A carajillo is a Spanish drink combining coffee with brandy, whisky, anisette, or rum. It is typical of Spain and according to folk etymology, its origin dates to the Spanish occupation of Cuba. The troops combined coffee with rum to give them courage (coraje in Spanish, hence "corajillo" and more recently "carajillo").
There are many different ways of making a carajillo, ranging from black coffee with the spirit simply poured in to heating the spirit with lemon, sugar and cinnamon and adding the coffee last.
The American version of a Spanish coffee uses a heated sugar rimmed Spanish coffee mug with 3/4oz rum and 1/2oz triple sec. The drink is then flamed to caramelize the sugar. 2oz coffee liqueur is then added which puts out the flame, and then it is topped off with 3-4oz of coffee, and whipped cream.
In Mexico carajillos are usually made with espresso (or some other type of strong coffee) and "Licor 43" – a sweet vanilla-citrus flavored liquor– and poured over ice on a short glass. Its commonly drunk as a digestive after meals.
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