militant tactic which is less lethal but could prove more difficult to prevent than suicide bombings.[3]

Deliberate vehicle-ramming into crowd of people is a tactic used by terrorists,[4] becoming a major terrorist tactic in the 2010s because it requires little skill to perpetrate and has the potential to cause significant casualties.[5][6][7] Deliberate vehicle-ramming has also been carried out in the course of other types of crimes,[8] including road rage incidents.[9][10] Deliberate vehicle-ramming incidents have also sometimes been ascribed to the driver's psychiatric disorder.[11][a]

Vehicles have also been used by attackers to breach buildings with locked gates, before detonating explosives, as in the Saint-Quentin-Fallavier attack.

Causes propelling the rise of the tactic[edit]

According to the American Federal Bureau of Investigation, the tactic has gained popularity because "Vehicle ramming offers terrorists with limited access to explosives or weapons an opportunity to conduct a homeland attack with minimal prior training or experience."[1] Counterterrorism researcher Daveed Gartenstein-Ross of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies told Slate that the tactic has been on the rise in Israel because, "the security barrier is fairly effective, which makes it hard to get bombs into the country."[12] In 2010, Inspire, the online, English-language magazine produced by al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula urged mujahideen to choose "pedestrian only" locations and make sure to gain speed before ramming their vehicles into the crowd in order to "achieve maximum carnage".[12]

Vehicle attacks can be carried out by lone-wolf terrorists who are inspired by an ideology, but who are not actually working within a specific political movement or group.[13] Writing for The Daily Beast, Jacob Siegel suggests that the perpetrator of the 2014 Couture-Rouleau attack may be "the kind of terrorist the West could be seeing a lot more of in the future", a kind that he describes, following Brian Jenkins of the Rand Corporation, as "stray dogs", rather than lone wolves, characterizing them as "misfits" who are "moved from seething anger to spontaneous deadly action" by exposure to Islamist propaganda.[14] A 2014 propaganda video by ISIL encouraged French sympathizers to use cars to run down civilians.[15]

According to Clint Watts, of the Foreign Policy Research Institute, where he is a senior fellow and expert on terrorism, the older model where members of groups like al-Qaeda would "plan and train together before going to carry out an attack, became defunct around 2005", due to increased surveillance by Western security agencies.[14] Watts says that Anwar al-Awlaki, the American born al-Qaeda imam, as a key figure in this shift, addressing English-speakers in their own language and urging them to "Do your own terrorism and stay in place."[14]

Jamie Bartlett, who heads the Violence and Extremism Program at Demos, a British think tank, explains that "the internet in the last few years has both increased the possibilities and the likelihood of lone-wolf terrorism," supplying isolated individuals with ideological motivation and technique.[16] For authorities in Western countries, the difficulty is that even in a case like that of the perpetrator of the 2014 Couture-Rouleau attack, where Canadian police had identified the attacker, taken away his passport, and were working with his family and community to steer him away from jihad, vehicle attacks can be hard to prevent because, "it's very difficult to know exactly what an individual is planning to do before a crime is committed. We cannot arrest someone for thinking radical thoughts; it's not a crime in Canada."[16][17]

According to Stratfor, the American global intelligence firm, "while not thus far as deadly as suicide bombing", this tactic could prove more difficult to prevent. No single group has claimed responsibility for the incidents.[3][clarification needed] Experts see a sort of saving grace in the ignorance and incompetence of most lone wolf terrorists, who often manage to murder very few people.[16]

Vehicular ramming has sometimes been advocated as a means to deal with protesters who block public roadways in the United States. Two police officers were suspended and fired in January and June 2016, respectively, for tweeting such advice in relation to Black Lives Matter rallies, which have sometimes been broken up by cars. North Dakota state legislator Keith Kempenich tried and failed to pass a law granting civil immunity to drivers who accidentally hit activists, after his mother-in-law was stopped by Dakota Access Pipeline protesters, and Tennessee Senator Bill Ketron did likewise after a man hit an anti-Trump group. Similar legislation has been introduced in Florida and Texas.[18] After the white supremacist Unite the Right rally, in which a anti-fascist protestor was killed in a vehicle ramming attack, conservative media outlets Fox News and The Daily Caller deleted videos which encouraged driving through crowds of protestors.[19]

Protective measures[edit]

Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, UK. These heavy blocks of concrete are designed to prevent a car bomb or other device being rammed into the building.
Concrete blocks in the city centre of Dresden during the 2016 German Unity Day Celebrations

On 23 October 2014, the US National Institute of Building Sciences updated its Building Design Guideline on Crash- and Attack-Resistant Models of bollards, a guideline written to help professionals design bollards to protect facilities from vehicle operators, "who plan or carry out acts of property destruction, incite terrorism, or cause the deaths of civilian, industrial or military populations".[20] The American Bar Association recommends bollards as effective protection against car ramming attacks.[21]

Security bollards are credited with minimizing damage and casualties in the 2007 Glasgow Airport attack,[22][23] and with preventing ramming in the 2014 Alon Shvut stabbing attack, leading the assailant to abandon his car and attack pedestrians waiting at a bus stop with a knife, after his effort to run them over was thwarted.[24] However, Berlin's police chief, Klaus Kandt, argued that bollards would not have prevented the 2016 Berlin attack, and that the required security measures would be "varied, complex, and far from a panacea".[25]

The city of Münster has been planning to install security bollards in public areas in response to vehicle-ramming attacks in European cities, including the 2016 Berlin attack.[26] While only selected locations can be protected this way, tight bends and restricted-width streets may also prevent a large vehicle getting speed before reaching a barrier.[27]

Modern Internet-connected drive-by-wire cars can potentially be hacked remotely and used for such attacks. In 2015, hackers remotely carjacked a Jeep from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch.[28][29] Measures for cybersecurity of automobiles to prevent such are often criticized as to being insufficient.[citation needed]

List of terrorist attacks[edit]

In chronological order:

Video of the vehicular ramming at the Unite the Right Rally that killed one person and injured 19

List of suspected terrorist attacks[edit]

List of non-terrorist incidents[edit]

Motive not determined yet[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Accidental vehicle ramming causing multiple deaths or injuries to pedestrians or others also occurs, although rarely.[4] Causes of such accidental mass-casualty vehicular ramming include drunk and drug–impaired driving or driver error by elderly drivers.[11] See also sudden unintended acceleration.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Issued 13 December 2012. "Department of Homeland Security-FBI Warning: Terrorist Use of Vehicle Ramming Tactics". FBI and Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  2. ^ David C. Rapoport (2006). Terrorism: The fourth or religious wave. Taylor & Francis. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-415-31654-5. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014.
  3. ^ a b Israel: Vehicle Attacks – A New Militant Tactic?. Stratfor Global Intelligence
  4. ^ a b c "Mass casualty traffic incidents like Endymion's are rare, but do happen". New Orleans Times-Picayune. February 27, 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  5. ^ Amanda Erickson & Isaac Stanley-Becker, How ramming cars into crowds became a major terror tactic, Washington Post (March 22, 2017).
  6. ^ Keating, Joshua (5 November 2014). "Why Terrorists Use Vehicles as Weapons". Slate. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  7. ^ Jamison, Alastair (20 December 2016). "Truck Attacks: Low-Tech, Soft Target Terrorism Is Growing Threat". NBC News. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  8. ^ David Ormerod, John Cyril Smith & Brian Hogan, Smith and Hogan's Criminal Law (13th ed. 2011: Oxford University Press), p. 1138: "There are at least six ways that a person might be held liable for causing a death by driving. At the most extreme it is possible for D[efendant] to be liable for murder, as when he drivers at V[ictim] with intent to kill or do gbh (great bodily harm)."
  9. ^ R.G. Smart, "Transport Related Stress" in Stress Consequences: Mental, Neuropsychological and Socioeconomic (ed. George Fink: Academic Press, 2009), p. 708: "A national study in the United States found that ... of respondents ... 1-2% had gotten out of their cars to hurt other drivers, deliberately hit other drivers, or had carried a weapon."
  10. ^ Audi driver pleads guilty after video shows him mowing down man in road-rage incident in New Brunswick, Canadian Press (February 28, 2017).
  11. ^ a b Alan R. Felthouse, "Personal Violence" in The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic Psychiatry (2d ed.: eds. Robert I. Simon & Liza H. Gold), pp. 551-52: "An automobile is a potentially lethal machine. Litigation involving psychiatrists has resulted when a hospitalized patient, after discharges, caused a two-person vehicle accident with death or injuries to one or more victims ... Such cases involve three different types of scenarios. One is the vehicular crash that results from the patient's medication-induced drowsiness at the wheel ... The second scenario is a true accident but is unrelated to any prescribed medication. Rather, the patient's driving is impaired by the disabling effects of mental illness [or] recent consumption of nonprescribed drugs or alcohol. The third situation is when the patient deliberately crashes into another vehicle. Neuropsychiatric conditions that can be associated with an increased risk of vehicular crash include psychotic exacerbation of schizophrenia, profound or suicidal depression, dementia, and disturbances in consciousness, such as epilepsy and narcolepsy."
  12. ^ a b Keating, Joshua (5 November 2014). "Why Terrorists Use Vehicles as Weapons". Slate. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  13. ^ Daly, Brian (21 October 2014). "Lone wolf terrorists hard to stop". Edmonton Sun. QMI. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b c Siegel, Jacob (24 October 2014). "Lone Wolves, Terrorist Runts, and the Stray Dogs of ISIS Why ISIS and al Qaeda rely on loners and losers to carry out their terrorist agenda in the West". Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  15. ^ "ISIS and Al Qaeda have specifically called for the type of attack that just happened in France".
  16. ^ a b c Bajekal, Naina (23 October 2014). "The Rise of the Lone Wolf Terrorist". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  17. ^ Mataconis, Doug (23 October 2014). "The attack on Canada's Parliament and the 'lone wolf' terrorist". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  18. ^ Grabar, Henry (August 14, 2017). ""Run Them Down"". Slate.com.
  19. ^ Kludt, Tom (2017-08-15). "Fox News, Daily Caller delete posts encouraging people to drive through protests". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  20. ^ Oakes, Charles (23 October 2014). "The Bollard: Crash- and Attack-Resistant Models". Whole Building Design Guide, National Institute of Building Sciences. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  21. ^ Ernest B. Abbott and Otto J. Hetzel, "Homeland Security Begins at Home: Local Planning and Regulatory Review to Improve Security", in Rufus Calhoun Young, Jr. and Dwight H. Merriam, A Legal Guide to Homeland Security and Emergency Management for State and Local Governments, American Bar Association, 2006
  22. ^ Garfield, Simon (7 December 2007). "Terrorists are foiled at Glasgow airport". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  23. ^ "Glasgow airport ramps up use of bollards". Glasgow Evening Times. 22 December 2008. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  24. ^ Tait, Robert (10 November 2014). "Israeli woman, 25, and soldier killed in twin stabbing attacks – Incidents happen hours apart, suggesting an escalation of recent violence". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  25. ^ Halliday, Josh; Perraudin, Frances (20 December 2016). "What can be done to prevent Berlin-style attacks in modern cities?". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Do bollards offer protection against vehicle attacks?". DW. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  27. ^ Desk, iHLS News (9 January 2017). "Vehicle Ramming Attacks - Are There Any Security Measures? - iHLS".
  28. ^ Greenberg, Andy. "Hackers Remotely Kill a Jeep on the Highway—With Me in It". WIRED. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  29. ^ "Hackers take control of car, drive it into a ditch". The Independent. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  30. ^ 14 die in attack on Haiti rally – Loyalist plows bus into Aristide backers, The Dallas Morning News (October 10, 1994)
    Aristide supporters killed, The Daily Gazette (October 10, 1994)
  31. ^ [1]
    [2]
    [3]
  32. ^ "'Fatalities' after central London vehicle and stabbing attacks". 4 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  33. ^ "Man tries to drive car into crowd in front of French mosque, police say". The Guardian. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  34. ^ https://www.cnn.com/cnn/2017/08/17/europe/barcelona-las-ramblas-van-hits-crowd/index.html
  35. ^ [4]
    [5]
    [6]
  36. ^ Mueller, Benjamin (31 October 2017). "At Least 6 Reported Dead as Truck Careens Down Bike Path in Manhattan". New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  37. ^ [7]
    [8]
  38. ^ "Man Charged in Hate Crime Attack Near Hancock Park Synagogue". Los Angeles District Attorney. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  39. ^ Bartko, Karen (1 October 2017). "Edmonton terror attacks: Police officer stabbed, people struck by U-Haul". Global News. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  40. ^ Atropelou um grupo de foliões, Diario de Noticias (January 3, 1953)
  41. ^ Como um bolide, atropelou o bloco carnavalesco, Correio da Manhã (January 3, 1953)
  42. ^ Atirou o auto contra o bloco carnavalesco, Ultima Hora (January 3, 1953)
  43. ^ Atirou o automovel contra todo o bloco carnavalesco, O Jornal (January 4, 1953)
  44. ^ Atropelou o bloco carnavalesco, Diario da Tarde (January 6, 1953)
  45. ^ Atirou o automovel contra todo o bloco carnavalesco - Atropelou 28 pessoas- Quasi linchado, continuation, Pacotilha : O Globo (January 8, 1953)
  46. ^ Taipei Bus Driver Kills Three, The New York Times (September 1, 1964)
  47. ^ "Olga Hepnarová: The Truck-Driving Mass Murderess Of Czechoslovakia". 12 May 2016.
  48. ^ Car crashes Klan rally in Plains; 30 injured, Eugene Register-Guard (July 3, 1977)
    Klan assailant sentenced to 12-year term, Eugene Register-Guard (November 18, 1977)
    Georgian who plowed his car into Klan rally escapes jail, Sarasota Herald-Tribune (December 28, 1977)
    Request refused, Reading Eagle (February 24, 1978)
  49. ^ Driver in Death of 3 Ruled Unfit for Trial, The New York Times (June 9, 1981)
    Death Rampage Suspect Lost Job for 'Goofing Off', The New York Times (July 12, 1980)
    L.I. Man Steals Cars, Kills 3 in Rampage, The New York Times (July 11, 1980)
  50. ^ 姚锦云与1982年天安门广场撞人事件
  51. ^ [9]
  52. ^ [10]
  53. ^ Driver bookd in fatality close to Olympic village, Toledo Blade (July 29, 1984)
    Man gets 106 years for sidewalk killings, Gainesville Sun (March 22, 1985)
  54. ^ Estudante joga carro na multidão e fere 15, Jornal do Brasil (April 20, 1993)
  55. ^ Jornal do Brasil, Jornal do Brasil (April 20, 1993)
  56. ^ 'Racha' deixa 15 feridos na zona oeste do Rio, Folha de S.Paulo (April 20, 1993)
  57. ^ Há sete dias, quinze feridos, Jornal do Brasil (April 26, 1993)
  58. ^ Pai vai á DP, Jornal do Brasil (April 29, 1993)
  59. ^ One Is Dead In Rampage On East Side, The New York Times (July 11, 1995)
    Suspect in Rampage Had Violent Outbursts of Temper, Relatives Say, The New York Times (July 12, 1995)
  60. ^ [11]
  61. ^ "Amuro's mother slain; brother-in-law suspected". The Japan Times. 17 March 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  62. ^ Uganda driver kills three, BBC News (February 5, 2001)
    'Intimidation' ahead of Ugandan poll, BBC News (February 5, 2001)
  63. ^ [12]
  64. ^ [13]
  65. ^ Man Accused in Hit-and-Runs Gets 30 Years in Neighbor's Killing, The New York Times (April 17, 2004)
  66. ^ Toddlers killed in truck attack, BBC (May 7, 2002)
  67. ^ Erst stritt er sich mit seiner Freundin, dann fuhr er 14 Café-Besucher um, Die Welt (June 29, 2003)
  68. ^ Lisa, Helgesson (11 July 2003). "Mordåtal för vansinnesfärd i Gamla stan". SVT. SVT. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  69. ^ Car Kills Man On Las Vegas Strip, CBS News (September 22, 2005)
    One dead after car strikes crowd on Las Vegas Strip, The Argus-Press (September 22, 2005)
  70. ^ Bus driver carried an axe to work, court hears, Irish Independent (June 8, 2006)
    Bus rampage driver admits death collision, Irish Independent (June 5, 2008)
    Bus driver found not guilty but insane, RTÉ News and Current Affairs (June 9, 2008)
  71. ^ Auto rast in Fanmeile, Stern (July 2, 2006)
    Amokfahrer fährt nicht ein, Stern (July 3, 2006)
    Amokfahrer landet in der Psychiatrie, Berliner Morgenpost (November 3, 2007)
  72. ^ [14]
    [15]
    [16]
    [17]
  73. ^ Berrwiller: le chauffard mis en examen pour assassinat, Le Figaro (October 14, 2007)
  74. ^ 河南开车撞死拆迁人员行凶者刘大孬被核准死刑, (June 8, 2010)
  75. ^ 开混凝土搅拌车连环撞死5人 李成刚被执行死刑(图), (April 27, 2012)
    “疯狂搅拌车”李成刚伏法 恶意驾车撞人罪被判死刑, (April 26, 2012)
    目击者回忆长沙男子驾车撞人致5死事故过程, (April 27, 2011)
    开车撞人泄愤致5死5伤 李成刚一审被判死刑, (August 04, 2011)
    为泄愤驾车撞死5人 李成刚一审被判死刑, (August 5, 2011)
  76. ^ 'Berserk' India bus driver kills nine in Pune, BBC News (January 25, 2012)
  77. ^ Chinese Man Stands Trial for Road Rampage that Killed 6, cri.cn (August 30, 2012)
    张家界恶意驾车致6死案开审 案犯还曾私藏枪支, Sina.com (August 30, 2012)
    张家界恶意驾车致6死案开审 案犯还曾私藏枪支, qq.com (August 30, 2012)
  78. ^ "Cardiff hit-and-runs: Matthew Tvrdon detained indefinitely". BBC.|accessdate=8 January 2019}
  79. ^ Chinese Man Hits Students with Car, 13 Hospitalized, cri.cn (December 25, 2012)
  80. ^ "Rampage in Guam tourist district leaves three dead and 11 hurt after driver smashes car into pedestrians and slashes people with a knife".
  81. ^ Gerber, Marisa. "Driver plowed into Venice boardwalk crowd 'in anger,' prosecutor says". latimes.com. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  82. ^ "Sopot: wjechał w tłum ludzi na Monciaku. Sąd pozwolił mu wyjść na wolność". PolskieRadio.pl. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
  83. ^ 江西鄱阳发生驾车恶性撞人事件 致3死11伤, Sina.com (September 14, 2013)
    江西:男子持砖头砸死同村村民 驾车逃逸时撞死两人, ifeng.com (September 14, 2014)
  84. ^ 湖北男子疑报复社会驾车撞人 多人死伤, news.163.com (October 29, 2014)
    湖北房县通报撞人案:犯罪嫌疑人感情破裂起报复心, china.com.cn (October 29, 2014)
    湖北房县连环撞人伤者:走着走着被撞飞20米, chinanews.com (October 29, 2014)
    湖北房县连环撞人事件伤者:走着走着被撞飞20米, sina.com (October 29, 2014)
  85. ^ 山东潍坊越野车连撞多人致5死21伤(图), (Aug 20, 2015)
  86. ^ 山西朔州街头铲车撞人致1死20伤 司机被击毙, People's Daily (May 16, 2016)
    山西男子驾装载机撞翻警车碾死行人 武警将其击毙, Sohu (September 6, 2015)
  87. ^ Three dead and 15 injured as Chinese ‘would-be suicide driver’ crashes vehicle into students outside school, South China Morning Post (January 19, 2016)
    江西奉新交通事故致3死19伤 肇事者冲撞人群, Sina.com (January 19, 2016)
    江西碾轧学生案嫌疑人作案动机或与上访无果有关, Sohu (January 19, 2016)
    奉新男子驾车撞人致4死18伤 嫌犯性格犟爱赌博, ifeng.com (January 20, 2016)
    江西一男子驾车撞学生致4死18伤, People's Daily (January 20, 2016)
    Driver in east China road killing spree executed, Xinhua (July 11, 2017)
  88. ^ "Five cyclists dead and four seriously injured in hit-and-run incident". The Independent. 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
  89. ^ Hartley-Parkinson, Richard (16 October 2016). "Shocking video of moment driver deliberately knocks down pedestrians". Metro. Metro.co.uk. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  90. ^ "Venezuela: Graban en video a tanqueta atropellando a opositores". El Comercio. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  91. ^ "Camioneta del IVSS atropelló a una manifestante en Calabozo" (in Spanish). El Nacional. 9 May 2017.
  92. ^ "Tanqueta de la GNB intentó arrollar a un estudiante de la Unimet". El Nacional (in Spanish). 18 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  93. ^ "Asesinaron a miembro de la Cruz Verde durante protesta en Maracaibo". El Nacional (in Spanish). 18 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  94. ^ "Reportan 1 herido por arrollamiento en la avenida Francisco de Miranda" (in Spanish). El Nacional. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  95. ^ "Melbourne car attack: Bourke Street death toll reaches five after three-month-old baby dies". ABC. 22 January 2017.
  96. ^ "Homem joga carro contra pedestres em Balneário Camboriú". Visor Notícias. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017.
  97. ^ CNN, Ray Sanchez. "Car barrels into pedestrians in New York's Times Square". CNN. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  98. ^ "German man, 73, dies after car driven into pedestrians in Heidelberg". 25 February 2017.
  99. ^ "One dead, two injured in Heidelberg car attack". 25 February 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  100. ^ Bischoff, Katrin. "Überfahrene Polizisten: So verlief die Todesfahrt von Müllrose".
  101. ^ Schreuer, Milan. "Man in Antwerp, Belgium, Tries to Drive Into Crowd". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  102. ^ "Videos muestran vehículo que arrolló a estudiantes en calzada San Juan". PrensaLibre.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  103. ^ Whitehurst, Lindsay (June 9, 2017). "Police: Driver stopped when she saw argument before shooting". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  104. ^ Four dead, nine injured in east China hit-and-run, Xinhua (July 8, 2017)
    Suspect identified as policeman in east China hit-and-run, Xinhua (July 8, 2017)
    江苏靖江致4死9伤的交通事故肇事者系警察, Xinhua (July 8, 2017)
    江苏靖江交通肇事案已致4人死亡 嫌犯为57岁民警, Xinhua (July 9, 2017)
  105. ^ ‘People thrown everywhere’: Police say suspect in SC cemetery crash wanted revenge, The State (July 20, 2017)
    CPD: Man who ran over 12 mourners at funeral had grudge against state agency, wistv.com (July 20, 2017)
    Columbia man goes on trial for cemetery rampage that injured 12, The State (October 8, 2018)
    Man sentenced to 80 years for intentionally crashing his car into mourners at Columbia burial service, South Carolina Radio Network (October 15, 2018)
  106. ^ "Helsingin perjantaista yliajoa tutkitaan tappona – Ajoi välittämättä siitä jääkö joku alle" (in Finnish). Yle. July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
  107. ^ "Friday's papers: New car attack, rail strike reactions, summer storm coming". Yle. August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  108. ^ Vandoorne, Saskya; Cullinane, Susannah (15 Aug 2017). "French pizzeria rammed by car; one dead". Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  109. ^ "Woman charged over deadly brawl". 7 December 2017.
  110. ^ "Man charged after two pedestrians hit by car". 18 February 2018.
  111. ^ Zeitung, Münstersche. "Drei Menschen kamen zu Tode, einer davon war der Fahrer".
  112. ^ "640 Toronto on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
  113. ^ Gravesend nightclub: 13 people hurt as car drives into club, BBC News (March 18, 2018)
  114. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/us/2018/05/21/nc-man-accused-ramming-car-into-restaurant-killing-2-family-members-faces-judge.html
  115. ^ 報復社會? 煙台叉車司機撞人被擊斃
  116. ^ Six killed in Liuzhou knife attack , China Daily (August 21, 2018) )
    Suspect arrested over stabbing rampage that leaves six dead and 12 wounded in southern China, South China Morning Post (August 22, 2018)
  117. ^ [18]
    [19]
    [20]
  118. ^ "Man sentenced to death for vehicle attack in southern China". BNO News. December 12, 2018.
  119. ^ Three dead, 15 injured after knife attack in China, The Straits Times (October 7, 2018)
  120. ^ Romania: 10 injured after suspect stabs, drives into people
  121. ^ Teens jailed for fight in Cambrian Road, Newport before car hit pedestrians, South Wales Argues (June 22, 2018)
  122. ^ Newport hit-and-run: Teen locked up for 'using car as weapon', BBC (October 19, 2018)
  123. ^ Fatal car crash that killed five children and injured 18 outside Chinese primary school was deliberate, police say, South China Morning Post (November 23, 2018)
    Driver who struck China children chose 'random' target, France 24 (November 23, 2018)
    辽宁冲撞学生事件已致6死 葫芦岛检方介入调查, Sina Corp
  124. ^ Melissa Davey, Ben Doherty and Stuart MacFarlane (December 21, 2017). "Melbourne car ramming: four people critically injured and driver arrested". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  125. ^ "Tokyo car attack: Driver hits New Year's revelers in city's Harajuku district By Euan McKirdy and Junko Ogura". CNN. January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 8, 2019.

External links[edit]