Caracalla

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Caracalla
Caracalla MAN Napoli Inv6033 n01.jpg
Joint 22nd Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 198 – 8 April 217
Predecessor Septimius Severus
Successor Macrinus
Co-emperors Septimius Severus (198–211)
Geta (209–211)
Born (188-04-04)4 April 188
Lugdunum
Died 8 April 217(217-04-08) (aged 29)
On the road between Edessa and Carrhae
Wife
Full name
Lucius Septimius Bassianus (from birth to 195);
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar (195 to 198);
Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
(198 to 211);
Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Augustus (211 to death)
Dynasty Severan
Father Septimius Severus
Mother Julia Domna
Roman imperial dynasties
Severan dynasty

The Severan Tondo
Chronology
Septimius Severus 193–198
—with Caracalla 198–209
—with Caracalla and Geta 209–211
Caracalla and Geta 211–211
Caracalla 211–217
Interlude: Macrinus 217–218
Elagabalus 218–222
Alexander Severus 222–235
Dynasty
Severan dynasty family tree
All biographies
Succession
Preceded by
Year of the Five Emperors
Followed by
Crisis of the Third Century

Caracalla (/ˌkærəˈkælə/) was the popular nickname of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus[1] (4 April AD 188 – 8 April AD 217), the Roman emperor from AD 198–217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a sour relationship, and whom Caracalla would have murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people.

Caracalla's reign was notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution), granting Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men the two first names of Caracalla "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, the second largest bath in Rome, for the introduction of a new roman currency, the antoninianus which was a sort of double denarius, and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla would begin a campaign against the Parthian Empire, a campaign he would not see through to completion due to his death in 217.

Later, in the 12th century, a legend would emerge of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain.

Early life and family[edit]

Caracalla was born Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum, Gaul (now Lyon, France) on 4 April 188 to Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, with a slightly younger sibling brother, Geta.[2][3] At the age of seven Caracalla was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to create a connection to the family of emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.[2] Caracalla's father, Septimius Severus, appointed Caracalla joint Augustus and full emperor from the year 198 onwards.[4] His brother Geta would be granted the same title, Augustus, in 210.[5] In 202, Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, a woman whom he hated, though for what reason is unknown.[6] By 205, Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, though he had probably fabricated the evidence of the plot himself.[6] It was then that he banished his wife, whom he might have later had killed.[2][6] He was later given the nickname Caracalla, which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable.[1]

Reign[edit]

Murder of brother (211)[edit]

Caracalla's father, Septimius Severus, died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (now York) while on campaign in northern Britain.[7] Caracalla and his brother, Publius Septimius Antoninus Geta, jointly inherited the throne upon their father's death.[5][7] Caracalla and Geta ended the campaign in Caledonia after concluding a peace with the Caledonians which returned the border of Roman Britain to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall.[5][8] During the journey back to Rome with their father's ashes, Caracalla and his brother continuously argued with one another, making relations between them increasingly hostile.[5][8] When they tried to rule the Empire jointly, they considered dividing it in half along the Bosphorus, with Caracalla ruling the west and Geta ruling the east, but were persuaded not to do so by their mother.[8]

Then on 26 December 211 at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother Julia Domna, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, leading to Geta dying in his mother's arms.[7] Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory.[1][9] Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed and his name was struck from papyrus records and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name.[10] In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae and persecution of people an estimated 20,000 people were killed.[9][10] Among those killed were the son of Pertinax, Helvius Pertinax, and Marcus Aurelius' last remaining daughter, Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor, alongside Geta's guards, ministers, freedmen, friends and anybody who had been promoted by him to command of the army or the provinces.[9][11]

In the Roman provinces[edit]

In 213, Caracalla went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni and Goths tribesmen, a confederation of migrating Germanic tribes who had broken through the limes in Raetia.[12][13] During the campaign of 213–214, Caracalla would successfully defeat some of the Germanic tribes while settling other difficulties through diplomacy.[13] While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, such that it would be able to withstand further barbarian invasions for twenty years.[12] In 215, Caracalla traveled to Alexandria, and to the east where he would remain for the rest of his life.[14]

Gibbon in his work describes Caracalla as "the common enemy of mankind". Caracalla left the capital in 213, about a year after the murder of Geta, and spent the rest of his reign in the provinces, particularly those of the East.[12][15] The Senate and other wealthy families were kept in check by forcing them to construct, at their own expense, palaces, theaters, and places of entertainment throughout the periphery.[15] New and heavy taxes were levied against the bulk of the population, with additional fees and confiscations targeted at the wealthiest families.[15]

After Caracalla concluded his campaign against the Alamanni it became evident that he was inordinately preoccupied with the Greek-Macedonian general and conqueror, Alexander the Great.[14][16] He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style. In planning his invasion of the Parthian Empire, Caracalla decided to equip the men of his army of 16,000 men in the style of Macedonian phalanxes, despite the Roman army having made the Phalanx an obsolete tactical formation.[14][16][17] Christopher mentions that the term Phalangarii has two possible meanings both with military connotations, the first refers merely to the Roman battle line and does not specifically mean that the men were armed with pikes, and the second bears similarity to the 'Mariam Mules' of the late Roman Republic who carried their equipment suspended from a long pole, which were in use until at least the 2nd century A.D.[17] As a consequence, the Phalangarii of Legio II Parthica may not have been pikemen, but rather standard battle line troops or possibly Triarii .[17] Caracalla's mania for Alexander went so far that Caracalla visited Alexandria while preparing for his Persian invasion and persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign that Caracalla was behaving in an erratic manner. But this mania for Alexander, strange as it was, was overshadowed by subsequent events in Alexandria.[16]

When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard Caracalla's claims that he had killed Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla's other pretensions.[18] In 215, Caracalla savagely responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, and then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder in Alexandria.[12][18] Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east onto Armenia and by 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia.[19]

Influence of Julia Domna[edit]

During the reign of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, played a prominent public role, receiving titles of honor such as "Mother of the camp" but she also played a role behind the scenes helping Septimius administer the empire.[20] Described as ambitious,[21] Julia Domna surrounded herself with thinkers and writers from all over the empire.[22] While Caracalla was mustering and training troops for his planned Persian invasion, Julia remained in Rome, administering the empire. Julia's growing influence in state affairs was the beginning of a trend of Emperors' mothers having influence, which continued throughout the Severan dynasty.[23] Upon the death of Geta, her responsibilities increased as Caracalla found administrative tasks to be mundane.[20] She may have taken upon one of the more important civil functions of the emperor; receiving petitions and answering correspondences, acting in the role of a judge.[24] When Caracalla was murdered, Julia was in Antioch sorting out correspondences, removing unimportant messages from the bunch so that when Caracalla returned, he would not be overburdened with duties.[20] The emperor was head of the legal system; judge, legislator and administrator simultaneously.[24] The extent of her role in this position, however, is likely overstated, she may have represented her son, played a role in meetings and answering queries, however, the final authority on these legal matters would have rested with Caracalla.[24]

Domestic Roman policy[edit]

Affiliation with the army[edit]

During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary from 2000 sesterces (500 denarii) to 3000 sesterces (675 denarii). He lavished many benefits on the army, which he both feared and admired, as instructed by his father, Septimius Severus, who had told him and Geta on his deathbed to always mind the soldiers and ignore everyone else.[1][13] Caracalla needed to gain and keep the trust of the military, and did so with generous pay raises and popular gestures.[25] Caracalla spent much of his time with the soldiers, so much so that he began to imitate their dress and had the manners of a common soldier.[1][26]

Baths of Caracalla[edit]

O: laureate head of Caracalla

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM

R: Sol holding globe, rising hand

P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P

silver denarius struck in Rome 216 AD; ref.: RIC 281b, C 359
Main article: Baths of Caracalla

The Baths of Caracalla were under construction from 211 to 216, when a partial inauguration of the baths took place, the outer perimeter of the baths would not be completed until the reign of Severus Alexander.[27] These large baths were typical of Roman practice of building complexes for social and state activities in large densely populated cities.[27] The baths covered around 50 acres (or 202,000 square meters) of land and could accommodate 1,600 bathers at any one time.[27] They were the second largest public baths built in ancient Rome and were complete with swimming pools, exercise yards, a stadium, steam rooms, libraries, meeting rooms, fountains and other amenities, all of which were enclosed formal gardens.[27][28] Internally it was lavishly decorated with colourful marble floors, columns, mosaics and colossal statuary.[29]

Caracalla also erected a temple on Quirinal Hill in 212, dedicating it to the Egyptian deity Serapis.[18]

Edict of Caracalla (212)[edit]

The Constitutio Antoniniana (lit. "Constitution of Antoninus" - also called "Edict of Caracalla" or "Antonine Constitution") was an edict issued in 212 by Caracalla which declared that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship[30] with the exception of the dediticii, who were people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and also, certain people who were freed slaves.[31]

Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of Italia held full Roman citizenship, with about 4–7 percent of all peoples in the Roman empire being Roman citizens by the death of Augustus in 14 AD. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans, or their descendants, living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and small numbers of local nobles, such as kings of client countries, held full citizenship also. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some Magistrates and their families and relative held the Latin Right.[32]

One purpose for Caracalla issuing the edict is contended to have been the desire to increase state revenue; at the time Rome was in a difficult financial situation and needed to pay for the new pay raises and benefits conferred on the military.[33] The edict widened the obligation for public service and gave increased revenue through the inheritance and emancipation taxes which, at the time, only had to be paid by Roman citizens.[12] The provincials also benefited from this edict because they were now able to think of themselves as equal partners to the Romans in the empire.[12] However, few of those that gained citizenship would have been wealthy, and while Rome was in a difficult financial situation due to the spending of Caracalla and his father on the army, this could not have been the sole purpose of the edict.[33]

Another purpose for issuing the edict, as described within the papyrus upon which part of the edict was inscribed, was to appease the gods who had delivered Caracalla from conspiracy.[34] The conspiracy in question was in response to Caracalla's murder of Geta and the subsequent slaughter of his followers, fratricide could only be condoned if the brother had been a monster.[35] The damnatio memoriae against Geta and the large payments Caracalla had made to his own supporters were to protect himself from repercussion, this had succeeded and Caracalla felt the need to repay the gods of Rome by returning their favour to the people through a similarly grand gesture, and this was done through the granting of the citizenship.[35]

Other purposes to issuing the edict include, boosting the Roman identity since nearly all of the subjects of Rome were now true Romans, making a statement at the beginning of his reign that cost little in return for substantial sums through tax, the fact that the periphery of the empire was now becoming central to it existence and/or possibly the outcome logical outcome of Rome's continued expansion of citizenship rights.[36]

Issuing of new currency[edit]

The expenditures that Caracalla had through his large donatives to soldiers prompted him to debase the coinage soon after his ascension.[1] At the end of Severus' reign and early into Caracalla's the roman denarius had an approximate silver purity of around 55% but by the end of his reign the purity of a denarius had been reduced to about 51%.[37][38]

In 215 Caracalla introduced the antoninianus, a coin which was intended to serve as a double denarius.[39] This new currency, however, had a silver purity of about 52% for the period between 215 and 217, which was in effect about equal to 1.5 denarii.[40][41] The reduced silver purity of the coins caused people to hoard the old coins that had higher silver content purity which made the inflation problem caused by the devaluing of the denarii worse than it already was.[39][40]

War with Parthia[edit]

In 216, Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, designed to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter.[14][42] Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia under the control of Rome.[42] In response, Caracalla used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians and in the summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla.[42] In the winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa, modern Şanlıurfa in south-east Turkey and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring.[42]

Assassination (217)[edit]

The Roman Empire during the reign of Caracalla.

At the beginning of 217, Caracalla was at Edessa with a large army preparing to start a new invasion of Parthia.[14] On 8 April 217, Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran in southern Turkey, where in 53 B.C. the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians.[14] After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death.[14][43] Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla's refusal to grant him the position of Centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla's successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla's reign.[42] In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla's death, his murderer, Martialis, was himself killed by one of the Scythian archers present.[14][43] After two or three days, Macrinus would declare himself emperor with the support of the Roman army.[44][45]

Nickname[edit]

According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus, the agnomen "Caracalla" refers to a Gallic cloak that Caracalla adopted as a personal fashion, which spread to his army and his court.[1] It may have been during Caracalla's campaigns in the Rhine and Danube that he took to wearing a Gallic hooded cloak which had given him his nickname.[14]

Presentation in sources[edit]

Classical portrayal[edit]

Caracalla is presented in the ancient sources of Cassius Dio, Herodian and the Historia Augusta as a cruel tyrant and savage ruler.[46] This portrayal of Caracalla is only further supported by the murder of his brother Geta and the subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters that Caracalla enacted.[46] Alongside this, these contemporary sources present Caracalla as a 'soldier-emperor' for his preference of the soldiery over the senators, a depiction which would have made him even less popular with the senatorial biographers.[46] Dio explicitly presented Caracalla as an emperor who marched with the soldiers and behaved like a soldier, and as having large military expenditures and subsequent financial problems.[46] These traits dominate Caracalla's image in the surviving classical literature.[47] The Baths of Caracalla are presented in classical literature as unprecedented in scale, and impossibly built for the use of reinforced concrete.[48] The Edict of Caracalla, issued in 212, however, goes almost unnoticed in classical records.[47]

The Historia Augusta is presented as a mysterious work, but the least trustworthy for all accounts of events, historiography and biographies among the ancient works.[49] The work is compared to that of Herodian of Antioch which described, by comparison, as being 'far less fantastic' than the stories presented by the Historia Augusta.[49] Scott, suggests that Dio's work is frequently considered the best source for this period.[50] However, Rowan questions Dio's accuracy on the topic of Caracalla, citing his work as presenting a hostile attitude towards Caracalla and thus needed to be treated with caution.[51] An example of this hostility is found in one section where Dio notes that Caracalla is descended from three different races and that he managed to combine all of their faults into one person; the fickleness, cowardice and recklessness of the Gallic, the cruelty and harshness of the Africans, and the craftiness that is associated with the Syrians.[51] Despite this, the outline of Dio's events are described by Rowan as generally accurate, while the motivations that Dio suggests are of questionable origin.[51] An example of this is his presentation of the Edict of Caracalla, the motive that Dio appends to this event is to increase tax revenue, both Olivier and Rowan challenge this assertion as the majority of people enfranchised by the edict would have been poor.[33][51] Rowan, in his work, also describes Herodian's presentation of Caracalla, whom he presents as more akin to a soldier then an emperor.[52]

Modern portrayal[edit]

Caracalla has a reputation that marks him as being among the worst of Roman emperors, this perception of Caracalla survives even into modern works.[53] Agnew and Bidwell describe Caracalla as having an evil spirit, referring to the devastation he wrought in Alexandria.[54] Magie describes Caracalla, in the book Roman Rule in Asia Minor, as brutal and tyrannical pointing towards psychopathy for his behaviour.[55][56] Gibbon, author of the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, takes Caracalla's reputation, which he'd received for the murder of Geta and subsequent massacre of Geta's supporters, and applies it to Caracalla's provincial tours suggesting that "every province was by turn the scene of his rapine and cruelty".[53] This representation is questioned by Sillar who cites the construction of roads and reinforcement of fortifications in the western provinces among other things as being contradictory to the representation made by Gibbon of cruelty and destruction.[57] Asante and Ismail note, that Caracalla is known for the disgraceful nature of his rule citing that "he rode the horse of power until it nearly died of exhaustion" and mention that though his rule was short, his life, personality and acts made him a notable, though likely not beneficial, figure in the Roman Empire.[58]

Portrait[edit]

This medallion exemplifies the typical manner in which Caracalla was depicted. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

His official portraiture as sole emperor marks a break from the detached images of the philosopher–emperors who preceded him, his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. This rugged soldier–emperor iconic archetype was adopted by most of the following emperors who were dependent on the support of the troops to rule the empire, such as Maximinus Thrax.[59][60]

Herodian describes Caracalla as having preferred Northern European clothing, Caracalla being the name of the short Gaulish cloak that he made fashionable, and often wore a blond wig.[61] Cassius Dio mentions that Caracalla, at the time a boy, had a tendency to show an angry or even savage facial expression.[62]

The way Caracalla wanted to be portrayed to his people can be seen through the many surviving busts and coins. Images of the young Caracalla cannot be well distinguished from his younger brother Geta.[63] On the coins Caracalla was shown with laureate since becoming Augustus in 197 while Geta is bareheaded until himself becoming Augustus in 209.[64] Between 209 and their father's death in February 211 both brothers are shown as mature young men, ready to take over the empire. Between the death of the father and the assassination of Geta towards the end of 211 Caracalla's portrait remains static with a short full beard, while Geta develops a long beard with hair strains like his father, a strong indicator for Geta's effort to be seen as the true successor to their father. The brutal murder of Geta, however, made this claim obsolete.[64] Caracalla's presentation on coins during the period of co-reign with his father, from 198 to 210, are in broad terms in line with the third-century imperial representation in general; most coin types communicate military and religious messages with other coins giving messages of saeculum aureum and virtues.[65] During Caracalla's sole reign, from 212 to 217, a significant shift in representation took place. The majority of coins produced during this period made associations with the divine, or religious message type, alongside these, coin-types with non-specific and unique messages circulated only during Caracalla's sole rule.[66] Another change that took place is that coins of the same type, religious-type or military-type for example, propagated different messages during Caracalla's sole rule to those that had been propagated during his joint rule.[67]

Legacy[edit]

Damnatio memoriae[edit]

Caracalla was not subject to a proper damnatio memoriae after his assassination, while the Senate disliked him, his popularity with the military prevented Macrinus and the Senate from openly declaring him to be a hostis. Macrinus in an effort to placate the Senate instead ordered the secret removal of statues of Caracalla from the public view. After his death, the public made comparisons between him and other condemned emperors and called for the horse race celebrating his birthday to be abolished and for gold and silver statues dedicated to him to be melted down. These events were however limited in scope, most erasures of his name from scriptures was either accidental or done through re-use. Macrinus had Caracalla deified and commemorated on coins as Divus Antoninus. There does not appear have been any intentional mutilation of Caracalla in any images that were created during his reign as sole emperor.[68]

Eighteen-century artworks and the French Revolution[edit]

Caracalla's memory was revived in the art of late eighteenth century French painters. His tyrannical career became the subject of the work of several French painters such as Greuze, Julien de Parme, David, Bonvoisin, J.A.C Pajou, and Lethière. Their fascination with Caracalla was a reflection of the growing discontent of the French people with the French monarchy. Caracalla's visibility was influenced by the existence of several literary sources in French; this included both translations of ancient works and contemporary works of the time. Caracalla's likeness was readily available to the painters due to the distinct style of his portraiture and his unusual fashion, more akin to a soldier than emperor, which distinguished him from other emperors. The artworks may have served as a warning that absolute monarchy could become the horror of tyranny and that disaster could come about if the regime failed to reform. Wood suggests that this reform was for the absolute monarchy to become a constitutional monarchy, as per the original goal of revolution, rather than the republic which it eventually became. Wood also notes the comparable similarity between Caracalla and his crimes leading to his assassination and the eventual uprising against and death of King Louis XVI, both had died for their apparent tyranny.[69]

Legendary king of Britain[edit]

Geoffrey of Monmouth's legendary History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name "Bassianus", rather than the nickname Caracalla. In the story, after Severus's death the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought a battle in which Geta was killed and Bassianus succeeded to the throne. He ruled until he was betrayed by his Pictish allies and overthrown by Carausius, who, according to Geoffrey, was a Briton, rather than the historically much later Menapian Gaul that he actually was.[70]

Severan family tree[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  • Pangerl, Andreas (2013). Porträttypen des Caracalla und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen - Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta. RGZM Mainz. 
  • Rowan, Clare (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge University Press. 
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External links and Further Reading[edit]

Caracalla
Born: 4 April 186 Died: 8 April 217
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Septimius Severus
Roman Emperor
198–217
with
Septimius Severus
(198–211)
and
Geta
(209–211)
Succeeded by
Macrinus
Political offices
Preceded by
Lucius Annius Fabianus,
Marcus Nonius Arrius Mucianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
202
with Septimius Severus
Succeeded by
Titus Murrenius Severus,
Gaius Cassius Regallianus
Preceded by
Lucius Fabius Cilo,
Marcus Annius Flavius Libo
Consul of the Roman Empire
205
with Publius Septimius Geta
Succeeded by
Marcus Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus,
Lucius Fulvius Gavius Numisius Petronius Aemilianus
Preceded by
Lucius Annius Maximus,
Gaius Septimius Severus Aper
Consul of the Roman Empire
208
with Publius Septimius Geta
Succeeded by
Lucius Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus,
Quintus Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus
Preceded by
Pompeianus,
Gaius Julius Camilius Asper
Consul of the Roman Empire
213
with Balbinus
Succeeded by
Lucius Valerius Messalla Apollinaris,
Gaius Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus
Legendary titles
Preceded by
Geta
King of Britain Vacant
Interregnum
Title next held by
Carausius