|Date||2 October 1992|
The Carandiru massacre (Massacre do Carandiru, Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈsakɾi du kɐɾɐ̃dʒiˈɾu]) took place on Friday, 2 October 1992, in Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, when military police stormed the penitentiary following a prison riot. The massacre, which left 111 prisoners dead, is considered a major human rights violation in the history of Brazil.
The massacre was triggered by a prisoner revolt. Around 1:30 p.m., two groups got into a fight after a game of football; the fight quickly escalated into a prison riot. Due to the fact that 15 guards had to keep 2,069 prisoners in check they quickly lost control of the prisoners. Around 14:15 p.m. the prison director, Dr José Ismael Pedrosa, informed the local military police Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo about the uprising, they had been passed full command of the prison when arriving around 14:30 p.m. Though the director wanted to negotiate with the prisoners by a megaphone, he was held back by his staff since the police almost crushed him. Eleven hours later 111 prisoners were dead; ballistic evidence implicated that 515 bullets were found in the prisoners. Furthermore, gunshot wounds were mainly found in the face, head, throat and chest. Hands among the dead were found in front of the face or behind the head suggesting defensive positions. All in all research suggests that many prisoners were, defenceless and on purpose, extrajudicially executed.
The commanding officer of the operation, Colonel Ubiratan Guimarães, was initially sentenced to 632 years in prison for his mishandling of the rebellion and the subsequent massacre. He was in charge of the special police unit ROTA that is known for having an aggressive approach to civil disturbance. On 16 February 2006, a Brazilian court voided Guimarães' conviction because of mistrial claims; the court accepted his argument that he was only following orders. Guimarães, who was also a member of the São Paulo state legislature, was assassinated in September 2006. Although not entirely sure, his death appears to be the result of his role in the massacre. Another direct result of Brazils police brutality and subsequently deadliest prison riot was the unification of prisoners. One of Brazil's most notorious gangs the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) is said to have formed in 1993 as a response to the event. The surviving gang members joined forces with other prisoners to provide protection against police brutality. This group is believed to be responsible for the death of José Ismael Pedrosa, director of the prison at the time. After years of national and international pressure the prison was demolished on 9 December 2002, the former complex has been transformed into a park.
In April 2013, 23 policemen involved in the massacre were sentenced to 156 years in prison each for the killing of 13 inmates. In August 2013 a further 25 policemen involved in the massacre were sentenced to 624 years each for the deaths of 52 inmates. In April 2014, a further 15 policemen were sentenced to 48 years. Although the UN urged Brazil to bring justice to those most effected by the slaughter on September 2016, the court declared the trial on Carandiru massacre null. The court judged that the massacre was an act of self-defence and that there was a lack of evidence to link the individual officers to the individual killings. Consequently, the prosecutor is initiating an appeal and the process is still in full swing.
In popular culture
- This event was documented in the book Estação Carandiru by Dráuzio Varella and inspired the 2003 film Carandiru.
- The massacre is the subject of the song "Manifest" on the Chaos A.D. album by Brazilian thrash metal band Sepultura.
- It inspired the song "Haiti" by Caetano Veloso with Gilberto Gil, protesting racial discrimination and social inequality, on their 1993 album Tropicália 2.
- It is mentioned by the group Racionais in their song "Diario de um Detento", and also in the song "19 Rebellions" by the British group Asian Dub Foundation.
- This massacre inspired the US television Prison Break's season 3's main setting.
- in movie Elite Squad: The Enemy Within the incident was referenced when denying BOPE's colonel's request to allow prison inmates access to the enemy faction's prison block
- Brooke, James (1992-10-04). "111 Killed When Police Storm Brazilian Prison During Inmate Riot". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- WorldCourts (2000).Carandiru v. Brazil,http://www.worldcourts.com/iacmhr/eng/decisions/2000.04.13_Carandiru_v_Brazil.pdf. Retrieved 23 January.
- Anne Manuel (1998). Behind bars in Brazil. Human Rights Watch. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-56432-195-4.
- "Amnesty International". www.amnesty.org/en/documents/amr19/008/1993/en/. 1993. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Reuters (21 April 2013). "Police officers get 156 years for 1992 Brazilian prison massacre". Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Willis, G. D. (2002). The Killing Consensus: Homicide Detectives, Police that Kill and Organized Crime in Sio Paulo, Brazil.
- Ribeiro, Gustavo (2016). "Carandiru Massacre's Defining Moment for Brazil - Fair Observer". www.fairobserver.com. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Phillips, Tom (2006-09-11). "Jail massacre colonel shot dead". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- All Jazeera (2006). "Brazil prison massacre colonel killed". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Nunes Dias, Camila (8 June 2010). "Organized Crime in Brazilian Prisons: The Example of the PCC".
- Lessing, Benjamin (2016). "Brazil's prison massacres are a frightening window into gang warfare". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- AAP (22 April 2013). "Brazil police jailed for prison 'massacre'". The Australian. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Brazil prison riot trial adjourned". BBC News. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "Brazil police sentenced over Carandiru jail massacre". BBC News. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Brazil Carandiru jail massacre police guilty". BBC News. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "15 police guilty in Brazil prison killings". eNCA. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS, Office of the High Commissioner South America". acnudh.org. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "16 Brazil declares trial on Carandiru massacre null in shocking blow for justice". Amnesty International. 28 September 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- "Outrage: 24 Years Later, Carandiru Prison Massacre of 111 is Called Self Defense". Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Bourgoin, Suzanne (1994). Contemporary Musicians: Profiles of the People in Music. Gale. ISBN 9780810385535.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry (2007). Metal: The Definitive Guide: Heavy, NWOBH, Progressive, Thrash, Death, Black, Gothic, Doom, Nu. Jawbone Press. p. 421. ISBN 9781906002015.
- Anselmi, J. J. (12 April 2016). "Sepultura's 'Chaos A.D.' Is the Anti-Colonial Rallying Cry that Thrash has Always Needed". Vice. Retrieved 16 September 2016.